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Investigating the Impact of COVID 19 Outbreak on Stock Market Returns: Evidence from Pakistan

Nazima Ellahia, Jamshaid ur Rehmanb, Numair Ahmad Sulehric, Muhammad Abrar Ahmadd, Tanzeela Qureshie, aAssociate Professor, Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Economics, Government College University Lahore, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, Department of History and Arts, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education, Lower Mall Campus, Lahore, eResearch Assistant, Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Email: anazimaellahi@yahoo.com, bjamshaidrehman@gcu.edu.pk, csulehri39@gmail.com, droyal_rana@hotmail.com, etanzeelaq@gmail.com

Since the world has entered the second wave of COVID 19, empirical studies discussing the Covid-19 outbreak and its impact on stock market returns and liquidity are very limited. This study expects to fill the gap and aims to find the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on stock market returns and the relationship between market liquidity and Pakistan's stock market returns. In general, it finds that the spread of COVID-19 had a statistically negative impact on daily market returns and liquidity. Pages 1 to 9 

 

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A Comparative Analysis of Marketing Strategies among Public and Private Secondary Schools

Dr. Nazir Haider Shaha, Dr. Ghulam Nabib, Ms. Naveeda Zebc, Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheend, Ms. Nadia Nazire, Syed Javad Ahmad Gillanif, Sakina Jumanig aAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K, b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, dLecturer, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, eLecturer, Department of Education, Mohi-Ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif AJ&K, fM. Phil Scholar, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, g Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Sufism and Modern Technology, Bhit Shah Singh

 Email: anazirshah786@gmail.com, bdr.ghulamnabi@uokajk.edu.pk, cnaveeda.zeb@uokajk.edu.pk, dnaqeeb.shaheen@gmail.com, enadianazir481@yahoo.com 

The main purpose of the present study was to compare the marketing strategies of public and private secondary schools. The study was descriptive in nature and survey method was applied for the collection of data. 347 secondary schools head teachers/principals working in 150 public and197 private secondary schools of Azad Jammu & Kashmir were the population of the study. 245 head teachers/principals were selected as a sample by using proportionate stratified random sample technique. A questionnaire on the five point Likert Scale was developed to collect data from head teachers/principals. The data was analysed through percentage and mean score. For the comparison of public and private school marketing strategies the researcher used independent sample t-test analysis. It was found that head teachers/principals of public schools were using marketing strategies of promotion, people, process, physical facilities, prominence, programs and that head teachers/principals of private schools were using marketing strategies of price, programs, promotion, prospectus, people, premium, process and physical facilities. It was found that head teachers/principals of private secondary schools were using better marketing strategies than public secondary schools. It is recommended that government may allow the public sector schools to utilise these strategies of Private sector schools. Pages 10 to 25

 

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Impact of Despotic Leadership on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Employee Performance: Interactive Effect of Islamic Work Ethics

Ms. Naveeda Zeba, Dr. Ghulam Nabib, Dr. Nazir Haider Shahc, Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheend, Dr. Faheem Ghazanfare, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, cAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, dLecturer, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, eAssociate Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, Email: anaveeda.zeb@uokajk.edu.pk, bdr.ghulamnabi@uokajk.edu.pk, c*nazirshah786@gmail.com, dnaqeeb.shaheen@gmail.com, ff.ghazanfar@uokajk.edu.pk

Leadership is said to be the attitude of an individual to influence their followers who are the source of an organisation’s performance. The intention of this study was to check the impact of despotic leadership on employee performance and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) with the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics (IWE).  The researchers collected data from various organisations operating in the banking and education sectors located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The study sample consisted of the 300 employees and respondents belonging to different managerial levels which  ranged from entry-level clerical staff to high management positions.  Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by using the convenient sampling technique. The results indicated that Islamic work ethics moderated in despotic leadership and performance relationship. Whereas in case of organisational citizenship behaviour no moderation was observed. It is recommended that practitioners may add a personality test in the process of selection and recruitment and the organisation also can find out the efforts of employees which ultimately assert the job satisfaction among employees. Pages 26 to 41

 

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The Effect of Sustainable Asymmetric Market Conditions on Returns & Volatility in Stock Markets during a Global Financial Crisis

Majid Imdad Khan1, Aftab Ahmad2*, Rana Shahid Imdad Akash3, Asif Mahmood4, Ayyaz Ahmad5 and Shagufta Yasmin6, 1Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertlizers Research (NFC-IEFR), Faisalabad, Pakistan,  3School of Business Management, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertlizers Research (NFC-IEFR), Faisalabad, Pakistan, 4Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali, Pakistan, 5Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia, 6School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Technology Management (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan, Email: 1scc.ranamajid@gmail.com, 2*aftabahmadrao@gmail.com, 3shahid.imdad@yahoo.com, 4asif.mahmood@namal.edu.pk, 5ay.ahmad@uoh.edu.sa, 6s2018262012@umt.edu.pk;

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15504

Sustainable asymmetric market conditions’ development and volatility in stock returns play a vital role in investment decisions during a global financial crisis. Rational investment decisions and portfolio diversification can have the optimum returns. However, portfolio diversification through Islamic stock returns is perceived as a model of safer flight than that of conventional stocks. In the present study, the GARCH (1,1) - (Mean and Variance equations) has been employed to predict the impact of asymmetric market conditions on returns and volatility of Islamic stock markets (Dow Jones Islamic Market Malaysia (DJIM), Dow Jones Islamic Market Indonesia (JKII) and Dow Jones World Islamic Index (DJWI) Benchmark), and Conventional stock markets (Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE-China), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE-India) and Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE-Pakistan), during the global financial crisis. The analysis reveals that the bullish effect was higher in all stock markets. Overall results suggested that Islamic stock markets have a sustainable impact of asymmetric market conditions on returns and volatility of Islamic stock markets & conventional stock markets during the global financial crisis. The asymmetric market conditions in stock markets are strongly recommended for economic globalisation during a global financial crisis. Pages 42 to 56

 

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Enhancing Organisational Productivity: Dependence of Transformational Leadership on Organisational Culture and Organisational Justice

Dr. Irfan Ullah Khan1, Dr. Muhammad Idris2, Dr. Tariq Mehmud3, 1Department of Public Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan, 2Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Pakistan, 3Deputy Director ORIC, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Pakistan, Email: 1irfanullah@gu.edu.pk

The qualities of a transformational leader are neither enough nor suffice the creation of leadership impacts on organisational productivity, rather they need support of the organisational culture and justice system. While having the requisite organisational culture and justice for transformational leadership, the leader has less to do. However, it also suggests that introducing transformational leadership in the organisation begins with a lot of efforts on the part of leaders in developing the required background of organisational culture and prevalence of justice as a just culture is helpful in building organisational justice. The leaders’ success is first to create this kind of work-environment emerging in the form of a line of transformational leaders across the organisational hierarchy. The current study, thus, measures the support of the organisational culture and justice, once created, for the relationship between leadership and organisational productivity. The results surprisingly show that despite the significant relationship between the transformational leadership and organisational productivity, both the mediators (organisational culture and justice) disconnect this link and take over the whole responsibility of generating positive variation in organisational productivity. While adopting the transformational-leadership style, the findings are helpful to the managers and administrators of higher education. Pages 57 to 70

 

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Social Entrepreneurship Looks at Poverty Reducing Policy of Rural Support Programs in Sindh, Pakistan

Syed Muneer Ahmed Shaha, Shoukat Ali Maharb, Nazar Hussainc, Mujeeb ur Rehmand, Abdul Shakoore, a,b,c,Department of Public Administration SALU Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan, dDepartment of Media and Communication Studies SALU Khairpur Mirs Pakistan, eDepartment of Sociology SALU Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan, Email: cnazar.hussain@salu.edu.pk

Social entrepreneurship is a tool to handle social issues by developing innovative ideas that are carried out by organisations to achieve their goals and objectives. So function of social entrepreneurship in Sindh Rural Support Organisation (SRSO) is seen in reducing poverty in Khairpur District. In this research random sampling was used by applying Krejcie and Morgan table. It is concluded that SRSO is going to maintain this intention and it works at great extend in poverty alleviation in Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. In this regard, research objectives, research questions and hypotheses were discussed in light of regression analysis that is comprised of model summary, Anova and Coefficient, further Pearson Correlation was applied to see the relationship of social entrepreneurship with poverty alleviation. Hence it is investigated that social entrepreneurship related with poverty reduction and it also positively and significantly worked in reducing poverty. Pages 71 to 81

 

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Outstretching Feminism and Rerouting the Course of Society: A Pakistani Perspective

Ali Ammara, Saima Yasinb, aAssistant Professor (English), Govt. Gordon College, Rawalpindi, bLecturer, Department of English, University of Jhang, Email: aaliammar26812@gmail.com, bsaimayasin@uoj.edu.pk

The current paper focuses its attention on the theorising of feminism; activism based on these theories and politics within. It holds the hypothesis that the off-shoots of contemporary feminist theories have become common and established clichés to challenge the established principles that are beneficial for both sexes. Current feminist agenda has fallen prey to its internal politicising and extreme activism in different spheres of life which has disturbed the essential appropriateness of social institutions and needs to be revised with peaceful minds in order to avoid the already deteriorating harmony in roles of sexes and the extremists positioning of biases of both sexes. Applying textual analysis on the currents of feminist theory, its activism and politics within, the paper probes into the practical manifestations of feminist politics activism from Pakistani society and places it in juxtaposition with the evolution of feminist theories to enumerate the gap between the theory and practicalities which seems to be evermore increasing. The results of this exploration try to establish the concept that in finding their freedom and equality, feminist theorists have boarded on an extremist agenda which has harmed them more politically, socially and psychologically than putting them at par with male sex in different spheres of life. Pages 82 to 89

 

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Consumers’ Attitudes Towards the Purchase of Counterfeit Fashion Products in Pakistan

Bahadur Ali Soomroa Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahedb, aDepartment of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, bBusiness Management School, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia,

This study examines the constructs that predict the consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit fashion products in Pakistan. This study confirms these predictions by using a survey questionnaire to collect responses from 396 consumers of Pakistan. We employed structural equation modeling to ensure the proposed relationships. The study's findings found a positive and significant impact of value consciousness, brand consciousness, materialism, and social influence on consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit fashion products (ATCFP). However, the perceived risk has an insignificant impact on consumers’ ATCFP. Further, among the respondents, ATCFP has a positive and significant impact on their intentions to purchase such products. This study’s findings provide industrialists and retailers with guidelines in developing better policies and designs to attract and capture new consumers and, more particularly, in the context of a developing country. The study theoretically extends the understanding of consumer attitudes to purchasing counterfeit fashion products in developing countries and consumers purchase intention and reasons to buy counterfeit fashion products. Besides, this study’s results may help the manufacturers of original fashion brand products to comprehend that a developing country’s consumers are affected by others. The innovative sellers of branded fashion products should be ambitious in connecting with their consumers and attaining word-of-mouth recommendations. Pages 90 to 111

 

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Impact of Participative Leadership on Proactive Work Behaviour:  The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital Evidence of Higher Educational Institutions Pakistan

