A Driving Guideline for the Management of Strategic Route Maps of Health Insurance Funds at the Local Level

Chula Thongprapaia, Somsak Amornsiripongb, Somboon Sirisunhirunc, a,b,cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: aajulauru@gmail.com, bsomsak.amo@mahidol.ac.th, csomboon.sir@mahidol.ac.th

This research aims to 1) examine the conditions of the implementation of strategic route maps in health insurance funds at the local level, 2) investigate the factors related to the successful use of strategic route maps in health insurance funds at the local level and 3) present the driving guideline of strategic route maps with the work of health insurance funds at the local level for people’s healthcare innovation. A strategic route map is considered an instrument for management to overcome practical problems that hinder the management of health insurance funds at the local level. The research revealed that the main problems of implementing strategic route maps into the management of funds were mistakes in management, staff and incorporation regarding people. From the findings, the driving guidelines for the management of strategic route maps for health insurance funds at the local level for people’s healthcare innovation were presented in three directions. The first one was to create a strategic route map at the provincial level by applying the following principles: 1) acceptance of the instrument, 2) completion of the instrument, 3) implementation of the instrument and 4) the driving system of strategic route map implementation. The second involved the co-creation and co-usage of experts in service areas. The final one involved the perception of encouragement among people in local areas. Pages 1 to 15




A Pill is Not Only a Pill: The Social Meaning of the Elderly’s Daily Medications

Tida Sottiyotina, Penchan Pradabmook-Shererb*, Luechai Sringernyuangc, Pimpawun Boonmongkond, a,b,c,dDepartment of Social and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: b*penmook@yahoo.com

Previous studies have shown that the use of polypharmacy among the elderly has been increasing and has become the cause of health risks for the elderly, including higher incidences of adverse drug reactions, increases in sensitivity to drug-drug interactions and a lower total quality of life. In addition, the use of polypharmacy has become a prominent cause of the increase of unnecessary national health costs. This study aims to understand the meaning of drug taking behaviour in the daily life of elderly patients with a focus on their perceptions of the matter. Ethnography and content analysis have been used in this study with the results showing that elderly patients not only use their medications as pharmacological substances but also in a sense involving social meaning. This meaning regards (1) the obligation of elderly users to be good patients, (2) the prerogative of having rights as citizens of the kingdom, and (3) the context of maintaining relationships in health care services, communities, and families. These social meanings of medicines, which were constructed through social discourse, health policies, and socio-cultural systems, could cause the use of polypharmacy in elderly people. Pages 16 to 33




Tourism Service Factors Affecting Health Tourism Service Innovation in Mae Hong Son Province

Krit Phanpanyaa, Winitra Leelapattanab, Weerapon Thongmac, Yutthakarn Waiaphad, aPhD. Student, School of Tourism Development, Maejo University, Thailand, b,c,dSchool of Tourism Development, Maejo University, Thailand, Email: akrit_pha@g.cmru.ac.th, bwinitra@mju.ac.th, cweerapon@mju.ac.th, dyutthakarn@mju.ac.th

This research is on tourism services factors that affect health tourism service innovation in Mae Hong Son Province. The objective of this study is to know the factors of tourism services that affect health tourism service innovation in Mae Hong Son Province. This research is quantitative research. The population is 43 operators in the health and beauty sector in Mae Hong Son Province. The researchers used descriptive statistics and distribution in the form of frequencies, percentage values, average values, standard deviations, and inferential statistics. Multi-variable regression analysis was done with the statistics regarding data analysis. The study indicated that the proactive operation and cooperation with customers that affects health tourism service innovation in Mae Hong Son Province can be explained by the hypothesis test. According to some assumptions, there was a prediction coefficient of 32.7 percent with statistical significance at 0.05. Other factors that can predict health tourism service innovation in Mae Hong Son Province amount to a total of 67.3 percent. Therefore, a regression equation of the standard score is as follows: Y1 = 2.134 +0.244 X12 +0.315 X31. It means that proactive operational procedures and cooperation with customer factors affect health tourism service innovation in Mae Hong Son Province concurrently. Pages 34 to 51




Public Policy and Restaurant Businesses: New Insight from Thailand

Suphattra Yodsuranga, Amnuay Boonratmaitreeb, Chairit Thongrawdc, a,bCollege of Innovation Management, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, cCollege of Logistics and Supply Chain, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: aBluessky28@gmail.com, bAm091107@hotmail.com, cchairit.th@ssru.ac.th

This study examines the relationship between public policy and its impact on the restaurant industry in Thailand. To address this objective, primary data was collected through a questionnaire approach, considering a sample of 254 respondents (restaurant employees). For better understanding both descriptive and regression analysis techniques are applied, and findings are presented. Results through regression analysis specify that public policy is a significant determinant affecting the restaurant industry and its employees in Thailand. More specifically, the factors of public policy, like employee furloughs (EF), four-day workweek (FDWW), early retirement benefits (ERB), and reduced pay rates or benefits packages for new hires (RPRNH) have significant and positive influences on some of the factors of job satisfaction. For organisational commitment (OC), the effect of EF, CR, and RTO is found to be positive and significant for OC3 and OC4 respectively. The effect of EF on the willingness to accept change (WAC4-WAC5) is significantly positive while ERB has also shown its positive influence on WAC3-WAC6 respectively. The effect of RTO on WAC3-WAC6 is highly significant and positive. These findings indicate that public policy in Thailand has a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction, organisational commitment and willingness to accept change by the employees of the restaurant industry. However, present work has only considered restaurant businesses and their linkage with public policy. Additionally, the sample size of the study is limited to the core employees in the restaurant sector. A cross-sectional comparison of various restaurants and their relationship with public policy is also missing. Future studies could be incorporated while considering these limitations. Pages 52 to 69




Public Policy for Environmental Regulation and Its Impact on the Business Performance of Restaurants in Thailand

Junaedia, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, aDepartment of Government Studies, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

* Corresponding author Email:kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, ajunaedi@unismuh.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public policy in terms of environmental regulations on the business performance of the restaurant industry in Thailand. To address this objective, primary data collection tools, like questionnaires, were developed and distributed among various employees working in the restaurant industry of Thailand. A sample of 322 was finally accepted for descriptive and regression analysis. To measure environmental regulation, factors like regulative environment, normative environment, cognitive environment, overall commitment, and specific environmental sustainability policy were observed. Business performance considered factors like market share, market growth, return on investment, employees’ productivity and mean performance. It was found that various factors of environmental regulations have a significant and positive (negative) influence on the value of selected indicators of business performance. More specifically, significant attention is required regarding the relationships of specific environmental sustainability policy in terms of biodiversity, energy usage and waste management in the restaurant industry. Some limitations are also observed in the present study. This study has only examined the primary measures of business performance and their relationship with environmental regulations’ key factors, as observed through questionnaires. In addition, only the hotel industry was targeted while ignoring other sectors in the similar economy. Cross sectional comparison between various types of hotels, as discussed in terms of demographic details, is also missing. Future research work can provide significant additions to the theoretical and empirical literature, keeping these limitations as their contributions. The practical implications of the study cover documentary evidence for the managers, owners, and decision makers both in government departments and the restaurant industry for better understanding of public policy in terms of environmental regulation and business performance. Pages 70 to 90




Public Policy in Food Safety for Restaurants and Its Impact on Customer Attachment: A Study from Thailand

Suphattra Yodsuranga, Amnuay Boonratmaitreeb, Chairit Thongrawdc, a,bCollege of Innovation Management, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, cCollege of Logistics and Supply Chain, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: aBluessky28@gmail.com, bAm091107@hotmail.com, cchairit.th@ssru.ac.th