Dr. Nagina Gula*, Rabia Qurbanb, Dr. Muhammad Anwerc, Dr. Niamatullahd, Dr. Safdar Hussaine, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, (BUITEMS) Quetta 87650, Pakistan, bPh.D. Scholar  Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, (BUITEMS) Quetta 87650, Pakistan, cPrincipal Special Education Department Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, dAssistant Professor Department of Education, Faculty of Education LUAWMS Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan, eDepartment of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit. Pakistan. Email: a*nagina.gul@buitms.edu.pk, bmeeltingsnow@gmail.com, cdr.manwer19@gmail.com, dniamat.edu@luawms.edu.pk, esafdar_tla@yahoo.com

This study explores the role of leadership style as an effectivemotivational mechanism in recent  years that the effect mechanism of leadership will become a warm situation in organisational behaviour and management fields. The paper used structural equation modelling and go-sectional layout to test suggestion hypotheses based totally on the empirical statistics accrued from 378 contributors inside the higher schooling group of Quetta. The results of this  found out the fine and essential impact of the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between participative leadership and proactive work behaviour. The findings highlighted the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between participative leadership and proactive work conduct. Through  participation, the organisation may also improve the personnel’ proactive work behaviour because the observation supported this argument. The examination has contributed to growing the relationship between the participative management and worker overall performance by including an unexplored moderator, that is – positive psychological capital – in an overlooked social setting of the social public area organisation. Pages 112 to 131

 

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Quality of Work Life among Faculty Members in Saudi Arabia Based on the Walton Model

Soad Alfrahana, Eman I Ahmedb, a,bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of this study was to determine the quality of work life (QoWL) among faculty members working in the college of education at Imam Abdulrahaman bin Faisal University in Saudi Arabia. The QoWL scale is based on Walton model and was used to gather the responses from 62 faculty members. Means, standard deviations, t-test and one-way Anova tests were used to analyse the data. Of the seven categories of QoWL, "social integration in the work organisation" had the highest mean (M=3.18), while '' adequate and fair compensation'' had the lowest mean (M=2.42). The results also indicated that no significant differences were found among averages of the research sample estimates regarding the level of QoWL attributed to the research variables of gender, academic rank, and years of service. Several recommendations were proposed to enhance the QoWL of the faculty members. Pages 132 to 146

 

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The Impact of Fiscal Decentralisation on Economic Growth in Indonesia and Pakistan: A Comparative Study between Central Sulawesi and Balochistan

Mir Hassana, Nagina Gulb*, Saubia Ramzanc, Muhammad Anwerd, Dr. Niamatullahe aMS. Scholar, School of Government & Public Policy (SGPP) Indonesia, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, Quetta (BUITEMS), cDean, Faculty of Management Sciences, Business and IT, University of Balochistan Quetta, dPrincipal Special Education Department Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, eAssistant Professor Department of Education, Faculty of Education LUAWMS Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan

This paper examines the impact of fiscal decentralisation on economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Balochistan, Pakistan. Within the framework of a Pooled OLS (Ordinary Least Square), the fixed-effect model and random effect model were employed in this thesis on a set of dynamic panel data models with latent variables from 1990 to 2019 in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and from 1992 to 2019 in Balochistan, Pakistan. There are two indicators of fiscal decentralisation, namely local revenue and local expenditure, which were used to estimate the impact of fiscal decentralisation. Data for this study came from secondary sources; BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Indonesia and PBS (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics). The empirical findings of this study suggest that two fiscal decentralisation indicators and employment (LFPR) have a significant positive impact on economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. However, human capital (education) is negatively correlated with economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. On the other hand, the empirical findings of this study also suggest that two fiscal decentralisation indicators and human capital (education) have a significant positive impact in Balochistan, Pakistan. However, employment (LFPR) is negatively correlated with economic growth. Finally, there is a high consensus on the relationship between fiscal decentralisation and economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Balochistan, Pakistan. Pages 147 to 164

 

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The Impact of Organisational Commitment and Job Embeddedness on Employee Turnover Intention in the Hotel Industry of Pakistan: The Mediating Impact of Job Satisfaction

Abuzar Khana, Syed Muneer Ahmed Shahb, Nazar Hussainc, Sanaullah Abrod ,Shoukat Ali Mahare, aSchool of Management Science QAU Islamabad, Pakistan, b,c,d,eDepartment of Public Administration SALU Khairpur, Pakistan, Email: cnazar.hussain@salu.edu.pk

This quantitative research study, based on primary data, aims to identify the relationship and signification of the job embeddedness and organisation commitment on employees’ turnover intention in the hotel industry in Pakistan. The data was collected from five hotels based in twin metropolitan cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad), and equal opportunity to participate was provided to both males and females. The convenience random dappling strategy was used to opt the data. The current study identified that organisational commitment has a significant relationship with job satisfaction, showing data as (ΔR2  = .736 at p < 0.01), while a significant and positive relationship of job embeddedness and job satisfaction has been identified, with highly correlated values between the variables. There has been mediation impact supported by the results of the study, which says that organisational commitment and job embeddedness is significant and highly inverse with (β=-0.396 at p< 0.05) against employees’ turnover intention. Thus, in the hotel industry of Pakistan, job satisfaction highly mediates the prelateship of the embeddedness and commitment with the turnover intention. Pages 165 to 178

 

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Too Busy, Too Bad? Grey, Outside, Busy and Overlap Directors and Financial Performance in Pakistan

Muhammad Rizwan Ullaha*, Ahmed Chandb, Sadaf Akramc, Aamir Inam Bhuttad, Muhammad Ahmede, a,d,eLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. bDepartment of Commerce and Finance, Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan. cDepartment of Commerce, Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: a*mrizwanullah77@gmail.com, bahmedchand186@gmail.com, csadafakramgcwuf@gmail.com, daamirinam@gcuf.edu.pk, eraianjum@gmail.com 

Regardless of the belief of reformers that a greater percentage of independent directors on a corporate board is better for good governance, it is relatively unknown whether the enhanced focus on independence of a board is able to increase firm performance in the current framework of corporate governance. Thus, this study analyses the impact of grey, outside, busy and overlap directors on firm performance in Pakistani listed firms, using data for the period 2014-2019. The study uses grey directors, outside directors, busy directors and overlap directors as explanatory variables, while firm performance is used as the main outcome variable. The potential ways for interactions between directors and firm performance (FP) are built on the basis of theories and past empirical findings. In line with theories and code of corporate governance standards, the study draws conclusion that grey, outside and busy directors (overlap directors) positively (negatively) contribute to improving FP. The study suggests increasing (decreasing) the ratio of grey, outside and busy directors (overlap directors). Pages 179 to 196

 

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Legal Frameworks on the Right to Know in Iraq

Marwan Kamel Jomaah Alkhalidya, Zalina Binti Abdul Halimb, aPh.D candidate, College of Law University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, bCollege of Law, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The right to know as a fundamental human right recognised in major international instruments has been identified as a corollary of freedom of expression and an extension of freedom of speech. Within this perspective the RTK shows its significance to the implementation of democracy and the implementation of other rights. In contrary, states without RTK law can hide vital material that is exposing the governments’ wrongdoings through controlling the flow of information. In such an environment, massive corruption increases and violations against human rights continue concealed. Accordingly, many international conventions, including the United Nation Convention Against Corruption, require state members to implement the right to know laws. Pages 197 to 208
 
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How to Counter Terrorism and Extremism in the Middle East: Jordan’s Measurements and Strategies

Bader Seetan Al-Madi, The German Jordanian University, School of Applied Humanities and Languages, Amman- Jordan 11180, Email: bader.madi67@gmail.com

Radicalisation acts by Muslim extremists consist of a domestic threat to Jordan’s security and safety. Hence, Jordanian political strategies intend to have control over any radical acts to maintain the country’s security. Violent radicalisation has emerged as an essential theoretical and empirical topic aiming to find reliable measurements that counter extremisms. The present paper investigates the existing terrorists threat causes and levels in Jordan and the possible methods of countering this terrorism. More specifically, the study focuses on the Jordanian policies and tactics for preventing and reducing terrorism, radicalisation, encompassing security, diplomatic, and legal efforts. This study’s key conclusion is that Jordan has succeeded in developing ground-breaking measures and techniques to resist and oppose terrorism and radicalisation. Therefore, Jordan is considered to be a key player in the unending battle against terrorism and extremism. Pages 209 to 222
 
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Potential Threats of Consumer Textiles

Asna Mubashra, Incharge Department of Textile Design, College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Email: asnamubashra786@gmail.com ; asna.cad@pu.edu.pk

Local is global and global is local. With globalisation, the perception of things and happenings has changed radically. With multidimensional reservations and challenges, the threats that the textile industry proposes and promises assume greater importance, especially when considering potential threats in everyday use consumer textiles. The global concerns regarding various textile processes has surged to an almost alarming extent. The global trend for eco-friendly products has also been extended to textile and apparel products. An effort is being made to create awareness among consumers of textile products regarding their potential safety threats. It involves highlighting the threats and hazards which should be controlled so that this sector becomes a responsible partner in the creation of a nontoxic environment. A review of probable hazardous textile chemicals is presented here along with a discussion on the expected venues of health risks. Such awareness might help in bringing to light a list of damaging textile chemicals that should be restricted for the sake of environmental protection, controlling occupational illnesses among workers in the textile sector, and the provision of nontoxic, safe textile products for consumers. Pages 223 to 234
 
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Nurses’ Knowledge, Trends, and Infection Control Practices toward COVID-19

Samah El Awady Bassam¹, Khaled Fahad Al Hosis 1 Associate Professor, Pediatric Nursing, Collage of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia 2Associate Professor, Nursing Administration, Collage of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi, Corresponding Email: s.basam@qu.edu.sa; awadysss@yahoo.com

COVID-19 is caused by a viral infection and nurses are at high risk of gaining this infection while providing nursing care to patients. Therefore, it’s vital to evaluate their performance in regard to COVID-19. Research Aims: To examine nurses’ knowledge, trends, and infection control practices toward COVID-19. Methodology: Cross sectional research design conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Centre, King Fahd Specialist Hospital and Buraidah Central Hospital. The subjects were 200 nurses, through convenience sample. An online survey was conducted using Google form, which contained four parts (characteristics, knowledge, trends and practice). Results: The mean age of studied nurses was 31.98 (6.94) years, 95% of them were female, 54% were married and 93% of studied nurses had a BSN. Educational level and age were positive predictors in nurses’ knowledge. The total knowledge, trends, experience and educational level had a positive impact on nurses’ practices. The total knowledge, married nurses, age and experience were positive predictors for nurses’ trends. Conclusions: The current study concluded that half of studied nurses had good knowledge and more than one third had an average knowledge level. In related trends, less than two thirds of studied nurses had positive trends. According to practice level, around two thirds of studied nurses had competent practices. Pages 235 to 246

 
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The Influence of Attitude Towards Facebook Advertising on Purchase Intention: Brand Page "Like" Intention to Participate in Word of Mouth as a Mediator

Hafizullaha, Zia Ullah Khanb, Muhammad Kaleemc, Muhammad Khushnoodd, Zeeshan Zaib Khattake, Sammar Abbasf, a,b,c,d,e,fInstitute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat KP-Pakistan, Email: fsabbas@kust.edu.pk

Brand pages on social networking sites allow consumers to interact directly with the brand. The marketers are using the brand pages tool on social networking sites, especially Facebook, to increase purchase intention. The like intention of a brand page to take part in word of mouth (WOM) is an intentional behaviour found in the literature. The aim of this article is the determination of the impact of attitude towards Facebook advertising on purchase intention, including mediating impact of intention to like a brand page to engage in word of mouth (WOM). The data was collected from different Pakistani clothing brand pages. The data was analysed using a quantitative research method. The online structured questionnaire link was distributed among the brand page followers. First, the reliability and validity were confirmed. The interconnectedness between the constructs was measured by the structural equation modelling (SEM) using Smart PLS version 3. There is a positive and significant impact found between the attitude towards Facebook advertising on purchase intention and mediation impact of the like intention of a brand page to take part in word of mouth (WOM). The results could provide a reference for future research on brand pages and suggest a practical reference for the company business strategy. Pages 247 to 262
 
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Constructivism in Numeracy: Impact Of Inventive Measures on Grade I Students

Sara Sehar a, Dr. S  Khurram Khan Alwib*, Dr. Zobia Zamanc, aPhD Schlor Greenwich University, Karachi, bAssociate Professor, Greenwich University, Karachi, cTrainer at IQCS INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS PTY LTD 7 Korana Street Plympton, South Australia, Email: aseharsara6@gmail.com, bdrkhurramkhan@outlook.com, czobiazaman@yahoo.com  

Constructivist core belief relies on one principle and that is: learning should be built on the existing knowledge of the learner.In constructivists’ view teachers are not the only source of knowledge, rather students construct their own understanding in an environment which is conducive to learning. Mathematic teachers need to adapt transformative roles of facilitators to encourage students in order to develop them into a self-assured learner. 120 students and 10 teachers participated in the study in which 60 students of an experimental group were vigorously involved in meaningful activities. Teachers played roles of facilitators in a student centred environment. An  independent sample t-test was applied to test the research hypothesis. The significant 2 tailed value of the post-test was .000 < .05 which evidenced that the research hypothesis is accepted signifying the impact of material activities on students mathematical learning. Pages 263 to 281 
 
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Integration of Cultural Fit, Strategy Fit and Strategic Fit to Harness the Competitive Advantage: A Dynamic Capabilities Paradigm

Mehreen Waheeda*, Sadia Iftikharb, cDr. Sarwar Azharc, aPh.D Scholar of Management Sciences, a,b Serving as Lecturer in National University of Modern Languages (NUML)Lahore Campus, cPhD from the Nottingham University,UK Business School,Email:a*mehreenwaheed@numl.edu.pk,bsadiaiftikhar@numl.edu.pk,csarwar.azhar@iba-suk.edu.pk

The interaction of the organization in an industry with culture and other forces demands organizations to comply and align for survival and success through building and sustaining competitive advantage. This becomes even more critical when there are intense competition and a dynamic environment. Under these circumstances, there has to be a fit at various levels such as strategy fit, strategic fit and cultural fit. This fit ensures the harmony of what is required and what is to be done to bring prosperity. But in isolation, these fits may not result in maximum output so there has to be an alignment between these fits. This is the conceptual study that strives to answer these riddles along with the role of culture both internal and external in creating strategy, strategic and cultural fit. This study examines the mediating role of dynamic capabilities between business strategies and functional strategies, carrying the domain of HR as HR practices. This study proposed a model which will help managers and researchers to harness competitive advantage under a dynamic environment. Pages 282 to 310
 
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Factors Affecting Consumers’ Impulse Buying Behaviour in Jordan Telecom Operators

Mohamad Alghzawia, Saeed Tarabiehb, Mahmoud Alghizzawic, a,bFaculty of Business, Marketing Department, Mutah University, al karak, Jordan; cFaculty of Business and Management, Marketing Department, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; Email: aM.alghizawi@gmail.com, btarabieh@mutah.edu.jo, cdr.alghzawi87@gmail.com

This study aims to scrutinise the influence of primary personal characteristics and store factors, including employees’ behaviour, environment and sales promotion, on impulsive purchase decision making by consumers in Jordanian telecom operators. To obtain the study results, a total of n=384 well-structured, self-administered questionnaire surveys were distributed among the telecom customers in Jordan, using a statistical package for social sciences. The empirical results identified that there is a strong significant influence of store and personal characteristics on impulsive purchase decision. Among the personal factors that are significant for reinforcing an impulsive purchasing decision, are: tending to impulsive shop more, spending more money than originally thought; buying products by virtue of the job. Also, among the other contributive factors, store factors were also associated with influencing the buying behaviour of the customers, such as ‘promotional activities like "Buy one get one free" frequently attract me to buy things impulsively’, ‘Staff uniforms affect the purchase of goods for me from friendly employees’.  As the personal factors and store factors strongly affected the buying decision of the potential customers of telecom customers in Jordan,  the researcher also recommended conducting more investigations, especially longitudinal analysis, to examine the mentioned variables in other different situations. Pages 311 to 335
 
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The Development of a Collaborative Training Model for Elementary School Teachers in Remote Area Indonesia

Piter Joko Nugrohoa, Theo Jhoni Hartantob, aEducation Management Departement, University of Palangka Raya, Indonesia, bPhysic Education Departement, University of Palangka Raya, Indonesia, Email: apiter@mp.upr.ac.id, btheo@fkip.upr.ac.id

Teachers in remote areas face many obstacles mainly related to the lack of professional development opportunities. This article proposes the development of an innovative training model (which was called a Collaborative Training Model or CTM) to help teachers use ICT to develop their teaching activities and to support their daily tasks. This study was a research and development which adapted a 4D model by Thiagarajan that was tried out on elementary school teachers in the remote area in Gunung Mas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the CTM was valid based on expert judgement, the response of participants was categorised as very strong (positive), and the CTM that has been developed can help teachers achieve good learning outcomes. It can be stated that the CTM can be an alternative solution to overcome competency gaps of elementary school teachers in remote areas related to ICT skills for learning purposes and to achieve meaningful training. Pages 336 to 353
 
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Regional Owned Enterprise Policy Strategies to Increase Local Government Revenues in Indonesia

Azhari Aziz Samudraa, Evi Satispib, Agus Suradikac, aProfessor, Department of Public Administration, Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. bAssociate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Politic Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. cProfessor, Department of Public Administration, Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. Email: aazhariazis.samudra@umj.ac.id, bevi.satispi@umj.ac.id, cagus.suradika@umj.ac.id

This study aims to find out how to increase local revenue (PAD). In Indonesia, PAD is a source of regional income, part of which comes from regionally owned enterprises. PT. Bina Bangun Wibawa Mukti (BBWM) is a public regional company founded in 2002 and has contributed significantly to generating regional income, but from 2016 until now, its revenues and profits have decreased, especially with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Field observations were carried out by direct research into the location of the activity. This research was conducted for nine months, using qualitative methods with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, with 14 stakeholders and 28 staff (purposive sampling). The results of the study conclude that to increase income and return to the growth stage, the company carried out a strategy of diversifying liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) products into propane and butane. Strategic policies and innovations are continued in other businesses such as hotels, waste management and parking management. With these strategy and innovations, this regional company is expected to return to the growth stage. Pages 354 to 368
 
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Qualitative Study on Millennials’ Housing Preferences in Jakarta, Indonesia

Raden Aswin Rahadia, Yunilson Mulyanob, aSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, bSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Email: aaswin.rahadi@sbm-itb.ac.id, byunilson_mulyano@sbm-itb.ac.id

This paper aims to investigate the housing factors that affect millennials when they purchase a property. The housing factors used for the housing preferences are location, accessibility, price, facilities, physical attributes, design and aesthetic aspects, developer reputation and land ownership. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative study with conducting a semi-structured interview with several informants. The questionnaire was developed by reviewing the literature study and the author's interpretation. After conducting the interview, the entire informants agreed on the housing factors stated in the conceptual model. The informants would consider those eight factors before purchasing a property. The findings of this research should be useful for stakeholders like the government, real estate developers, and consumers. The reasons and ideas from the informant could be used as an input for the government to set policies regarding affordable houses. The real estate developers also could use this research to make a business strategy to develop the millennials market segment. Finally, for the consumer, this research could be a guide to help the customer find out about their preferences toward housing. Pages 369 to 382
 
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Family Ownership and Tunneling Effect in South Asian, Lower-Middle Income Economies

Tanvir Ahmeda, Dr. Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizib, Dr. Babar Zaheer Buttc, a,b,cFoundation University, Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus, Pakistan, Email: atanvirkhan1979@yahoo.com, bdr.alitirmizi@fui.edu.pk, cbabarzb@gmail.com

This research studies the impact of family ownership (FOWN) on tunneling (TUN), while corporate governance (CGI) moderates this relationship. After reviewing the extensive literature, the relationship of family ownership with tunneling and the moderating role of corporate governance has been established. To investigate the empirical status of the hypotheses, data from 198 non-financial firms for 14 years for the period 2006-2019 has been gathered from the Pakistan Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange. Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) has been applied to address the problem of endogeneity. The results depict that family ownership has a negative relationship with tunneling (propping). Moreover, corporate governance also shows the moderating role in the influence of family ownership on tunneling. The results of the empirical study provide insight to investors, regulators and policymakers so they may formulate strategies and establish policies to protect the rights of minority shareholders. Pages 383 to 399
 
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Facets of Internal Marketing and Innovative Work Behaviour: The Intrinsic Motivation Perspective

Safdar Husain Tahira*, Mubarak Hussain Haiderb, Nausheen Syedc, Muhammad Husnaind, Aisha Saleeme, Muhammad Mohsinf, a,e,fLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, bDepartment of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad 44310, Pakistan, cDepartment of Business Administration, Government College Women University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, dDepartment of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan Email: a*drsafdargcuf@gmail.com, bphdmaju@gmail.com, cnausheen@gcwuf.edu.pk, dm.husnain@uosahiwal.edu.pk eaishajawad786@hotmail.com, fmdkmohsin83@gmail.com

This article aims to find the impact of rewards, training and empowerment as facets of internal marketing (IM) on innovative work behaviour (IWB) with the mediating role of intrinsic motivation (IMO). A representative sample of 242 employees from the engineering sector of Islamabad and Rawalpindi was collected, using a non-probability purposive sampling technique. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to test the hypothesis. SEM results reveal the positive impact of training and empowerment on IWB and IMO. Rewards show a negative relationship with IWB and IMO. Results confirm the partial mediation of IMO between IM and its facets of training and empowerment with IWB. The practical and theoretical implications of this study are also presented based on the results. Pages 400 to 415
 
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Eye-tracking in Second Language Reading

Ivana Roncevic, University of Zagreb

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15523

In this study eye tracking software was used to analyse the ways in which university students, adult competent speakers of English at C1 level, process information when reading texts in the target language, and which strategies they use in order to summarise a given text. Research results point to four different reading techniques used by the participants in the study: partly selective fast linear, partly selective slow linear, selective structural and nonselective reading strategies. In comparison with previous research with reading tasks in L1, results show that readers take more time when reading in L2. In addition, there is a need for skill enhancement for the purpose of improved text structuring in reading tasks in the English language. Pages 416 to 432
 
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Awareness of Women and Employment Opportunities in Tourism and Hotels Sector and Empowerment According to the Vision of the Kingdom 2030