This study aims to investigate the impact of public policy regarding food safety on customer attachment in the restaurant industry of Thailand. For a better understanding, primary data was collected using a survey questionnaire from restaurant customers. A final sample of 408 respondents was observed for both descriptive and regression analyses. It is found that there is a significant relationship between various factors of food safety and the sensory perception of the food, its appearance, as well as the behaviour of the staff and customer attachment to the restaurants. The role of food safety signals and the restaurant environment cannot be ignored while dealing with customer attachment. As per the implications, this study has contributed to the field of public policy in terms of food safety and its ultimate influence on customer attachment. New insight into the dimensions of food safety is providing significant theoretical and empirical contributions to the literature and academic field. However, this study has observed several limitations too. Firstly, it is based on a sample of general customers who were visiting restaurants with no specific classification in terms of frequency of visit. Secondly, the study does not focus on the moderating effect of demographic factors like gender, age, education, and monthly income, which can affect food safety and the restaurant attachment relationship. Future studies can address these limitations with better sampling and the application of some advanced techniques like structural equation modelling. Pages 91 to 107




The Moderation Effect of Supply Chain IT Capabilities on the Association Between Customer Relationship Management and Organisational Performance of Thai Restaurants and Hotels

Chairit Thongrawda, Rungarun Khasasinb, Kairung Khasasinc                                               aCollege of Logistics and Supply Chain, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bHuman resource management in japan Faculty of Business Administration Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, cLecturer, Faculty of Business Administration and Accounting, Pathumtanee University Bangkok, Thailand, Email: achairit.th@ssru.ac.th, brungarun@tni.ac.thb, ckairung2011@yahoo.com

Supply chain IT capabilities and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) have become increasingly popular academic and practical topics in the business field. In competitive environments, such as the restaurant and hotel industries, CRM and supply chain IT capabilities have become crucial strategies to increase restaurant and hotel performance. This study intends to examine the moderating effect of supply chain information technology capabilities on the association of customer relationship management and the performance of the restaurants and hotels of Thailand. Data was collected using a survey method, whereby a total of 450 questionnaires were distributed to restaurant and hotel managers, yielding a 44.44 % response rate (200 useable questionnaires returned). Structural model assessment was conducted to test the relationships among CRM, supply chain IT capabilities and hotel performance. The results show a positive relationship between CRM dimensions and hotel performance. Moreover, supply chain IT capabilities play a moderating role in the relationship between CRM and the organisational performance of Thai restaurants and hotels. The study presents a new empirical insight for managerial decision for Thai restaurants and hotels. Pages 130 to 150




An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between SPR and Purchasing Performance in the Restaurant Industry of Thailand: Testing Mediation and Moderation Model

Sakapas Saengchaia, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

*Corresponding authors’ emails: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th

The objective of the current study is understanding Social Purchasing Responsibility (SPR) performance according to the moderating effect of internal integration in the tourism industry in Thailand. For this purpose, data has been collected from 210 supply chain managers working in five star restaurants. The managers were selected by using the simple random sampling technique. To analyse the results, Smart PLS (3.2.8) software and structural equation modelling (SEM) has been used. The SEM findings have shown that SPR has a direct influence on purchasing performance. The association of SPR and purchasing performance have been partially mediated by organisational learning. Furthermore, internal integration did not have a moderating effect in the relationship of SPR and purchasing performance. Based on these findings, this study recommends that SPR adoption could affect operations for both buyers and suppliers within supply chain management organisations. These also further encouraged organisational learning and enhance the efficiency of purchasing. In addition, the findings show that organisations could realise the effect of SPR practices but may also be focused on other purchasing practices that could affect purchasing performance. The current research also contributes to a body of knowledge in the way of empirical findings. Pages 151 to 168




Influence of Green Marketing Practices on Intention to Purchase Green Products with Moderating Role of Emotions among Thai Restaurants

Sumalee Ramanusta, Sakrapee Worawattanaparinb, Kanyamon Kanchanathaveekulc, Chairit Thongrawdd, aDirector of Master of Business Administration Program, Southeast Asia University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Adminstation, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand, cCollege of Innovation and Management, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, dCollege of Logistics and Supply Chain, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: aSumalee.sau@gmail.com,  bSakrapee.w@fba.kmutnb.ac.th,  cKanyamon.Ka@ssru.ac.th,  dchairit.th@ssru.ac.th

The objective of the present research is to investigate the tools of green marketing to be influential on the decision making of consumers to purchase products/services. The concept of green marketing addresses the phenomenon of environmentally friendly products/services in response to the protection of the environment. The marketing department seeks to accomplish their goals in terms of communicating with their consumers  regarding their products/services. The green marketing activities in the present study revolve around eco-brands and environmental advertising that influence the intentions of consumers to purchase green products/services. The data was collected from the city of Bangkok, Thailand, from visitors that use restaurants for food and residential purposes. The collected data was analysed on SMART-PLS by measurement model and structural equation modelling techniques. The results of the study demonstrate that eco-brands and eco-advertisement significantly influences the purchase intentions of consumers towards green products. The moderation effect of emotion has been considered in the study and found that emotions do not moderate any relation significantly. The study provides a basis for marketing mangers to develop or revise marketing strategies by incorporating greening aspects to enhance awareness related to environmental concerns. Pages 169 to 187




Determining the Loyalty of Customers with Moderating Role of Service Quality: A Study on Thailand

Sakapas Saengchaia, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

* Corresponding author Email:kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th

The prime focus of the present research entails the investigation of the relationship between loyalty and its influential factors. Loyalty is considered  one of key elements for any business to retain its consumers, market share and competitive edge in highly competitive environments. The present research was conducted in the restaurants and hospitality sector of Thailand. Research examined the influence of the commitment of consumers  and loyalty intentions of consumers to remain with same product/service for a long term period. The study investigated the relationship between satisfaction levels of consumers as influential for the loyalty of consumers for the retention of existing consumers while lowering the cost. Service quality was considered in the present research and was examined to assess the moderating role between independent and dependent variables. The data was analysed by using SMART-PLS through a measurement model and structural equation modelling. The results of the study found that the direct effects of independent variables on dependent variables was found to be significant and positive, the moderating role of SQ was observed between satisfaction and loyalty, but no moderating effect was observed between commitment and loyalty, in short, H1 and H2 as direct hypotheses were accepted statistically, but the moderating relationship H3 was rejected on the basis of statistical support; on the contrary, hypothesis H4 was accepted on the basis of statistical grounds.  Pages 188 to 203




The Role of Early Warning Indicators of Banking Crises and Their Effect on GDP in Iraq (An Analytical Study for the Period 2003-2016)

Sawsan Kareem Hodana, aIraq / University Of Al-Qadisiyah Faculty Of Management And Economics Department Of Economics, Email: aswnawy@gmail.com,sawsan.aljubori@qu.edu.iq

The objective of this research is to investigate the role played by the indicators of bank liquidity and the foreign exchange rate as indicators of early warning of the banking crisis on the economic development in Iraq, by constructing an econometrics model and conducting a statistical analysis to show the effect of these indicators on the GDP in Iraq as an indicator of economic development. On how to use them to be cautious of banking crises, and address the problems that may occur as a result of those crises.  The research includes an introduction and two axes: the first of which dealt with the theoretical aspect, which included both the concept of banking crises and early warning indicators, the reality of banking liquidity, exchange rate and GDP in Iraq. The second axis was devoted to clarifying the practical aspect of the research and included both tests used in research such as stability tests Joint integration tests and the construction of a econometrics model for the impact of early warning indicators of bank liquidity and the exchange rate on Iraq's GDP as an indicator of economic development, as well as the inclusion of a set of conclusions and recommendations on the subject. Pages 204 to 220




Civil Protection of the Natural Reserve - A comparative study between Egyptian and Iraqi law

Hussein Obaid Shawata, Hayder Salah Gateab, aCollege of law , University of Al-Qadisiyah  ,Iraq, bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah  ,Iraq,

In light of the changes that the planet is exposed to, starting with the phenomenon of global warming, recent Amazon forest fires and ice and snow melting in both poles of the earth, plants and animal species were exposed to the danger of extinction. Indeed, animals and plants began to become extinct in the midst of these conditions. Recently,  the white rhinoceros in the Kenyan "Begeta Reserve" has become extinct, as well as the extinction threat that follows  the “Monkey Puzzle'' tree, which is considered one of the evergreen plants and its origin, Chile's forests and many others. Despite the efforts made by the international community and  most developed countries in the world, and even the attempts of the third world countries, The industrial and technological revolution continues to  inflict its harmful effects on the environment. The first losers in this process  are living organisms, because of the consequences that the world went through. The collapse in the system  of proper environmental balance  was an inevitable result of the wider use of ''unclear" energy,  such as these which resulted from undesired chemical interactions.  These factors have made the world stand as warned  about what is happening in the ruins of nature. The countries have worked to create a constructive environment that simulates the natural and innate conditions necessary for the living of those animals and plants. Pages 221 to 237