Alfatma Fatehallah Salamaa, Ghada Abdulrahman AlTurifb, aAssistant Prof, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University College of Community, bProf, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University College of Social Services, Department of Social Planning

This study aims at identifying the extent of women's awareness of employment opportunities in the tourism and hotel sector and how to empower women in accordance with the Kingdom's 2030 vision. The sample of the study consisted of (450) Saudi women distributed geographically over the various regions of the Kingdom. A questionnaire was designed and sent to them, titled “Awareness of women and employment opportunities in tourism and hotels sector and empowerment according to the vision of the Kingdom 2030”. The study concluded with a set of results, the most important of which is that there are many opportunities available for empowering women in the tourism and hotel sector, and they are characterised by diversity and suitability to the nature of women, especially when compared to the lack of employment opportunities in the educational and health sectors. The study reveals a set of challenges that limit the empowerment of women in the tourism and hotel sector; these include the customs and traditions of society. The study sought to present the proposed perception of empowering women in the tourism and hotels sector in light of the Kingdom's 2030 vision. Pages 433 to 454
 
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An Investigation Study of Challenges in the Transition from Traditional to Virtual Teamwork During COVID-19 in UAE Organisations

Fatima AlZaabi1, Maryam AlShehhi1, Noora AlShehhi1, Ranya Wadi1, Ruqayya Alhebsi1, Muataz Hazza Al Hazza1*, Mohammed Alnahhal1, Ahmad Sakhrieh1,2, 1Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, 10021, United Arab Emirates. 2Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan, Email: muataz.alhazza@aurak.ac.ae

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many organisations worldwide decided to transfer to remote working. This transition faced different challenges. This research investigates the most emergent challenging factors due to this transition in UAE organisations that affect productivity, motivation, and trust. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the most challenging factors, followed by a questionnaire to achieve the objective. Respondents for the questionnaire were 92 participants from different institutions across the UAE. The questionnaire focused on five main challenges: lack of communication and knowledge sharing; network issues and technological challenges; lack of good leadership practices; lack of coordination and team monitoring; and lack of employee engagement and responsiveness. The questionnaire results were investigated using a t-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that productivity severely suffered. On the other hand, motivation was affected significantly due to a lack of good leadership practices and employee engagement. Trust was influenced by a lack of employee engagement and responsiveness, lack of communication and knowledge sharing, and lack of good leadership practices. The results show that gender does not affect the respondents' perception regarding the transition from traditional to virtual teamwork on three performance measures. Pages 455 to 468
 
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The Effect of Personality on Office Politics Perception: An Experience from Malaysian Government Agencies

Daud, Z.a, Saiful Azizi, I.b, Sallehuddin, M.R.c,  a,b,cSchool of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Organisational politics or office politics is really about manipulating power and authority to build relationship to get things done. In other words, it is about “stabbing” people to achieve objectives. In the decision making process, management retains the actual right for making decisions. To maintain its authority in the decision making process, the management will exercise its power. This will create politics in an organisation. Kacmar & Carlson (1997) exhibited that the perceptions individuals hold about the political nature of their work environment influence the way they do their job. They defined organisational politics as political activities that have social influences and it is designed to protect one’s own self-interests. Therefore, managers’ personalities may have a relationship with the occurrence of organisational politics. Personality is defined as the stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity (Kinicki & Williams, 2006). The dominant managerial style may result from deep-rooted personality characteristics which predispose an individual to prefer one approach over another (Blake & Mouton, 1968). An individual’s personality constructs their personal attribute. Hence, this study aims to examine the influence of individual’s personalities on the execution of organisational politics. Pages 469 to 482
 
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Management of the Crisis during the COVID-19 Epidemic: Dead Sea Hotels in Jordan - Case Study

AL-Nsour Belal, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, School of business, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan,   Email: belal@bau.edu.jo

Many investors and researchers couldn't have predicted the impact of COVID-19 and its negative impacts on the tourism sector in Jordan and the Dead Sea sites across the region.  Within three months, Jordan’s visitors and the domestic tourism economy programs cancelled package travel and transport services; from the Ministry of Health, the average occupancy rate of hotels declined, reducing the level of accommodation in Dead Sea hotels by more than 83%, compared to the tourism industry average. The hotel industry in Jordan and tourism groups were largely caught unawares. They had to swiftly make creative solutions to solve problems arising from the crisis, find ways to reduce damage and total costs, and finally, increase revenues. In this paper, we recognise the impact, the consequences of COVID-19 on Dead Sea hotels in Jordan, and the relevant human resources procedures utilised to tackle the economic crisis. Conclusions show that unpaid vacation and layoff programs were the most common among popular Dead Sea hotel manager's decisions. Pages 483 to 496
 
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University Supervisors’ Perceptions on Preservice Teachers’ Lesson Planning During Teaching Practice: The Case of a South African University

Mbusiseni C. Dube1, Chinaza Ulienya2, Dumsani W Mncube3,  1,3University of Zululand, KwaZulu.Natal, South Africa, 2University of South Africa, Gauteng, South Africa

Lesson planning, a pivotal aspect aiding the achievement of any lesson objective and eventually education goal, seems to be not handled as expected in recent times. This is perhaps because preservice teachers tend to fail in meeting the expected demands in their lesson planning. Hence, this study explores the perceptions of university supervisors on preservice teachers’ lesson planning during their teaching practice, using selected schools where preservice teachers from a rural based university in South Africa undertook the teaching practice exercise. The study employed a qualitative method. Thus, structured interviews were conducted for 19 university supervisors who supervised preservice teachers during teaching practice. The findings of the study show that lesson planning is crucial to the delivery and attainment of lesson objectives. Also, a majority of the supervised preservice teachers still lag in the area of lesson planning. The study therefore recommends, among other things, that preservice teachers be taught lesson planning from the early stages of their study and be drilled on it, so that they understand clearly its elements. Pages 497 to 511
 
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Self-Esteem, Peer Pressure, Personality Traits and Parental Bonding as Associated Factors of the Social Competencies of Adolescents

Kehinde C. Lawrencea; Awosanya O. Olabisib. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, Faculty of Education University of Zululand, South Africa1; Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria2. alawrencek@unizulu.ac.za/lawrence.clement@ymail.com; bbisisanya68@yahoo.com

This study advances self-esteem, peer pressure, personality traits and parental bonding as associated factors of the social competencies of adolescents. A quantitative research of correlational type was adopted, while the multistage technique was used to select a sample of 546 adolescents with an average age of 16.5 (56.2% female). Appropriate measuring tools were used for data collection. Three research questions were raised and answered using regression statistical stools. Results revealed that self-esteem, peer pressure, extraversion, agreeableness, openness and parental bonding had a significant positive association, with exception of conscientiousness and neuroticism which had a negative but significant relationship with the social competence. Further, the most potent contributor to social competence was extraversion (β = 28.5%), followed by peer pressure (β = 27.1%), parental bonding ((β = 26.7%), self-esteem (β = 24.6%), agreeableness (β = 17.7%) and openness (β = 7.7%). Findings suggested that adolescents should give adequate consideration to those psychosocial causal factors that positively contributed to social competence and future research efforts can focus on moderating effect on any of these causal factors that have unique association with social competence. Pages 512 to 524
 
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Promotion of Nationalism: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Imran Khan’s National Assembly Speech

Islam Badshah, Assistant Professor Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6808-873X) Email: ibadshah@numl.edu.pk

This study focuses on the critical evaluation of Pakistani nationalism as discursively constructed in Imran Khan’s speech. Imran Khan, Pakistan cricket hero turned prime minister who became world champion in 1992 and then stepped into politics in 1996, has been an icon of producing and propagating Pakistani nationalism under which Pakistanis as one strong nation could progress. The current study applies Fairclough’s (1989) three-dimensional model to Critical Discourse Analysis. The aim of CDA is to analyse Imran Khan’s speech at the micro and macro level from a socio-cultural perspective. The study is also related to the analysis of Imran Khan’s firm determination to build Pakistan as a respected and great nation. Pages 525 to 535
 
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Investigating the Moderating Role of Terrorism Fear on the Relationship between Economic Value and Teachers Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Education Sector

Dr. Noor Ul Hadia*, Ayesha Darb, Ghayur Ahmadc, Dr. Malik F. Salehd, a,c,dCollege of Business Administration, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Business Administration, Foundation University Islamabad, Email: an_hadi1@yahoo.com, bayeshadar1@live.com, cmarchingdawn@gmail.com,  dmsaleh@pmu.edu.sa

This study aims to examine the impact of economic value on teachers’ job satisfaction in the presence of fear of terrorism in the mind of teachers. To this end, data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from 175 faculty members of educational institutions in Peshawar purposively. 150 responses were analysed via hierarchical regression. The result of the study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between economic value and teachers’ job satisfaction. The study also found that the moderating role of fear of terrorism on the relationship between economic value and teachers’ job satisfaction is insignificant. The results deviate surprisingly; indicating that Pakistan is a developing country and has economic depression so people in Pakistan specifically in KP Province are more concerned about their economic value even in the presence of terrorism fear. The study also provides justifications, implications and future research opportunities. Pages 536 to 551
 
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The Role of Lean Production and Other Technologies in Reducing Production Costs

Naji Shayeb Kayem, Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University, Email: najialrekaby@baghdadcollege.edu.iq

The techniques lean production, robot and total quality management are important to reduce production costs and improve the quality of products which then meet the needs and desire of customers, leading to higher sales volume and achieving high levels of profits. The statistical analysis shows the proportion of influence and power between those independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) and the dependent variable (reduce of product costs) as follows: 1-The total of regression coefficient of the independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) is (0.573). This reflects the strength of the influence of these variables on the dependent variable (reducing the product costs). As the relationship is direct between them, the higher the regression coefficient, leading to a stronger influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable. 2- The coefficient of determination for independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) and the dependent variable (reducing the product costs) is the coefficient (0.526), where the percentage of influence of the independent variables is (52.6%) and is a good ratio. As for the complement of ratio, it  is  (47.4%)  back to other factors not covered by this article. 3- Based on the statistical analysis in table 10, with respect to a regression coefficient (R2), the coefficient of   determination (B) and the natural significant relationship, the researcher confirms the importance of the adoption of Iraqi manufacturing, including the service industry, So the use of modern production techniques contributes to improving the competitive position of the Iraqi industry. 4- The researcher indicates that competition in the price led many international companies (Japanese and American) to transfer some of their factories to countries with low operating costs, such as China, even though these companies are technologically advanced and use the best modern production technologies such as lean production, robots, and total quality management. Those who visit the USA will find that the goods produced in China have invaded the markets there due to price competition and the relatively low cost of production in China, as well as the current trend towards at the service industry in USA. Pages 552 to 575
 
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Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance: A Mediating-Moderating Role of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Cynicism

Wasim ul Rehmana, Faryal Jalilb, Masood Hassanc, Suleyman Degirmend, Maryam Sarfraz Cheemae, a,e Department of Business Administration, University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, bInstitute of Quality & Technology Management, University of the Punjab Lahore Campus, Pakistan, , c Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, dThe School of Social and Human Sciences, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Turkey, Email: awasim.rehman@pugc.edu.pk, bfaryal.iqtm@pu.edu.pk, cmasoodhassan1@hotmail.com, std_21855@iobm.edu.pk, dsuleyman.degirmen@gidatarim.edu.tr

Transformational leaders are instrumental to influence the knowledge sharing amid employees. This study is designed to explore and bridge the research gap based on mediating role of knowledge sharing and moderating role of organizational cynicism in association of transformational leadership and organizational performance. Three hypotheses were established to analyze the conceptual framework of the study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to collect cross-sectional data through convenient sampling from 415 employees working in the major banks of Punjab, Pakistan. Results showed that the relationship between transformational leadership on organizational performance is weaker, when the organizational cynicism is high. Thus, this study is among rare on cross-sectional research design that investigates the mediating-moderating mechanism of knowledge sharing and organizational cynicism in the banking sector of Pakistan. This study is not only contributing in existing literature but will also be helpful for policy makers to take steps for controlling cynicism at workplace and to encourage employees for participating in knowledge sharing and performance of organization. Pages 576 to 599
 
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Sentiment Analysis through application of Big Data in online Retail Industry: A Conceptual Quantitative Study from the Perspectives of IT experts

Dr. Sadia Shaikha, Muhammad Faisal Sultanb, Dr. Farhan Zeb Khaskhellyc, Nida Zehrad, aAssistant Professor, Benazir School of Business, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Karachi, Pakistan. bAssistant Professor, Business Administration Department, KASBIT, Karachi, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, IBA, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan, dPhD Scholar, IBA, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan, Email: asadiakhurram@live.com

Big-Data is perceived as the source which may provide enormous to research as well as to business through influencing organizational performance. However, there are very few studies which highlighted the role of this evolving technology with the reference of Pakistan as low level of understanding of technology which is even highlighted by Gallop Pakistan. According to research the technology is significantly important for retail sector and might produce effective result for optimization of sales and growth. Hence there is a need to verify these postulates through relating the use of technology with Pakistan. Therefore, this study tried to conceptualize the impact of big-data application on the pricing mechanism of online retail stores of Pakistan through the opinion of IT experts. SMART-PLS has been used to analyze results of perception regarding the use of technology which significantly indicated importance of big-data for online retailers. Pages 600 to 619

 
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Determinants influencing green consumption behaviour of household appliances in Vietnam

Ha Thu Luonga*, Manh Dung Trana*, Duc Canh Leb, Son Khanh Tranc, Chi Ngoc Bao Nguyend, Huyen Khanh Ngoe, Trang Nhat Trand, aNational Economics University, Vietnam, bSchool of Advanced Education Programs, National Economics University, Vietnam, cDepartment of Excellence Business Administration, National Economics University, Vietnam. dDepartment of Advanced Accounting, National Economics University, Vietnam. eDepartment of Excellence HRM, National Economics University, Vietnam. Email: a*haluongthu@neu.edu.vn; a*manhdung@ktpt.edu.vn

This study is conducted to investigate determinants that have effects on green consumption behaviour for household appliances of Vietnamese customers applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The relationship between independent variables (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, knowledge, reasonable price and trend - additional variable from Vietnam typical condition), mediating variable and dependent variable (green consumption intention and green consumption behaviour) was identified. Data was collected through the questionnaire survey which was carried out in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh cities of Vietnam, an emerging country as the case study. The results show that attitude, perceived behavioural control, knowledge, reasonable price and trend significantly and positively influence the consumption intention. Moreover, consumption intention was found to have a significant positive impact on consumption behaviour. Pages 615 to 634
 
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Improving Corporate Stability Through Regulatory and Financial Reporting Within the Banking Sector in Saudi Arabia

Yosra Hamzaa, Abeer Atallah Aloudatb, Maher Diab Abulailac, Sukinah Abdullah Aljishid, Sara Qasem Al- Suwaidie, Hala Sulaiman Alturkif, Department of Accounting, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

As a country, the Saudi Arabia banking sector has experienced a lot of changes and positive development over the last few years. The development within the financial sector has been caused by the positive financial policy measures by the government, the oil economy and the developing construction and real estate industry in the region. Even through Saudi Arabia has one of the largest financial sectors within the MENA region, the banking sector has faced many challenges within the past few years. The research findings show that the banking sector has faced challenging economic times owing to the fluctuating oil prices. Another major factor which has led to the declining banking fortunes in the region is the onset of the COVI-19 pandemic which has also hit other global economies and affected the country’s oil trade. However, the findings also show that the banking sector has still continued to experience positive growth as a result of many factors. Such factors include positive customer perception, increased economic activity in the region and favourable government policy in the region. There are still internal and external challenges that are likely to shape the future of banking in Saudi Arabia. Such include the challenges due to cybersecurity and technology development. Poor cultures related to the customer relationships in the banking sector have also influenced the industry in Saudi Arabia. Pages 635 to 644
 
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Academic Self-Efficacy as a Mediator Between Fear of Failure and Academic Stress Among High School Students During Covid-19

Ayman Gamal Khalifa, PhD, TVTC Directorate of Research and Studies, Saudi Arabia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4178-3481, Email: a.ghanem@tvtc.gov.sa

The goal of this study was to investigate the role academic self-efficacy plays in the relationship between fear of failure, and academic stress among high school students during Covid-19. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit participants in this study. Participants were 320 third year secondary school students (210 female, 65.6% and 110 males, 3.4.%). A cross-sectional study was performed for all secondary schools in the Directorate of Education, Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Results indicate that self-efficacy correlates negatively with both fear of failure and academic procrastination. On the other hand, fear of failure was found to be positively correlated with academic stress. The data set, according to Skewness and kurtosis values, is in the range of ± 1 and shows a normal distribution. Regression coefficients of the empirical model show that self-efficacy had a direct negative effect on both fear of failure and academic stress. According to these findings, self-efficacy had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between fear of failure and academic stress. Pages 645 to 657
 
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Are Islamic and Conventional Stock Indices Temporally Related? Evidence from Pakistan

Dr. Mustafa Afeefa, Dr. Anjum Ihsanb, Dr. Fayaz Ali Shahc, Dr. Shahid Jan Kakakheld, Imran Khane, a,b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, dAssociate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, ePhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: amustafa@icp.edu.pk, bsearchanjum@yahoo.com, cfayaz@icp.edu.pk, dshahidjan@icp.edu.pk, eimrankhan.pk87@gmail.com

This paper investigates the co-movement of the two stock market indices of Pakistan, i.e., the KSE 100 Index and the KSE Islamic All Share Index. Daily data was taken for both the indices and the Johansen Cointegration test was applied to test for any long run linkage between the two variables. Moreover, the Granger Causality test / Block Exogeneity Wald test was also employed to explore whether any of the two indices could be used to forecast the other. Results revealed that long run associations, or Cointegration, did exist between the two indices at the lag length of 365 specified through the Akaike Information criterion. The Vector Error Correction Model showed that the two indices were strongly and positively associated with each other. The Wald test further indicated that the two variables were temporally related with the KSE Islamic All Share Index predicting changes in the KSE 100 Index. However, since the two time-series variables were found to be closely and positively associated specifically in the long-run, creating a portfolio of the two indices in an attempt to achieve diversification benefits may not serve the purpose. Pages 658 to 669
 
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Scope and Conditions of Damages for Air Carrier’s Liability Caused by Delay in Terms of the Travel Contract Issued by Emirate Airlines

Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Fayyada*, Prof. Dr. Koen Byttebierb, aAssociate Prof. College of Law, University of Sharjah, bProfessor, Department of Private and Economic Law, VUB, Email: a*mfayyad@sharjah.ac.ae,  bKoen.Byttebier@vub.be

This article detects the scope and conditions of the damages award compensation for the air carrier’s liability caused by delay, in terms of the Standard Form Contract issued by the UAE air carriers (the sample of the Emirates Airiness). The Travel Contract is drafted by the Air carrier and not individually negotiated, and that the other party is not authorized to influence or modify its terms. It is necessary to examine its fairness, its representation to the interests of the contracting parties equally, and its compatibility with the relevant provisions provided by the relating international conventions and national laws. This study confirms the fairness of the Travel Contract’ provisions relating to the subject of the research, its fair representation as regards the interests of both contracting parties and its adoption to the broad scope of damage award compensation in agreement with the best practices of both national and international law. Pages 670 to 687
 
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University Students’ Assessment of a Service-Learning Project for Developing Teaching Materials

Juan Lucas Onieva Lópeza, John Ramírez Leytonb, Raúl Cremadesc, Soledad Ortegad, a,c,dDepartment of Didactics of Languages, Arts and Sports. Faculty of Education. University of Málaga. Campus Teatinos, s/n. Málaga (29071), Spain. aORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7843-9054, cORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9265-6071, dORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4501-0088, bCooperative of Evaluation and Research Services. 210 Calle José Oliver, San Juan, (00918). Puerto Rico. ORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9638-3349, Email: ajuanlucas@uma.es, bjrleyton@gmail.com, ccremades@uma.es, dsortega@uma.es

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15564

The objective of this study is to determine the opinions of university students undergoing primary school teacher training to develop language teaching material for patients from the Children’s Hospital of Málaga, Spain, using the Service Learning (SL) methodology. Students evaluated this methodology by answering a 16-question questionnaire validated by external researchers. Academic performance was analysed using the Student’s t-test by comparing grades between an intervention and a control group. The results indicated improvements in several areas, including: the level of engagement, transversal competencies, academic performance, level of student satisfaction, and acquisition of teaching material related to the subject. Pages 688 to 705
 
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Assessing the Impact of Organisational Practices on Organisational Performance

Shoukat Ali Mahar, Syed Muneer Ahmed Shah, and Nazar Hussain, Department of Public Administration Khairpur Mirs, Sindh Pakistan

Purpose: the main theme of this research is to investigate the impact of organisational practices on organisational performance at the University of Sindh. In this connection there is a significant and positive impact of organisational practice on organisational performance. Research methods: the quantitative research techniques are applied such as descriptive analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis. It shows how sampling was selected and how the questionnaire was designed. It proved results scientifically. Findings: this research explored that organisational practice (internal communication, high performance work systems and information technology and recruitment and selection) are contributing 9.90%, 24%, 42%, and 22.30% individually and their collective contribution is 68.30%. Further, all hypotheses are accepted by the results. Implications: this study will be helpful for academic researchers and practitioners, management and employees in how internal communication, high performance work systems and information technology lead towards improving organisational performance. Limitations: this research is specified to the University of Sindh and a limited number of sampling was used to understand the impact of independent construction dependent variable. Values: this research provides how organisational practices are worthwhile to forecast organisational performance and will lead organisations to create image in market. Pages 706 to 720
 
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The Principal in Forming Teacher Work Motivation in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period at Senior High School 1 Sigli

Sumarjoa, Basrib, Muhammadc, Muhammad Iqbald, a,b,c,dUniversity of Jabal Ghafur, email: asumarjounigha@gmail.com, bbasriunigha@gmail.com, cmuhammadpenjas84@gmail.com, dmuhammadiqbal@unigha.ac.id