The Crime of Forced Displacement and the Application of International Humanitarian Law in Iraq

Wijdan Raham Khudhaira, Abdulkareem Kadhim Ajeelb, Kareema Lateef Abdullahc, aCollege of Law, Sumer University- lraq, b,cCollege of Media /Dept.of Press University of Thi-Qar/Iraq, Email: aWijdanlawyer2014@gmail.com,  babdkazm@gmail.com,  cDrkarema9@gmail.com

Forced displacement is one of the crimes against the humanity. This study is based on a Meta-synthesis systematic literature review. The researcher  reviewed the studies related to forced displacement and refugees all over the world, and in Iraq specifically. A review of the crime of forced displacement reveals that this crime is one of the crimes against human dignity. There must be a law in Iraq that regulates deportation or forcible transfer of population. The civilian population must also be protected from forcible deportation. Human dignity shall not be violated.  Pages 238 to 248




The Effect of Rhythm on Emphasising the Meaning in the Psalm of Islam (Alliteration as an Example)

Iman Abdul Hassan Alia*, Ali Hassouni Al Sharifib, a,bCollege of Islamic Sciences/ Babylon University-Iraq, Email: a*emaanhasan339@gmail.com

This study aims at understanding the impact of rhythm resulting from verbal enhancements to emphasise meaning. Alliteration, in Al Sajadiah newspaper, is chosen as a model to illustrate this important phenomenon in the text of the infallible Imam (PBUH) in which speech is weaved in a way that it is spelled out in the form of a voice that does not spill in to emphasise and deliver it to the addressee. The study dealt with the tonal rhythm as an authentic phenomenon in the Arabic language, in terms of the meanings that it suggests. It is an important means of suggestive expression because it is the language of tension and emotion and the means of expression that helps the speaker to communicate what he wants with the meanings and ideas of the recipient. The research dealt with the effect of alliteration on affirming the meaning in the light of studying some of the alliteration mentioned in the psalms of Islam, such as complete alliteration, incomplete alliteration, mudharaa alliteration (an alliteration in which two words differ in their first letters keeping the similarity at the end of words) and qalb alliteration (where letters of words are reversed to have a new word, e.g., deal and lead). The research concluded a number of results, the most prominent of which are: - Rhythm in verbal alliteration tightens the soul to it, excites it and makes it more accepting of the available anecdotal art by creating a tonal atmosphere with which the soul flows, especially since the context in which alliteration is mentioned is supplication, and the voice has a great effect. Tonal rhythm is a tool for enhancing meaning, as it is a means of artistic expression that has a major role in influencing the recipient.

The verbal tonal rhythm stems from the presence of some alliterations based on the repetition of sounds or words in order to strengthen the meaning and highlight it and draw attention to it. Alliteration is a form of certain repetition of the melody, in light of the total or partial similarity in the syntax of the words. Pages 249 to 258




Achievement Tests in a Rhetoric Subject for Fifth-Grade Literary Students and the Ways for Developing Them

Farman Qaht Rahimaa, aCollege of Islamic Sciences/ Babylon University-Iraq, Email: aFalganaby.edu@gmail.com

The ancients had taken great care of rhetoric subjects, because  they provided the writer with all the wonderful things. So in this era, many attempts  have been made to restore life to rhetoric, as well as to link it to literature. The students’ weakness in this rhetoric subject is as a difficult issue that worries the student, teacher, principal, family and society. A long time ago, it was an old and now is a new issue that everyone suffers from, despite the solutions presented by the educational authorities, through which it tries to reduce this problem, which appears clearly in the results of students.  The current study is considered as a step for building achievement tests. The researcher’s chose  a rhetoric subject in order to find suitable solutions to make the rhetorical lesson an interesting  one which is understood by the students; that  is not difficult for learners to reach  their goals and its mastery. Hence, the researcher chose this research to coexist with the reality of fifth-grade literary students as a teacher and a headmaster of many intermediate schools in Babylon Governorate.  The difficulties  investigated for this lesson through this study were:  four schools were randomly selected and distributed to secondary and preparatory schools for the Governate of Babylon centre,  the sample was  (171) students  randomly chosen, for achieving this, the researcher prepared an objective  achievement test in a rhetoric subject consisting of (10) items in the science of meanings, (10) items in the science of statement and (5) items in the science of Budaiya. Each of these items contains four choices, one of which is correct. After the correcting of these answers, (80) students had  a score less than (50%), which indicates  the real weakness of students in the rhetoric subject. The researcher also adopted another tool,  the ‘questionnaire,’ where the teachers were presented and put their proposals to advance the study of rhetoric. The researcher concluded  with recommendations, including making rhetoric a basic subject, then the rhetorical approach includes good rhetorical applications, in addition to the necessity of teaching rhetoric in previous stages, adopting  modern and varied teaching methods as well as caring for numbers of teaching staff qualified scientifically and professionally. Pages 259 to 274




The Negative Effects of Rumours and their Dangers in the Community on Social Media

Mahdi Saad Kareema*, Nabeel Imran Mussa Al-Khaldib, a,bDepartment of Sociology, College of Arts, Al-Qadisiyah University/Iraq, Email: a*nabeel.khalidi@qu.edu.iq

The current study's problem revolves around revealing the role that social media plays in developing social and informational awareness of rumours among the Iraqi citizens to learn how to use these sites to develop social awareness of the truth of those rumours. This study has an important significance, which is the disclosure of the actual reality of rumours, social awareness and information in communication sites, and its importance lies in being a recent study dealing with a vital issue whose effects have been reflected at present on many societies. The study aims to identify the motives and goals of rumours in social networking sites, and to identify the most important means that contribute to and increase the transmission of false news and rumours.

The study  reached a number of recommendations, including holding seminars and scientific seminars through the various media on the dangers of spreading rumours through social networks, imposing control on social networks to prevent their use in spreading and circulating rumours, and giving importance to the honest media  because of its importance in confronting rumours, hosting scientists and specialists to alert social media users of the religious, social and economic risks of spreading rumours, educating individuals on communication sites and encouraging those exposed to rumours to inform the relevant security services. Pages 275 to 286




Nanotechnology and Its Role in Reducing Costs: Case Study in Iraq

Rasha Jasim Ahmed Ebraheem Alobaidya, aLecturer at College of Islamic Sciences / Department of Islamic Banking and Finance / University of Iraq, Email: arasha_9484@yahoo.com

Nanotechnology is a collective definition that represents each technology and science application that operates within a Nano scale and indicates  the scientific basics and new characteristics that may be found and mastered when operating in this range. This research aims to determine the relationship between nanotechnology and reducing costs. In this research, the data was collected through questionnaires in  an industrial company in Baghdad. The total number of participants was 70, taken from the managers of  randomly selected industrial companies. The results showed that the level of nanotechnology in term of relative important is high, with the mean of 3.9088 and standard deviation is 1.08492, and also the level of reducing costs in term of relative importance is high with the mean  4.0338 and standard deviation is 1.1456. Pages 287 to 302




The Schools of Photography and the Ideology of the Textual Attachment of the Iraqi Artist

Talib Sultan Hamzaha*, Khudeir Jasim Rashidb, a,bCollege of Fine Arts - University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*talibsultan1969@gmail.com