The role of a school principal in the Covid-19 pandemic is to shape teacher work motivation. The purpose of this study is to determine the form of principal activities that are most effective in shaping teacher work motivation during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This study uses Mixed-Method in a high school 1 Sigli. In shaping teacher work motivation during the Covid-19 pandemic, the principal can be assessed when the principal carries out his leadership activities, which include: forms of activities and the school atmosphere created, and the principal's leadership activities in creating a work atmosphere in shaping teacher work motivation. The category of school organisation development which is still simple has an impact on leadership activities and the creation of an interrelated school atmosphere, namely: strengthening organisation, and building communication. Then concerning the creation of a work atmosphere, a school principal can implement: establishing a work system, instilling positive thinking, and realising the Guarantee program. Pages 721 to 735
 
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How Pharmaceutical Marketing Manipulates the Prescription Pattern of Physicians? A Grounded Theory Study

Dr. Fazle Malika, Dr. Muhammad Asifb, Dr. Ilyas Sharifc, Dr. Shakeel Khand, Dr. Luqman Hakeeme, aField manager, Otsuka Pakistan Ltd, Islamabad, bAssistant Professor, Management Sciences Department, City University of Science and IT, Peshawar, Pakistan, cLecturer Quaid e Azam College of Commerce, University of Peshawar, dLecturer, Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar, eNational Consultant, UNICEF, Country office, Email: afazalmalikopl@gmail.com, basifbaloch@cusit.edu.pk, cPakistan.ilyasqacc@uop.edu.pk, dshakeel.ims@uop.edu.pk, eIslamabad.meetluqman@hotmail.com

This study aspires to scientifically understand the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescribing patterns of healthcare professionals in Pakistan and their ethical considerations. The discipline of marketing is a principal tool used by the industry to induce prescriptions from physicians and significantly affects the purchase, dispense and use of drugs. This abuse of drugs is responsible for the arousal of “superbugs” where the micro-organisms are immune to antibiotics and the subsequent “antibiotic apocalypse” is an emerging threat. If not prevented, it may cost up to a million deaths and $100 trillion lost to the world economy per year which will be a colossal loss. Notwithstanding this necessity, there is little research on this issue from the vantage of marketing ethics. This paper fills the knowledge gap. The population is comprised of physicians, pharmacists, sales managers, and relevant statutory body’ employees and from whom in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Grounded theory is applied as a method of inquiry to produce contextually robust comprehension. The data analysis through a proper coding process revealed that unethical behaviours of the industry are the principal reasons for deceptive marketing practices and compel physicians to accept gifts and other cash from marketers and generate prescriptions not on robust scientific evidences but on a commercial basis. Consequently, the misuse, overuse, or even abuses of drugs are evidently common in Pakistan which has manifested in the form of antimicrobial resistance. The contemporary grim situation can be overhauled if the key stakeholders, particularly industry and physicians behave ethically and comply with codes of conduct developed by international and local bodies. Pages 735 to 753
 
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A comparative study of Academic self-efficacy level of secondary school students in Rural and Urban Areas of District Peshawar, Pakistan

Siraj Khan1, Dr. Amjad Reba2, Dr. Adnan shahzad3 1Ph.D Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar. 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, 3Subject Specialist, Elementary and secondary Education Department. Email: 1khan1ier@gmail.com, 2amjadreba@uop.edu.pk

The study at hand was designed to compare the academic self-efficacy level of students in rural and urban area schools of district Peshawar at secondary level. The null hypothesis of the study was that there is no significant difference of academic self-efficacy level of students studying at secondary level in rural and urban areas schools of district Peshawar. The study employed a quantitative research approach.  The descriptive research design was used. All the secondary school students of high and higher secondary schools for boys of district Peshawar in the public sector were the population of the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the distribution of the sample size and its allocation. The population was categorized into two broad groups (strata) with reference to urban and rural region schools of district Peshawar. 300 students were selected from each stratum i.e. urban and rural areas of the said district. In order to collect data on academic self- efficacy level, a standardized tool established by Forman and Owen was used. Data was analyzed by applying a statistical test i.e. the t-test was used to compare academic self-efficacy level of the students of urban and rural areas of district Peshawar The study found that in the majority of both rural and urban areas, students liked to participate in a class discussion. They agreed with the statement that essay type tests are harder for them than objective type tests. They avoided facing difficulties in their studies and had problems to listening carefully during a lesson on a difficult topic. The majority of the students from urban and rural areas thought that it is a very rewarding experience being a student. They assumed that if they study enough, they can perform better academically. The result of the hypothesis testing showed that there was no significant difference between the academic self-efficacy level of secondary school students in urban and rural areas schools of district Peshawar by applying the sample t-test. Pages 754 to 761  
 
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The Phenomenon of Code-Mixing as Practised in Online Newspapers for Vietnamese Youth and the Issue of Preserving the Purity of Vietnamese

Le Thi Thuy Vinh, Hanoi Pedagogical University No. 2

Currently, code-mixing is a very popular phenomenon in young people's communication. Code-mixing is not only a pure linguistic phenomenon but a perceived phenomenon in linguistic-cultural contact. In this article, we will conduct research on the phenomenon of code-mixing in online articles for Vietnamese youth to find out the types of code-mixing that young people use in online newspapers, thereby raising the issue of protecting, developing and "preserving the purity of Vietnamese" so that Vietnamese still embraces the identity of the Vietnamese cultural language but does not hinder the current integration and internationalisation. Pages 762 to 771
 
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Impact of the Financial Indicators on Bank Performance and a Comparison of Small and Large Banks - Evidence from the Bahrain

Mohammad Adnan1, Ahmad Tisman Pasha2, Dr. Rashid Mehmood3, Maria Sadiq4, Muhammad Waris5, Dr. Rana Tahir Naveed6 (Corresponding Author), 1SBS Swiss Business School, 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Banking and Finance. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. 3Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, 4MS scholar, Institute of Banking and Finance. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, 5PhD scholar at University Uttara, Malaysia, 6Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore. Email: 1adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 2tisman@bzu.edu.pk, 3rashid.mehmood@ue.edu.pk, 4mariasadiq66@gmail.com, 5Muhammadwaris.vf@ue.edu.pk, 6Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk

The objective of our study is to explore the relationship of the financial indicators on the bank’s performance. For this purpose, we collected the data of the bank working in Bahrain. Data collected from the annual report of the respected banks for the period of five years. Our results show that the large bank is more efficient in term of the efficiency ratios to generate income by utilizing their full economic resources and give the high efficiency ratio as compared to small bank.  The large banks have more resources as compared to the small banks in term of the efficiency ratio. Leverage has the negative impact on the banks performance because the it creates a burden on the bank to recover the cost of the capital. In regards of non-interest income our results are significant, it means that there is significant relationship between non-interest income and the bank performance. In each years the bank performance is very good and that’s why higher means of the non-interest income ratio. There is significant relationship between bank performance and the loan loss provision in our analysis. The performance and size of the bank also directly impact on the loan loss provisions ratio. Higher the loan loss provision higher the risk in that bank. In our analysis there is significant relationship between performance of the bank and the ROA. In our results regarding to return on equity ratio and bank performance relationship, there is significant relationship between them. There is a significant relationship between the nonperforming loan and the bank performance. Non-performing loan is the bad sign for the future of the banking sector in the Kingdome of the Bahrain. Pages 772 to 796
 
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The Role of Service Marketing Mix in Assessing Youths’ Decision-Making Styles

Nor Azlin Sulaimana, Haryanni Harunb*, aPostgraduate Student, Management and Humanities Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, bManagement and Humanities Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, Email: anor_19001639@utp.edu.my, b*haryanniharun@utp.edu.my

Despite the growth of STEM careers, higher education institutions face a tremendous talent gap crisis. The crisis occurs as students’ enrollment in the STEM programs substantially declined in the last five years. Even though the national education policy employs STEM education as the main agenda compared to non-STEM education, low demands for STEM program signals the mismatch between market needs and programs offered. Thus, this study aims to propose a model to reveal the service marketing mix roles in assessing youths’ decision-making styles in the enrollment of STEM programs. Data was collected from 191 undergraduate students in a reputable private university in Malaysia, specialised in STEM programs, and analysed through the PLS-SEM approach. The findings revealed that three marketing mix dimensions (i.e. product, price, prominence) are dominant factors that influence the program enrollment decision-making, since both styles of decision-making (i.e. novelty, brand-consciousness, perfectionist, and high-quality) recorded significant results. Hence, higher education institutions should consider strengthening the marketability and quality of the program, since the product dimension influences both enrollment decision-making styles. The investment to grow the institution's reputation particularly in improving global, regional, and national ranking is an effective strategy as prominence is related to both enrollment decision-making styles. Pages 797 to 815
 
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The Availability and Use of Information and Communication Technology at Gifted Primary Schools in the Sudan

Dr. Zeinab Abdel Rahman Elhassn Hagge Ahmed1, Prof. Salaheldin Farah Attallah  Bakhiet2, 1Assistant Professor/ Department of kindergarten/ College of Science and Humanities/ Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz, University, 2Professor / Department of Special Education / College of Education / King Saud University. Email: 1Z.haggeahmed@psau.edu.sa, 2bakhiet@ksu.edu.sa

This study explored the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in gifted primary schools from the perspective of teachers. Both availability and use of ICT in those schools were examined. Participants were 56 teachers (51.8% males and 48.2% females). Data was collected using a questionnaire developed and validated by the researchers. Results reported tools of ICT that are always, sometimes and never available at schools. They also reported tools of ICT that are always, sometimes and never used. No correlation was found between use of ITC on one hand and age, years of experience and number of courses in ICT on the other hand. Similarly, no significant differences were found in the teachers’ use of ICT by qualifications (the bachelor’s degree, the Postgraduate Diploma and the Master degree) and gender. However, there were significant differences (a=0.05) by schools (Abdoon Hamad, Mahjoub Obaid and Mohammed Fouad) in favor of Abdoon Hamad School compared with Mohammed Fouad School. Finally, a positive correlation (a=0.01) was found between the availability and use of ICT. Implications based on the results are offered. Pages 816 to 848
 
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Strategic OrientationInnovation and Entrepreneurship Model and Economic Performance - Empirical Analysis from Chinese Data

Zhang Lianfeng1, Chen Zhuanqing2, Yuriy Danko3 1Sumy National Agrarian University, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 2Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 3Sumy National Agrarian University

Through a systematical combination of domestic and foreign literature on strategic orientation, this paper proposes an exploratory model for the relationship between strategic orientation, innovative entrepreneurship model and economic performance, with 485 pieces of valid sample data collected for empirical testing. It was found that entrepreneurial orientation and network orientation have positive effects on economic performance to a significant extent. The impact of entrepreneurship orientation on business model innovation is far more significant compared with product innovation, while the impact of network orientation on product innovation is clearly more significant in contrast to business model innovation. Business model innovation plays an intermediary role between entrepreneurial orientation and economic performance, while product innovation plays an intermediary role between network orientation and economic performance. Based on the empirical results obtained, the following suggestions are made in this paper for innovation and Entrepreneurship Model Selection. Resource-deficient enterprises can rely on network-oriented product innovation to improve economic performance and risk-preferring firms can receive benefit from economic performance through entrepreneurial-oriented business model innovation. Pages 849 to 869
 
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Rapid Prototyping Technology Roadmapping For SMEs: Issues, Challenges & A Pragmatic Implementation Approach