The current research deals with photography schools and the ideology of textual attachment of the Iraqi artist, which highlights the photography schools and the ideology of textual attachment in the work of the Iraqi artist. In the  Greek-Classical  Civilisations and Modern Euro-American Civilisation the attachment of Athens  and Spartans with Paris and Berlin can be seen in the creation of art, literature and philosophy.  This confirms that textual attachment is inevitable, which allows monitoring of these relationships. It is an important station of study for its most important schools in Western art, and the extent of the changes that face this art and its connection to the ideology of the Iraqi artist. Through textual attachment,  no sect, movement, or school has settled, except that another contradiction and difference in its vision has emerged. Despite that, it remains connected to it and its predecessors from attachment, so that these movements carry within their folds aesthetic elements that correspond to what the Iraqi artist aspires to. The research topic included, according to the general context of its structure, two frameworks, the theoretical framework and the practical framework. The theoretical framework included the problem represented by the extent to which the ideology of textual relationships among the Iraqi artist in schools of photography is revealed in works of the Iraqi artist in Western art. The aim of the research was to uncover and show the ideologies of textual attachment to the works of the Iraqi artist. As for the practical framework, it contained the research community and the analysis of samples to conclude the research with the most important results and conclusions. Pages 303 to 321




The Obstacles that Hinder the Use of Mobile Learning Applications among Fourth Grade University Students in the College of Education at the University of Baghdad

Wi'am Majeed Mohammeda, aCollege of Agriculture Al-Qasim Green University-Iraq, Email: aameeraljubawii81@gmail.com

This study aims  to identify the degree of use of mobile learning applications among the fourth grade students in Baghdad University and the obstacles to their use. The researcher used the descriptive method to conduct the study. The study sample consisted of (342) students from the College of Education of the Iraqi University in Baghdad, from the fourth grade in distributors in the various departments of the college. They were randomly selected. The researcher designed a questionnaire to collect information from (43) respondents in the first semester of the year 2018 - 2019. The results of the study showed that the degree of use was medium with an average of (3.23), and that the average use rate was also average with an average of (3.15). University laws and regulations prohibit the use of clean appliances (P = 0.05) in the rate of use and for the daily use of mobile learning. There were no statistically significant differences at the level (P = 0.05) in the other variables studied. Pages 322 to 340




The Impact of the Fractal Manufacturing System on Product Quality through the Intermediary Role of Production Technology: an Analytical Study at the Public Company for Electrical and Electronic Industries – Baghdad

Aseel Ali Mezhera, aUniversity of Al Qadisiyah / Iraq College of Administration & Economics Department of Businesses Administration, Email: aAseel.Mezher@qu.edu.iq

The current research aims to clarify the effect of the segmented manufacturing system on the quality of products through the intermediate role of production technology in the Public Company for Electrical and Electronic Industries – Baghdad. The questionnaire was used as a research tool, and 200 questionnaires were distributed to the members of the company’s board of directors, as well as factory managers and their assistants, managers of production lines, and engineers (production, design, electricity, electron and mechanical). The number of questionnaires retrieved totalled 174, meaning that the response rate was 87%. After examining the retrieved questionnaires, it was found that 169 questionnaires were valid for analysis. Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogrov - Smirnov tests were used to perform the normal distribution test and for the purpose of conducting stability. The reliability test tools used in the research was based on the Cronbach Alpha test, as well as the statistical programs SPSS vr.24, and AMOS v.23 to analyse the data and extract the results. On this basis, a number of conclusions were reached, including the strong impact relationship between the fractal manufacturing system and product quality through production technology. This suggests that the research community has given sufficient attention to the development of production technology, and has played an effective role in promoting this relationship. Pages 341 to 360




The Middle Eastern Countries and their Impact on the Qatar Diplomatic Crisis (Geo-Political Study)

Raid Ataallah Kadhima, Rafal Haussein Najemb, Menahel Mahdi Kamelc, a,cThe Directorate of Education of Babylon, bDepartment of Geography,College of education for Humanities, university of Babel, Email:  araaida215@gmail.com,  bRafal.khafagy83@gmail.com,  cmenahel.alzubiadi3@yahoo.com

Turkey and Iran supported Qatar in a diplomatic confrontation that significantly contributed to the Gulf crisis, especially when Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Egypt took a stand towards the countries of the Middle East that supported Qatar in economic, military, and logistical fields. These conflicts have had a broad public impact in the international community. The political strategies of some countries were reflected in the conflicting parties during what was known as the Gulf crisis. This crisis has been studied according to International Data. Pages 361 to 375




Polysyndeton in Shakespeare’s Othello: A Case of Grammatical Deviation

Muhammad Hussain Hamzaa, Husam Ahmed Abboodb, a,bImam Al-Khadum College, English Department, Email: ahusamahmed@alkadhum-col.edu.iq,  bmuhammadhussain@alkadhum-col.edu.iq

This paper tackles polysyndeton, which is one of the figures of speech, as a case of a grammatical deviation in Shakespeare’s play Othello. Deviation is contrary to the normal norm that is expected to be followed in speaking or writing. Polysyndeton is the excessive use of conjunctions in the sentences: when a writer or speaker utilizes a lot of conjunctions so as to join words together instead of joining the last one, which is the norm. The paper analyses some polysyndetic examples extracted from Shakespeare’s Othello as far as grammatical deviation is concerned. Overusing polysyndeton, Shakespeare deviates from the grammatical rule that reads: there should be a conjunction merely before the last item when every item is coordinated by a conjunction. This kind of deviation is intentionally used in the play for stylistic purposes to achieve some functions such as slowing down the rhythm of the utterances, adding cadence to them, balancing the polysyndetic items, showing a character's lack of grammar, and cultivating surprise and enthusiasm in the audience. Pages 376 to 388




The Use of Fuzzy Logic Theory in Control Charts (A Comparative Study)

Afraa  Abbas Hamadaa, Hameedah Naeem Melikb, Saif Hosam Raheemc, a,b,cDepartment of Statistics. university of al- Qadisiyah.college of Management and Economics. Iraq, Email: aAFRAA103@Yahoo.com,  bhameedah.naeem@qu.edu.iq,  csaif.hosam@qu.edu.iq

One of the concepts used in the production process is statistical process control (SPC), in which statistical methods are used to control production. Therefore, control charts have been developed as an important method in diagnosing and controlling non-random deviations if any exist. And among these charts are the average plate x- and the range R. Where these charts were called control charts for the variables, which consist of upper, lower and middle limits for control represented by numerical values. The productive process in institutions is either under control or out of control, depending on the values of digital observations that can be calculated, but in many cases that limit cannot be calculated accurately. Therefore, the use of the fuzzy set theory came to deal with uncertainty and inaccuracy as a result of workers or measuring devices, and environmental conditions. This was achieved by converting the numerical control boundaries to fuzzy control boundaries using fuzzy logic to give the boundaries accurate and more flexible values in making the appropriate decision for the production process when compared to traditional control charts. This research was applied in a mineral water purification plant in the design of the fuzzy control panel. Pages 389 to 402




The Role of Human Resources Management in Achieving Competitive Advantage Using the Requirements of Total Quality Management (An Applied Study at the Electrical Industries Company)

Aqeel Kassim Hashim Alkhallidya, aDepartment of Industrial Management, College of Administration & Economics, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: aaqeelqasim.uob@gmail.com

The current research aims to study the knowledge bases of both human resource management and competitive advantage, in addition to explaining the role that human resources management can play in achieving competitive advantage in light of the requirements of total quality management in a manner that is appropriate to different environmental changes and developments. To achieve this goal, a major hypothesis has been put forward that human resources management can help organizations achieve competitive advantage in light of the requirements of total quality management. Three sub-hypotheses emerge from this hypothesis: (1) Human resources management helps in reducing costs, (2) Human Resources Management helps in improving quality (3) Human Resources Management helps reduce design, manufacturing and assembly time. In order to test the research hypothesis, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a group of workers in the Electrical Industries Company, including administrators, accountants, engineers, and technicians for the fiscal year ending on 31/12/2019. Among all the conclusions, the most important was that there is a prominent role for human resources management in achieving a competitive advantage by relying on total quality management with regard to improving cost, quality, and time indicators. Pages 403 to 422




Measuring Bank liquidity and Its Impact on the Financial Efficiency of Commercial Banks: An Applied Study of the Middle East Bank

Wadhah Raheem Rahia, Ahmed Mankhi Gshayyishb, Alaa Dashi Daghimc, aCollege of Management and Economics / Al- Muthanna University, bAhmed Mankhi Gshayyish, cOffice of Financial Supervision / Muthanna Governorate, Email: aWadhahraheem1984@gmail.com,  bAhmedaljashy501@gmail.com,  calidd716@gmail.com

The research discusses and analyses the topic, "Measuring Bank Liquidity and Its impact on the Financial Efficiency of Commercial Banks: An Applied Study of the Middle East Bank,” for the period (2006-2015). The theoretical side of the two topics was framed by bank liquidity and the financial efficiency of the Banks. The analytical approach was used to analyse and measure bank liquidity and efficiency. In order to evaluate and measure the two variables of research, an analysis of correlation and the effect between them was conducted. ANOVA has been used to measure correlation, as well as the effect of bank liquidity results and financial efficiency ratios. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant correlation between banking liquidity and financial efficiency. The correlation values were weak and insignificant, and their moral value was greater than the moral level 0.05. This is due to a number of factors discussed and analysed within the research. Pages 423 to 433




Factors Affecting the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education Enrolment Rate at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College

Allan J. Abdurahmana*, Saudi S. Akmadb, Shahani H. Ahamad-Abubakarc, Mohammad Sha A. Idrisd, a,b,c,dTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: a*abdurahmanallan@gmail.com

This study focused on the factors affecting the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education (BSAgEd) enrolment rate at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College (TRAC). The purposes of this study were to identify (a) the factors affecting the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education enrolment rates at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College in terms of tuition or miscellaneous fees, curriculum faculty members, physical facilities and equipment, and parent support; and (b) the significant difference in the factors affecting the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education enrolment rates at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College when respondents are grouped according to their profile variables. The study employed the descriptive method of research. A total of one hundred (100) respondents were used in the study through quota-convenience sampling. Findings revealed that the factors affecting the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education enrolment rates at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College are tuition or miscellaneous fees, the curriculum, the faculty members, physical facilities and equipment, and parent support. It was also concluded that affordable fees, a relevant curriculum, competent teachers, sufficient and complete facilities, and good student-parent relationship could attract students to enrol and increase the population of the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Education. The results of the significant difference in the factors affecting the BSAgEd enrolment rates at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College when respondents were grouped according to sex and monthly income were not significant, and the null hypothesis was accepted. Thus, the variances of the variables were the same and comparable. On the other hand, age and year level variables are significant and so the hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the variances of the two variables are not similar. It was recommended that the College of Agriculture Education should provide conducive learning to the students in the aspects of curriculum and instructions, faculty members, and the physical facilities and equipment. Pages 434 to 443




Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction in the Colleges of Nursing among the Universities in Zamboanga City

Ma. Christina B. Celdrana, aAteneo de Zamboanga University, La Purisima St., Zamboanga City, Philippines, Email: aceldranchristine@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to examine college administrators’ transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles, as well as job satisfaction in the nursing faculty. It also aimed to examine the relationship between the perceived administrators’ leadership styles, and the nursing faculty’s job satisfaction of selected nursing schools in Zamboanga City. The theoretical framework guiding this study was the Transformational Leadership Theory first developed by Burns in 1978 and later expanded by Bass (2009), which provided a useful model for effective nursing leadership in higher academic institutions. A survey questionnaire using a Likert-type scale was administered to 98 full time faculty members. It made use of total enumeration in data collection. Data was derived from the following: survey/checklist questionnaire, the Focus Group Discussions (FGD), and the Key Informant Interview (KII). The results showed that Inspirational motivation and Idealized influence leaderships style positively relates to job satisfaction.  Nursing leaders should implement effective leadership styles to promote faculty job satisfaction. Pages 444 to 455




The Implementation of the Double Criminality Principle in the Extradition Treaty of Corruptors Indonesia

Lynda Asianaa, Supantob, Hari Purwadic, aStudents of Ph.D Law Programs Faculty  of Law University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia, bProfessor of Criminal Law Faculty of Law, University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia, cAssociate Professor of Faculty of Law University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: alyndaasiana@yahoo.co.id,  bsupanto.8787@gmail.com,  chpurwadie@gmail.com

The main issue in the extradition of corruptors who escape overseas and bring away the money is the implementation and enforcement of the double criminality principle. UNCAC 2003 declared that corruption is a serious matter, and attracted international attention for immediate prevention, especially by UNCAC 2003 participating countries. However, the efforts to eradicate corruption through the implementation and enforcement of the double criminality principle face obstacles. These obstacles are related to the sovereignty of the participating countries that are obliged to protect their national interests, and adopt the system for determining extradition on the basis of the double criminality principle and the formulation of criminal acts of corruption made by UNCAC 2003. Some of the participating countries demand expedience in allowing people to come to the country, conduct trade transactions, or travel. In addition, another obstacle is the difference in perceptions regarding what crimes are included in the list that can be extradited. This research used the normal-empirical legal research method. This research is applicative in the implementation and enforcement of the double criminality principle in the case of criminal acts of corruption committed by a runaway corruptor. The conclusions of this research are first: the cause of arising obstacles in the implementation and enforcement of double criminality principle to the perpetrator of runaway corruption is that there is no extradition agreement, no state sovereignty obliged to protect its national interests, the absence of diplomatic relations, jurdiction issues, and the poor relations between the Requesting State and the Requested State. For this reason, the implementation of the double criminality principle for the future, especially in Indonesia, requires an extradition treaty, the implementation of the principle of Aut Dedere Aut Punere, which needs is realized, understood, and enforced consistently, diplomatic, reciprocity relations, and that the UNCAC 2003 must immediately define and formulate the criminal act of corruption so that there will be congruity among all participating countries in the UNCAC 2003. Pages 456 to 465




English Language Learning, Environment, and the Formation of Islamic Self-identity among Students in Selected Religious Secondary Schools

Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmia, Isyaku Hassanb, Engku Muhammad Tajuddin bin Engku Alic, Ahmad Taufik Hidayahd, Mohd Hazli bin Yah Aliase, Muzammir bin Anasf, Nur Izzati Suhaimig, a,b,d,e,fFaculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, cFaculty of Islamic Contemporary Studies, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia,

The relationship between Islamic values and foreign languages in the school environment offers a relatively good example of the challenging aspects of Islamic identity formation amongst the students. Therefore, this study aims to explore the influence of English language learning and environment in the process of Islamic self-identity formation. Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 students and 15 teachers from selected religious secondary schools in Malaysia. The study found that environment is influential in the process of Islamic self-identity formation among the students, and English language learning does not have a negative influence on the process. Instead, certain virtues such as respect, self-confidence, cooperation, teamwork, diligence, and decency are inculcated in the students’ self-identity during the English language learning process. Teachers and educational administrators should put more effort toward the best educational provisions for the students’ religious identities through exposure to the values of self-identity beyond the scope of textbooks. Pages 466 to 482




Development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Through Blended Learning for Vocational Teachers Candidates

Nurulita Imansaria*, Amat Mukhadisb, Syamsul Hadic, Hakkun Elmunsyahd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Engineering, State University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*nurulita.imansari@gmail.com

The prime objective of the current study is to investigate the link between TQM, human oriented elements, and organizational performance. The satisfaction, commitment, and loyalty are considered as human oriented elements. The TQM is accessed as a determinate of the organizational performance. In addition to that, the current study has examined the mediating role of human oriented elements in the relationship between TQM and organizational performance in the higher education institutes of Thailand. Astructural equation model is employed to analyse the structural model and structural relation among measured and latent variables. It analyses the direct and indirect association among variables. The SEM-AMOS is used, and the results of the study have provided a great deal of agreement with the hypothesized results. It is evident that the youth and graduates from Thailand tertiary institutions are not prepared with the skills necessary to exploit and judicially utilize the natural resources of the country. For this reason among others, self-reliance and entrepreneurship education among the graduates are difficult to maintain. This study has focused on the subjective measure of organizational performance including information gathering in problem solving/communication, faculty intellectual pursuits, achievement and development among staff and students, achieving academic excellence through quality adherence and feedback among others. The study, which is among a number of pioneering studies, will be helpful for policymakers, educationists and researchers, as well as students in understanding the issues in the higher education sector of Thailand. Pages 483 to 496