Ayyaz Ahmad1*, Isam A.Q.Elbadawi2, Asif Mahmood3, 1,2Department of Industrial & System Engineering University of Hail, Saudi Arabia,  3Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali 42250, Pakistan, Email: 1*ay.ahmad@uoh.edu.sa or ayz90@hotmail.com, 2i.elbadawi@uoh.edu.sa or isam149@gmail.com, 3asif.mahmood@namal.edu.pk or mahmood.engineer@gmail.com

In the advanced era of globalization, the changing demands of customers and trends of the market have changed the business world. The changing scenario of the global village has an indelible impact on Small and Medium Entrepreneurs (SMEs) but these small business firms are incapable to tackle all these challenging issues and maintain the market positions due to limited human resources and technological infrastructure. Though Rapid Prototyping technology has a great potentiality to address all these challenging issues, yet there is not much application of this technology in the large proportion of SMEs. This paper highlights the key barriers, their impact on competitive capabilities and introduces a practical roadmap. It also discusses its implementation mechanism through industrial case studies for the understanding of the market dynamics, competitor’s ability and internal business analysis to facilitate the RP technology link with the challenges they are facing, to ensure an effective adoption process. Pages 870 to 904
 
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Risk Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Bibliometric Analysis

Manzar Abbas Hydaria, Dr. Alia Ahmedb, Dr. Taseer Salahuddinc, aResearcher at National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, bDean Business School, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, cAssistant Professor, Economics, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Email: amahydari@gmail.com, bdralia@ncbae.edu.pk, csalahuddin.taseer@gmail.com

Bibliometric analyses are the studies of bibliographic contents that provide the general picture of the specific research area by identifying and classifying the journals. This explanatory research focuses on Risk Management (RM) practices for Small and Medium Enterprises’ (SMEs) sustainability.  The SMEs are always at higher risks in terms of small size and limited resources. This bibliometric review evaluates 3,709 Scopus-indexed documents to examine the effects of risk management practices on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for Sustainable Development (SD), that have accrued in the last 30 years (1991 – 2020).  The review goals are to compile the volume, evolution trends, and geographical allocation of the literature, identify prominent authors, relevant journals, as well as publications; and finally to analyse the conceptual, intellectual, and social structures prevalent in this field. This review presents a yardstick for impending research reviews on the RM of SMEs for SD, shows the evolving intellectual structure of this inter-disciplinary arena, and proposes reference points for researchers entering this discipline. This research paper will be a valuable source for future researchers and publications interested in SMEs’ risk management for sustainable development to capture the current research flashpoints and prospective research tips. Pages 905 to 926
 
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The Post-Cold War International Political Development in Europe: From Bipolar to Unipolarity Structure

Mohd. Noor Yazid, Programme of International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Email: mohdnoor@ums.edu.my

This paper explores the international political development in Europe during the post-Cold War era starting from 1989. The focus of discussion is Europe in the first decade of the post-Cold War era. The end of the Cold War had a great impact on the political and institutional development in Europe. The economic weaknesses of the Soviet Union since the mid-1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1991 strongly influenced the changes of the former communist states of Eastern Europe. The former communist states in Eastern Europe became democratic states and then became members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Why did the former communist states become democratic-capitalist states after the Cold War ended? Why they join NATO? Which International Relations Theory could be applied in explaining and analysing the changes and political development in Europe? The former communist states becoming democratic-capitalist states had relationship to their political economic position during the communist regime and the achievement and position of the Soviet Union’s economic state since the mid-1980s. The role played by American is important in influencing the foreign policies of the former communist states and why they joined NATO? The structure of international politics is important in explaining the post-Cold War Europe. There was a close relationship between the international structure and the changes at the European regional level. This paper concludes that the changes of international political structure in the European continent from a bipolarity structure to a unipolarity structure strongly influenced the policies of the former Eastern European communist states. The existence of only one single strong power, a unipolarity structure, made it easier for America to control and dominate Europe. The Theory of Structural Realism (especially Offensive Realism) could be applied in explaining the international politics and institutional development in post-Cold War Europe. Pages 927 to 939
 
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Understanding the Contemporary Innovation Orientation of Informal Micro-Enterprises

Dr Lavhelesani Mulibanaa, Prof Ravinder Renab, aNWU Alumnus, NWU Business School, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Mahikeng Campus, Republic of South Africa, bProfessor of Economics, NWU Business School, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Mahikeng Campus, Republic of South Africa, Email: amulibanalav@gmail.com

The existence of innovation fostering and limiting factors in a firm's micro, market, and macro environment determines whether the firm is oriented towards or against innovation. Little is known about the innovation orientation of informal micro-enterprises. Thus, this study sought to determine the contemporary innovation orientation of informal micro-enterprises. Through the application of sequential explanatory mixed-methods research and pragmatism research philosophy, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 400 informal micro-enterprises in four townships of the Gauteng Province, South Africa. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, thematic, and constant comparison methods. The results revealed that curiosity drives innovation among informal micro-enterprises, whereas customers’ lack of disposable income limits innovation activities. Moreover, there is more innovation fostering than limiting factors among informal micro-enterprises. Thus, the study concludes that the informal sector is conducive to innovation activities. Nonetheless, there is a need for researchers, the government, and other relevant role-players to determine solutions or alternatives to the existing innovation limiting factors. Pages 940 to 960
 
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The Choice Between Internal and External Sources of Financing of SMEs in Pakistan: A Provincial-Level Analysis

Maryam Jabeena, Shahid Alib, Muhammad Alic, aLecturer, Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar, Pakistan, b,cTenured Associate Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: amaryam.jabeen@imsciences.edu.pk, bshahid.ali@imsciences.edu.pk

This survey research covered 341 SMEs operating across seven districts of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan to assess the financing preferences of SMEs’ owner-managers and  determining the preferred funding options for enterprises operating in sampled districts of the province. The study used descriptive statistics followed by extended analysis of the survey data by using a range of different statistical analysis techniques to describe and to validate the interrelationship among diverse characteristics of the survey respondents. The findings confirm that angel financing, leasing and hire purchase are preferred by majority of SMEs that are owned by men.  Surveyed SMEs that are owned by families and sole proprietors have a strong preference for capital provided by family and friends. However, extreme preference for retained earnings is also reported by SMEs engaged in partnership businesses. Leasing and hire purchase are highly preferred by SMEs that are operating in the agriculture sector and service sector of the surveyed districts respectively.  The survey findings reveal that VC funds are highly preferred by enterprises which are a branch of a foreign company. The findings for a government scheme verify that female entrepreneurs and SMEs working in industrial sectors do not prefer borrowings from government. Pages 961 to 978
 
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Work Environment Stress: Causes and Outcomes

Muhammad Umair Sajida, Mashal Ihsanb, cDr. Amjad Reba, a,bM. Phil Scholars, cAssistant Professor, University Of Peshawar

The motivation behind this paper was to review workplace stress. A number of various articles, from 2010 to 2020 have been investigated. The findings of the survey reveal that work environment stress influences the physical and mental state, as well as adversely affecting family, and the public activity, of employees. The findings likewise uncover significant job environment stressors and adapting systems that lessen the pressure. This review article therefore assists with understanding the applied information on work environment stress, and its causes and outcomes in the work environment. Reasonable ramifications of the paper are that stress management workshops could be directed in various associations on the standard premise, which can instruct workers about the causes of stress and its destructive outcomes on their wellbeing, and how they can adequately decrease pressure in  the work environment. The paper outlines previously researched procedures for adapting to stress. Pages 979 to 992
 
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The Role of Human Capital, Corruption and Quality of Life in Determining the Crime Rate: Empirics from Pakistan

Alina Qamara, Maria Safdarb, aScholar at Faculty: Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, Australia, bLecturer at Department of Economics, University of Sahiwal, Pakistan.

Crime is an evil that is increasing day by day in Pakistan. Different factors contribute to the increasing crime trend. This study investigates the impact of human capital, corruption, quality of life, economic misery and rule of law on the crime rate in Pakistan over the period 1985-2019. To find out short-term and long-term dynamics, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is used. For checking casual relationships among variables, the Toda Yamamoto Causality test is used. The results confirm the significant and long-term impact of human capital, corruption, quality of life, economic misery and rule of law on the crime rate in Pakistan. Three channels of bidirectional causality are found with the economic misery index from corruption and human capital, and between the rule of law and corruption. Unidirectional causality runs from human capital, corruption, quality of life and economic misery to crime. Pages 993 to 1013
 
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Ritual Arwah Nimaliling of Taba People in Makian Island North Maluku (Between Blessings and Prestige)

Santri Sahar1, Supriadi Hamdat2, Munsi Lampe3, Muhammad Basir4, 1Anthropology Doctoral Program, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia, 2.3,4Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia, Email: santrisahar@gmail.com1supriadihmdat.sh@gmail.com2, munsilampe257@gmail.com3, muhammad.basir.unhas@gmail.com4

Generally ritual is the human form of religion stated to be confidence in the power of invisibility. One of them is the belief in ancestral spirits which is practiced by the Taba people on Makian Island through the Arwah Nimaliling Ritual. From the results of interviews and content analysis of the data, it shows that the Arwah Nimaliling is a collaboration of Islamic traditions and local traditions into local Islamic traditions. This can be seen from mosques, cemeteries and houses which are used as cultural fields. The Taba people overseas try to be present to celebrate the ritual because it is believed that all the successes obtained are the blessings of their ancestors, which are only obtained on the second day of the sixth month of Ramadhan. But presence in the ritual of Arwah Nimaliling, cannot now be separated from the influence of change. Using symbolic interpretative perspective, this paper presents the occurrence of a change of group orientation by Taba people who now makes Arwah Nimaliling as a venue for social prestige. Pages 1014 to 1020
 
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The Influence of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Business Performance with Innovative Human Resource Practices Mediation on Creative Economy Entrepreneurs in Malang Raya

Armanua*, Ana Sofia Aryatib, Susanti Dwi Ilhamic and Ratih Ameliad, a,b,c,dDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email: a*armanu@ub.ac.id

A leader who has an entrepreneurial spirit will have implications for the progress of his business. This study aims to analyse and explain the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on business performance by mediating innovative human resource practices. This research was conducted on the creative economy actors in Malang Raya using a sample of 137 entrepreneurs. The sampling technique used in the study was convenience sampling. The analysis used SEM-PLS analysis. Based on the research results, it was found that entrepreneurial leadership had a positive and significant effect on Business Performance and Innovative Human Resource Practices, but what was interesting was that Innovative Human Resource Practices had an insignificant effect on Business Performance, and Innovative Human Resource Practices did not mediate the influence of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Business Performance. Pages 1021 to 1030
 
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CEO Duality and Firm Performance in the Pharmaceutical Industry of China: The Moderating Role of Ownership Type

Noheed Khana,  Muhammad Mobeen Shafqatb, Salman Ali Qureshic, Anum Shafiqued, Muhammad Bilale*, Waseemullahf, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, The University of Faisalabad (TUF), Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, GC Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, dLecturer, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan, e*BBA Faculty Member/Coordinator, Department of Business & Economics, FG Sir Syed College Rawalpindi, Pakistan, fLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan, Email: anoheed.khan@tuf.edu.pk, bmobeen.shafqat@gcwus.edu.pk,  csalman_qureshi@aiou.edu.pk, danum.shafique@uaar.edu.pk, e*rao.muhammad.bilal@gmail.com, fwaseem.ullah@uog.edu.pk