A Collaborative Action in the Implementation of Moderate Islamic Education to Counter Radicalism

Masnur Alama, aFaculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training of IAIN Kerincci, Email: amasnuralam@iainkerinci.ac.id

A number of studies have argued that radicalism should be resisted by implementing moderate policies. Few studies have focused on what moderate policies should be implemented and how they can prevent radicalism within the context of Muslim society. This study, therefore, aims to understand the collaborative influence of local institutions on the implementation of moderate Islamic educational policies to prevent radicalism in a city in the Jambi province, Indonesia. This study used a qualitative case study in data gathering through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and document analyses.  The research results showed that by implementing the moderate wasathiyyah Islamic education concept in Islamic schools and Islamic subject content, Muslim societies increased their perspectives and awareness on the importance of moderate Islamic values. They change the concept of jihad from a concept of violence to humanism, which involves working hard to increase welfare, accept pluralism, inclusivity, tolerance, and rational actions. This study concludes that moderate education within Islamic education institutions can prevent or counter radicalism, extreme behaviour, and conflict. Thus, security, order, comfort, harmony, and peace will be created in the community. Pages 497 to 516




The Cinderella Complex as Reflected in ‘The Grass is Singing’ by Doris Lessing

Zainab Salahaddin Husseina, aM.A. In Contemporary Dystopian English Novel University of Sulaimani/ College of Humanities/ Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies, Email: azainabsalahaddin90@gmail.com

This paper explores a hidden problem experienced by the majority of women all around the world, the Cinderella Complex. Through studying The Grass Is Singing by the British author Doris Lessing, it becomes obvious how patriarchal society is reinforcing the Complex through the independent protagonist “Mary Turner” by compelling her to get married. Otherwise, she is missing the best things in life; marriage and children. Therefore this paper is going to warn women about the importance of their independent personality. Most are unconscious about their dependency and how society, education, and even literature are nurturing them in a patriarchal discipline. However, the Cinderella Complex is not only harmful for women but for men as well, and this is what The Grass Is Singing examines. Pages 517 to 528




Promoting Personality Psychology through Literary Learning: An Appreciative-Reflective Study

Anas Ahmadia, aUniversitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aanasahmadi@unesa.ac.id

This appreciative-reflective study aims to explore the understanding of personality psychology, through literary learning. The literature used is Maleficent (film). The method is qualitative psychology. The respondents were 44 students in a literary theory program. Data analysis techniques used the stages of identification, classification, reduction, and exposure of data in an interpretive-heuristic manner. The results showed that more students understood Maleficent films from a psychological perspective. Students are more likely to focus their research on the main character Maleficent, who brings up many psychological elements through his behaviour and mental processes. However, they understood that psychology is still in the stage of general psychology. Therefore, the teacher gives a deepening of material related to personality psychology contained in Maleficent. Pages 529 to 540




Defining State Sovereignty on Non-Refoulement Principles: Australian, American and Indonesian Practices

Heribertus Untung Setyardia, I Gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayanib, Emmy Latifahc, aStudents PhD Law Programs Faculty of Law Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia, bDean of the Faculty of Law Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia, cLecturer at The Faculty of Law Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia, Email: auntung.setyardi@uajy.ac.id,  bayu_igk@staff.uns.ac.id,  cemmy.latifah@yahoo.com

This paper sought to find out about the meaning of state sovereignty. It did so in terms of practices carried out by Australia, America and Indonesia, when faced with prohibitions on refusing refugee arrivals that are based on the principle of non-refoulement. To investigate this, the writer used a type of normative research with a legal and conceptual approach. The results of the study show first, that state sovereignty supports refugee protection. This is illustrated by the attitudes of countries which accept refugee arrivals, and work together with international and regional organizations to help solve the refugee problem. This can be seen in the practice of Indonesia. State sovereignty is defined as support for the protection of citizens and their territory. In this position the sovereignty of the country prioritizes the interests of its citizens and territorial integrity. Two reasons underlie the meaning of sovereignty in this model; first, the reasons for national security; and second, the reasons for public order. This meaning can be seen in the actions taken by Australia and America.Pages 541 to 560




Learning Management, Based on Lesson Study, for Quality Control in English Education Study Programs

Sulistiyania*, Oscarius Yudhi Ari Wijayab, Elia Ardyanc, aSTKIP Bina Insan Mandiri Surabaya, bAkademi Sekretari dan Manajemen Indonesia (ASMI) Surabaya, cUniversitas Ciputra, Surabaya, Email: a*sulistiyani@stkipbim.ac.id

This study aims to analyze and describe learning management as based on lesson study, for quality control in English Education Study Programs. This research is a qualitative, descriptive study using direct observations, interviews and documentation. The informants were from the Head of Study Program, Secretariat of the Study Program, the Study Program Quality Assurance Unit, and a lecturer at the institution's head of the High School. From interviews and documentation carried out at the lesson planning stage, several obstacles faced by model lecturers when teaching were found.. In addition, the observer / senior lecturer has suggestions for improvements, in the form of selecting methods that vary according to the topic, the use of innovative media, and assessments that focus on process evaluation. Pages 561 to 576




Examining the Combined Effect of E-CRM and Sensory Marketing, on Customer Satisfaction and Hotel Image in Thailand: The Moderating Role of Anxiety

Waleerak Sittisoma, aSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: awaleerak.si@ssru.ac.th

The postmodern era of business is basically a product of technology and particularly e-technology. Technology in general, and the internet and web, have changed traditional marketing and management practices. Service is an emerging yet least explored area of CRM. Meanwhile, the emergence of a concept such as e-CRM as brought a revolution in CRM research. Therefore, examining the link between hotel image and e-CRM is the objective of this study. In addition to that, the two-aspect sensory marketing known as ‘touch and taste’ are also examined. Satisfaction is examined as a mediator among e-CRM, touch, taste and hotel image. Finally, following the theoretical justification, we trace the moderating role of anxiety in the relationship between e-CRM and customer satisfaction. The data is collected from visitors to the Thai hotel industry. It transpired that the response rate was 54 percent, which is higher than the threshold level. SEM-PLS is one of the most robust statistical techniques for measuring structural relationships between and among variables. It is used to analyse the data. The study findings support the proposed or hypothesized relationships. The e-CRM appears as a significant determinant of a hotel’s image as well as customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction and anxiety appeared in significant mediating and moderating roles. Pages 577 to 595




Relating Technology-based CRM, Market Orientation and Service Innovation in Thai Hotels

Witthaya Mekhuma, aSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: witthaya.me@ssru.ac.th

The author conducted the study to investigate the impact of e-CRM (Customer Related Management) practices, namely technology-based CRM, IS, and HR decision of CRM (people) on the service innovation performance of hotels of Thailand. In addition to that the mediating role of market orientation in the relationship between the CRM practices, namely technology-based CRM, IS, and HR decision of CRM (people) on the service innovation performance of the Thai hotels. The data is collected using a questionnaire, and the response rate is turned out to be 63 percent. For the operationalization of we have used five-point Likert scale for variables and their constructs. The questioner is adapted from the previous studies. For the analysis of data, we have employed the PLS-SEM approach in this study. The study is carried out to explore one of the most unexplored areas of marketing known as relationship marketing, which basically advocate a continuous relationship with the customer. There are many areas in marketing, where technology is playing a key role. The CRM literature is among one of these areas that’s why we have taken the technological CRM as one of the dimensions of CRM and has examined its impact on innovation performance... The findings of the study support the hypothesis of the study. The study will be helpful for future researchers and marketers in the hotel industry. Pages 596 to 614




How Word-of-Mouth and Customer Satisfaction Mediate CRM and Behavioural Intention, in Thailand’s Hotel Industry

Waleerak Sittisoma, aSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: awaleerak.si@ssru.ac.th

The study explore the nexus between CRM practices. Those practices are the intention of customer to re-visit the Thai hotels (Behavioural Intention), Word Of Mouth (WOM), and customer satisfaction among the victors of the Thai hotel industry. Firstly, the impact of CRM practices, namely; service quality, physical environment, and social networking about the intention to re-visit were examined, in the Thai hotel industry. Secondly the study examined the mediating role of customer satisfaction in the relationship between CRM practices, namely; WOM, customer satisfaction and the re-visit intention among victors described above. The final practice examined is the moderating role of WOM in the relationship between behavioural intention to re-visit the hotel, and customer satisfaction. The study author has chosen the visitors of the three-, four- and five-star hotels as respondents. In total 420 questionnaires were received, completely and properly filled out; a response rate of 70 percent. Due to the research objectives, abilities and goals, SEM-PLS was used to analyse data. Questionnaire items were adopted using prior studies. The results of this study support its hypothesized results. The research is among the pioneering studies on the issue, and will help future researchers understand it. Pages 615 to 633




Organizational Structure as a Moderator between CRM Practices and Hotel Performance in Thailand

Witthaya Mekhuma, aSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: awitthaya.me@ssru.ac.th

Tourism is one of the emerging industries of Thailand. In recent decades, it has contributed significantly to GDP. This study examined the direct impact of CRM practices on the performance of Thai hotels, namely: joint problem-solving, customer involvement, and knowledge management. Moreover, it also scrutinised the moderating effect of organizational structure, in the relationship between knowledge management and hotel performance. PLS-SEM was used, being one of the most flexible and robust techniques to examine the casual as well as structural relationship between and among the variables. Also, it can easily handle the regressions functions involved in multiple relationships. The findings have provided support to the hypothesized results. Our study found that the CRM practices; namely joint problem-solving, customer involvement, and knowledge management, help Thai hotels exploit opportunities and increase clientele. Also, organizational structure matters, because it promotes innovativeness. This research is among the pioneering studies on the impact of CRM practices, and will provide a policy guideline for policy-makers and rescuers. Pages 634 to 652



Theatre as Testimony: A Critical Analysis of David Hare's Stuff Happens

Ala Dhafer Amera, aIraq/ Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research/  University of  Misan/   College of Education   /The Department of English, Email: aalaa.dhafer@uomisan.edu.iq

The significance and power of theatre stems from its ability to pierce the tangible life through imaginative reconstruction to detect cryptic facts. The theatre of testimony is a playwright's favourite way of publicising authentic affairs, as does David Hare in his play Stuff Happens (2006; premiered 2004). Drawing on a postcolonial theory, the research analyses "David Hare's Stuff Happens" as a testimonial play through shedding light on the reasons  why the George W. Bush and Tony Blair administrations adopted to pick Iraq as a target for invasion in 2003, credibility and trustiness of their submitted evidence, how they could convince the UN as well as the entire world of the legitimacy of war on Iraq and the consequences of invasion on both the American and British administrations and Iraq. The study depicts the meetings, fake evidence, and arguments of the major characters: Bush  junior, Blair, Powell, Cheney, Rice, Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz that resulted in the Iraqi invasion in 2003, as dramatised in the play. The majority of the events and most of the speeches are authentic, starting from the title Stuff Happens, which is taken actually from Donald Rumsfeld as his comment on riots, looting and troubles happened in Iraq after the war, to the end of the play. The study concludes that Hare - through his dexterous mixture of imagination and fact - succeeded in pressing the idea that the American war on Iraq is based on false and mistaken analyses due to colonial domination and self-interest. Pages 653 to 671

Developing Press Sites for Media Departments and Public Relations in Universities in Context of the Internet Environment

Adheem Kamil Zreyazba*, Thanaa Ismael Rashidb, a,bDept. Of Media College of Arts, University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*adheem.kamil@uobabylon.edu.iq

The media and communications map in light of  digital communication has brought about near-radical changes in the priorities of the press institutions and the masses, being present and distinguished in this communicative coverage  has become a priority for countries, societies, institutions, groups and individuals. The digital characteristic of most human societies, including those of developing countries, therefore, means investing in the online environment has become a part of communicative postulates to achieve contact and communication with the mass. The media and public relations departments in universities have official websites,  social pages, and electronic accounts, but the problem lies in the extent to which the internet environment and its websites are invested in gaining support for the target audience’s satisfaction on the one hand and achieving its goals on the other hand. This study  has a vision to develop the performance of the media and public relations departments in universities by investing the internet environment in three areas, the first is to open a group of electronic portals related to the overall activities of universities and the needs of different societies; the second is to invest the internet environment to achieve interactivity with the university's activities and the third is to enable journalists, both professionally and technically, to market the university's activities in the context of the Internet environment. Pages 672 to 683

Obstacles for Applying Internal Control over Virtual Currencies

Laith Jawad Kadhima, Awatif challoob Mohsinb, a,bCollege of Administration and Economics, Department  Banking and Financial Sciences , Al-Mustansiriya university, Email: alaith_gawad@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  bAmayah.2000@yahoo.com

In this paper, the (virtual) digital currencies and the problems faced by the supervisory authorities about the inability to control their own transactions were discussed as officials and representatives of large and international companies have a negative view of digital currencies, believing that digital assets cannot be capitalised similarly to the stock market. There are suspicions that digital currencies were created specifically to meet the needs of the shadow economy and parallel activities. It is a tool used by drug dealers and terrorists. However, this belief is wrong. Given that digital currencies come to serve the shadow economy, although it is used partially in this field, the scope of its capabilities is much broader and is not limited to suspicious internet resources, and this tool cannot be held responsible for the parties that use it or the way it is used. The problem in using it is the inability to reveal the identity of the user. Moreover, all of this raises controversy and fear of using this monetary technology, just as it is not possible to include it within the material verifiable assets, and the fact that financial control requires physical and evidentiary documents and documents that can be referred to. This leads to difficulty in the process of subjecting digital currencies to direct financial control and the difficulty of determining their value at the date of preparation of final accounts and many other requirements, that make the process of financial control over these currencies very difficult or almost impossible, at the present time. Pages 684 to 694

Responding to the Speech Act of Reprimand by Iraqi EFL University Students

Muayad Mingher Al-Shemmerya, Asim Abood Zbarb,  Hisham Adnan  AlMumarc, aCollege of Engineering / University of Babylon / Babylon City/ Iraq, bMustaqbal University College / Babylon City/ Iraq, cDepartment of Regional Planning/ College of Physical Planning/ University of Kufa/ An Najaf City/ Iraq, Email: aalshemmery-m@yahoo.combasimabood54@gmail.comchushama.jasim@uokufa.edu.iq

This paper focuses on how the speech act of reprimand is used by Iraqi EFL undergraduates through certain conceptual underpinnings. It also attempts to look into the ability of Iraqi English students in recognizing and producing the speech act of reprimand on the one hand, and to determine the errors made by the students and their stems on the other. Fifty fourth year students from the Department of English, College of Arts at the University of Kufa participated in an empirical test during the academic year (2017-2018). The study showed that most Iraqi EFL learners face serious difficulties in using reprimand. Further, they show a great tendency to use other correlated speech acts. This could be observed in the number of correct versus incorrect responses in both tasks undertaken by the student participants. Pages 695 to 710

A Pragmatic Study of Impartiality and Neutrality in Selected News Channels

Angham A. Al-Rikabia, Zahraa Shlaga Kadhimb, a,bDepartment of English, College of Education, university of Al-Qadisiyah, Email: aAnghamalrikabi@yahoo.combZahraaalgerawi1990@gmail.com

The current study aims to investigate impartiality and neutrality in broadcasting discourse, as this subject has not been tackled comprehensively. This is in order to remedy the gap related to this subject and enrich the literature. The study rests on the assumption that news channels should be impartial in the sense that they provide only information, free from value judgment, sensationalism, evaluation, and bias. Furthermore, these channels are neutral in the sense that journalists avoid subjective opinions. This is supposed to be reflected in the kind of linguistic expressions that journalists choose, i.e., language is a tool in the journalist’s hand, and it is significant for conveying the channel’s message. The data of the present study are extracts taken from two broadcasting news channels: BBC News and Al-Jazeera English. The researcher makes use of two models: Levinson’s (2000) implicature (presumptive meaning) theory and Martin and Rose’s (2007) 'Appraisal theory.' In addition, detailed analysis has been performed in order to uncover how journalists practice impartiality and neutrality as they cover the news. The study concludes that news language is filled with expressions of evaluation and judgment. The journalists tend to ‘play’ with words and use expressions that explicitly or implicitly trigger the audience’s emotions, make judgments about people and show an appreciation of things. Accordingly, news channels are far from being impartial and neutral. These concepts are difficult to put into practice; because of the restriction on the journalists to be impartial, they tend to implicitly violate these codes by relying on marked, weak, and subjective expressions. Pages 711 to 730

Performance Appraisal Affecting Teaching Performance of Selected College Employees at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College

Junior K. Ahamada, aTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: aahamadjuniork@gmail.com

The organization’s success often depends on its employee’s performance. It can improve the quality of work and skills of employees. The performance appraisal system is a system where the leader and employee have the level of trust. A leader must have a better way to lead his subordinates to their goals and expectations. For excellent appraisal performance system plays a crucial role. Motivation also plays an important role in the efficiency of employee performance. The author was motivated to conduct this study entitled performance appraisal affecting teaching performance of selected college employees at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College with the end view of making suggestions to enhance their performance, and potentials and boost their morale and ultimately improve their job performance. This was anchored on a central idea of complexity theories. The dominant practise in performance appraisal was to focus on and attempt to “measure” the individual in isolation. Basing an appraisal process on complexity thinking acknowledged the reality of behaviour as dynamic and contextual and redefined the nature of performance appraisal in organizations. Findings revealed that the organization needs the highest productivity of the performance of employees. Factors of performance appraisal like goal clarity, motivation, feedback, and workplace could motivate and encourage the employees to contribute to the betterment of the organization. It could enhance and improve the skills and potential of the employees to achieve their productivity. An organization must consider their employees as their asset. They should encourage them to be productive by recognizing their efforts and by having fair treatment to their employees. An organization must provide good facilities for both students and employees for them to be productive. Pges 731 to 742

The Effect of Supply Chain and Organizational Culture on adoption of Green Practices by Restaurants and Hotels of Thailand

Sakapas Saengchaia, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

* Corresponding author Email: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th

Green and sustainable practices are growing for both businesses and individuals. Green practices in the tourism and hospitality industry are increasingly important due to environmental circumstances. The environment is being negatively affected by numerous hotels and restaurants because of their increasing utilization of natural resources. It is claimed that many restaurants and hotels are not involved in green practices. This study intended to investigate the influence of supply chain and organizational culture on the adoption of green practices by restaurant and hotels of Thailand. Responses were collected from 250 owners and managers of restaurants and hotels. Analysis of data was conducted by using PLS software and found that supply chain and organizational culture have positive influence on the adoption of green practices in the hospitality industry. This study is vital for practitioners, policy-makers and academic researchers based on an empirical investigation of the existing work on G-Practices adoption. Pages 743 to 764

The Mindanao Death March: Establishing a Historical Fact through Online Research

Robert John A. Donesaa, aSaint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines, Email: arjdonesa@gmail.com

The purpose of this paper is to bring to the fore the rather untold story of the Death March in Mindanao – one of the only two death marches recognized in the Tokyo war crime trials as evidence of the inhuman treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) during the World War II. On the 4th of July 1942, surrendered Filipino and American soldiers in Mindanao were made to march on a rocky dirt road and under the blazing tropical sun, from Camp Keithley in Dansalan to Iligan in Lanao – a distance of about thirty-six (36) kilometres for the purpose of joining them with the rest of the Mindanao POWs at Camp Casisang, Malaybalay, Bukidnon. Transport trucks, although available, were denied the POWs. Without food and water, one by one the soldiers fell down due to exhaustion. Those who fell were shot in the forehead to prevent them from joining the guerrillas in the event they recover. But the story did not end there. The challenge of establishing said historical fact is very difficult because of utter lack of records. It is, however, fortunate that some survivors of the ordeal left recorded interviews and memoirs, which are now available online. But then again, historians are faced with the challenge of validating and admitting these online sources as primary sources of history. Thus, this paper undertakes this task.  Pages 765 to 778

Social, Psychological and Health Problems for the Elderly

Thaer Ahmed Hassoona, aCollege of Arts, Dept. of Sociology, Baghdad University-Iraq, Email: athaeralamaar@gmail.com

The current study deals with  the most important problems facing the elderly in  a selected nursing home in Babylon, and the study aims to identify the level of satisfaction with life among retired elderly people in the city of Hilla, also identifying the most important social determinants in this aspect, the most important social factors that are in marital status, family relations, friendship relations, career activity, educational level, participation in the activities of centres or social clubs and social standing, the most important practices and sports activities. The study also aims to identify the most important psychological determinants of depression and emotional states, as well as identify the most important health determinants at the level of public health. The method of the survey was used in the data: in which the researcher  studied a limited number of cases   and vocabulary within the time, effort and capabilities available. The researcher benefited from this approach through surveying the sample method, by selecting an intentional sample from  a nursing home in Babylon. The community of this study was identified from the Nursing Home in Babil  that is related to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. As for our study, a sample of (32) respondents was selected from the Nursing Home in Babil. Observation, participation, interview and statistical methods were used. The study  found the most important field result is to identify the level of life satisfaction for the retired elderly in Hilla, access and get to know the most important determinants that have an impact on the elderly (social, psychological, and health determinants). Pages 779 to 795

Social Media Networks and their Role in Developing Political Awareness among Youth (A practical study at Al-Qadisiyah University)

Thaer Raheem Kadhima, aDept. of Sociology / College of Arts / Al-Qadisiyah University-Iraq, Email: athaer.raheem78@gmail.com

The current study  aims to  discover the extent of the impact of social networks on the development of political awareness of Qadisiyah University students, and in the context of this study present a conceptual perception of social networks and political awareness,  the repercussions of the information liquidity that spread through social networks on the political awareness of university students. With regard to the practical study, the sample of the study was applied to university students in Qadisiyah, and it used a questionnaire that covers all aspects of studying its goals.  The data was processed using arithmetic averages, standard deviations, of study questions and their variables. The results of the study confirmed that the repercussions of social media on the political awareness of Qadisiyah University students have generally been high, accordingly, the study recommended that university youth be educated on the importance of political participation at the individual and group level, as it will give students more freedom and allow them to participate in political work inside universities. Pages 796 to 813

Paradigm Shift in Education: Learning through Social Constructivism Secondary School Classroom Experiences

Dr Zahid Ullah, Dr Nosheen Saba, Dr Muhammad Abouzar, Dr Sumera Imran, Nida, Muhammad Ismail khan, Yasir Faheem, Dr. Adnan Ahmad, Department of Education: Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan Pakistan, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership (IBL) AWKUM, Corresponding Author: Dr Zahid Ullah, E mail: zahidullah0333@gmail.com

This paper intends to explore the experiences of secondary school teachers and their preferences towards social constructivist approaches. Social constructivism is contemporary pedagogy in smart classroom. Multiple-case study research design was employed where respondents were examined using multiple data collection methods. Fifteen public secondary school teachers were selected using purposive sampling technique to develop a more in-depth understanding of the phenomena experienced. Collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. Findings of this research manifested that student’s social interaction transform higher order thinking skills. Teachers believed that social constructivism is an active information sharing strategy where students frequently engaged in classroom learning. Respondents proclaim they facilitate students to utilize their existing knowledge and experience to construct new understanding. Social constructivists believe on the existence of multiple realities and that there are multiple ways of solving a problem. Classroom teaching learning is a joint venture of both the students and teacher hence students have to construct their own knowledge followed by teacher facilitation. Constructivist conception is significant in the sense that there is probability of multiple interpretations about a concept and multiple responses to a problem are source of higher order thinking, Meta cognition and creativity in learners. Pages 814 to 821
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