CEO duality means one individual can hold the position of CEO and chairman of the board at the same time. Prior research is inconclusive whether CEO duality has a positive or negative impact on financial performance. Previous positive results support agency theory, supporting that CEO duality damages financial performance because CEO duality compromises control and monitoring. The opposite argument supports stewardship theory, arguing that unity of command is useful for financial performance. This recent study explores CEO duality impact on financial performance in the pharmaceutical industry of China. More specifically, it tests ownership type as a moderating role in the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. The random effect model was used, for the period 2011- 2019 in China. The findings reveal that CEO duality has a positive impact on firm performance in the pharmaceutical industry, which supports the stewardship theory. Moreover, the findings of the study do not support the moderating effect of ownership type in the association between CEO duality and firm performance in the pharmaceutical industry of China. The sensitivity analysis also confirms the main findings of the study. The empirical findings suggest important policy implications for the pharmaceutical industry of China. Pages 1031 to 1045
 
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Some Factors Related to Health Awareness among Female Students at King Saud University in Riyadh

Benayeh Mohammed Saud AlRasheed, Social Work Assistant Professor, College of Art-Department of Social Studies, King Saud University, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia, Email: prof.benayaalrasheed@gmail.com

This study aims to identify some of the factors that are related to health awareness among female university students in respect to a number of variables, as well as identify whether there are obstacles that obstruct female students' awareness. To achieve this, two questionnaires were designed; the first one includes indicators that measure the level of health awareness, and the second questionnaire was designed to identify the obstacles that obstruct the health awareness of female students. The sample of the study consisted of (268) female students from the College of Arts at King Saud University, who are studying the course (Arabic). The members of the sample were chosen randomly. The results of the study indicate that there is no correlation between the demographic variables of the study sample (academic level, college major, and GPA) and their health awareness, due to the fact that access to health awareness has become easy because of the spread of the Internet and social media, as well as providing Internet for students in the university city. Internet makes it easier for female students to access the various websites and obtain health educational information, and that in turn helps students to receive health information, and this may be the main source for achieving health awareness for female students. Pages 1046 to 1066
 
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Cognitive Stylistic Approach to Characterisation in “Miss Brill” by Katherine Mansfield

Dr. Akbar Ali1, Muhammad Anees2, Athar Farooq3, Dr. Liaqat Iqbal4, Husamullah5, Hina Gul6¸ Azhar khan7, 1Assistant Professor Department of English, FATA University, KP, Pakistan, 2Lecturer in English Government College Peshawar. 3Assistant Professor, Department of English, Hazara University, Mansehra, KP, Pakistan, 4Assistant Professor, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan, 5Lecturer, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, KP, Pakistan, 6Lecturer in English Jinnah College for women University of Peshawar, 7Assistant Professor SRH Campus AWKUM KPK, Pakistan, Email: 1akbar@fu.edu.pk (correspondence author), 2neesjaffarshah@gmail.com, 6hina.gul@uop.edu.pk

This article aims to examine the mind style of the suffering protagonist in Katherine Mansfield’s “Miss Brill” from the theoretical perspective of cognitive stylistics. The story gives an insight into the mind of the central character with her deliberate attempts to block the harsh realities around her, and the cognitive process in connection with the similarities in plot and setting. The analysis will demonstrate how cognitive stylistic approach to narrative fiction can advance literary interpretation by identifying the aspects of characterisation of fiction individuals through their language, thoughts and behaviour. By using cognitive stylistics approach to narrative fiction, the study attempts to apply this model to characterisation of the protagonist, and develop a supplement to the existing interpretations, revealing the inner conflicts that her character faces and tries to resolve. Pages 1067 to 1076
 
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Patriarchal Ideology as Gender Discrimination: A Feminist Study of Jane Eyre

Muhammad Anees1, Dr. Akbar Ali2, Dr. Liaqat Iqbal3, Sajjad Ahmad4, Irfan Ullah Khan5, Azhar khan6, 1Lecturer in English Government College Peshawar, 2Assistant Professor Department of English, FATA University, KP, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan, 4Lecturer, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, KP, Pakistan, 5Lecturer in English GPGC Bannu, 6Assistant Professor SRH Campus AWKUM KPK, Pakistan, Email: 1neesjaffarshah@gmail.com, 2akbar@fu.edu.pk (Correspondence author), 5rabiagee865@gmail.com

The aim of the study is to examine how the attitudes, dialogues, motivations and social position of the heroine disputes with the patriarchal hegemony of the male characters, patriarchal structure and truths of early Victorian era in Jane Eyre. The purpose of the paper is to show how the four major male characters are the representative of early Victorian patriarchal system; particularly the study examines through heroine perspective, patriarchal ideologies and social gender norms which were oppressive to women. The research came to the conclusion that patriarchal supremacy of the male members of the society and family society has been accepted as an ideology; and this ideology has been internalized and naturalized by using certain institutions like religion, customs and traditions. Consequently, study finds patriarchy, religion, patriarchal laws, religious laws; patriarchal institutions and religious institutions as the major factors responsible for women’s discrimination. Pages 1077 to 1103
 
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Effect of Asset Utilisation and Corporate Growth on Financial Performance

Anum Shafiquea, Abdul Rauf Kashifb, Dr. Ali Haiderc, Nawal Zaheerd, Salman Khane, aLecturer, University Institute Of Management Sciences, Pmas-Uaar, bAssistant Professor In Institute Of Southern Punjab Multan, Pakistan, Paksitan, cLecturer, Faculty Of Management Sciences, Islamic International University Islamabad, Pakistan. dStudent, University Institute Of Management Sciences, Pmas-Uaar, eStudent, University Institute Of Management Sciences, Pmas-Uaar, Email: aAnum.Shafque@uaar.edu.pk, bKashifrauf365@gmail.com, cEelihaider@iiu.edu.pk, dNawalzaheer95@gmail.com, eNamlaskhan353@gmail.com

This study examines the effects of asset utilisation and corporate growth on financial performance by using the sample dataset of 30 listed textile companies on the Pakistan Stock Exchange from 2015 to 2019. The study incurred that asset utilisation influences the financial performance of the company before any investment decision is made. By using descriptive statistic and panel regression techniques, the results show that asset utilisation and corporate growth have a significant and positive influence on financial performance. The results of this study also indicate random effect model as a best fit. This study expects to provide a better understanding of the asset utilisation and the role of corporate growth in the company in defining the financial performance of the company. The findings of the study help in supporting the arguments of leverage irrelevance theory and pecking order theory which help in improvement of financial performance. Pages 1104 to 1118
 
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Analyzing the Relationship between Explicit Knowledge Sharing and Human Resource Performance Efficiency: Evaluating the Moderating Role of Trust

Qaiser Sarwar Khan1, Dr. Yasir Kamal2, Dr. Sonia Sethi3, Azhar khan4, Dr. Mohib Ullah5, Rehmat Ali6, 1Iqra National University, Peshawar, 2Associate Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, 3Lecture, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College, Peshawar, 4Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College, Peshawar, 5Assistant Professor Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 6Assistant Professor, Institute of Management Science,

The current research has been aimed to evaluate the moderating role of Human Resource Trust (HRT) between Explicit Knowledge Sharing (EKS) and performance efficiency of the human resources in multifaceted public and private sector organizations. A quantitative study for the said purpose has been undertaken to ascertain the impact of EKS on the performance of human resources while taking into consideration the moderating role of HRT. The study approach undertaken for the research is quantitative in nature for which, structured questionnaire was developed based on the relevant studies already conducted in this field. The questionnaires were distributed among 500 respondents, out of which 345 responded, which provided the researcher with 69% response rate. Population of the study comprises wide range of organizations such as Government, Non-Government, International & Private Sector, which were consulted for the primary data collection across the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Capital Territory of Islamabad by adopting Simple Random Sampling technique. Analysis were drawn through the application of statistical software tools i.e. Amos for factor analysis & SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis of the data depicted that HRT is playing significant positive influence in establishing relationship between EKS and efficiency in the performance of their human resources.  Pages 1119 to 1140
 
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Food Legislation Perspectives and Recommendations, Including a Proposed Model Food Law

Abdul Ghaffar Koraia, Abdul Samadb, Ahad Ghaffarc, Javed Ahmedd, Imtiaz Ahmed Memone, Azhar khanf, aCorresponding Author, Assistant Professor Law, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto University of Law, Karachi, bHungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences. cLaw student at Government ABD Law College, Sukkur. dAdvocate, High Court Sindh. eDeputy Director (Monitoring) Criminal Prosecution Service, Law Department, Government of Sindh. fAssistant Professor SRH Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan. Email: akoraiahad71@gmail.com

Critical changes in the worldwide and public food administrative frameworks have come about because of the expanding globalization of food exchange and the assembly of food guidelines and sanitation laws. It is getting progressively certain that, to more readily secure the lives and soundness of individuals, creatures, and plants while forestalling pointless exchange boundaries, public and global administrative exercises should be incorporated and reinforced. Moreover, crushing episodes of food-borne infections have increased consciousness of the worldwide food handling and exchange administrative framework. These progressions have required new enactment. Public administrative constructions should be adjusted to satisfy global and local responsibilities, and the food area's risk dispersion should be dissected. The content depends on FAO's involvement with helping governments in growing new food laws and guidelines, just as making and refreshing a few parts of the public design, and these exercises ought to be fused into the orderly survey of the public food administrative system. With that in mind, the content contains three renditions of the current model food law, just as point by point rules for the plan of a fundamental public food law. Pages 1141 to 1152
 
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Impact of Big Data Analytics on Firm Performance with Mediating Role of Decision-Making Performance and Innovation Capability

Shabbar Hussaina, Afshan Rehmanb, Munnawar Naz Khokharc, Misbah Ejazd, Muhammad Munire, aAir University School of Management Sciences, Air University Islamabad Pakistan, bFaculty of Management Sciences, IIU Islamabad, Paksitan, cDepartment of Management Sciences, COMSAT Islamabad, Pakistan. dDepartment of Management Sciences, CUST Islamabad, Pakistan, eDepartment of Management & Administrative Sciences, University of Narowal, Pakistan Email: ashabbar.hussain@gmail.com, dmisbaahshk@gmail.com, emuhammad.munir@uon.edu.pk

Big data analytics is emerging as a game changing capability which generates valuable insights and reveals new patterns to keep organizations up-to-date and plan their moves accordingly. This research study is aimed at exploring the impact of big data analytics competency on firm performance and those underlying resource dimensions which drives the high level of BDAC. Empirical results, based on a quantitative analysis of such firms which are practicing big data analytics in their units; specifically of telecommunication and banking corporations across Pakistan, identify that performance of a firm significantly increases when higher level of big data analytics competency is developed and that the decision-making performance and innovation capability mediate this relationship. In addition, findings of the current study demonstrate that a positive and a significant relation is present between big data analytics competency and firm decision-making performance such that higher level of big data analytics competency would make firm decision-making performance better. The study, therefore, significantly contributes to the domain of managing big data analytics and firm’s performance. This study draws the attention of researchers as well as practitioners to consider the behavior of decision-making performance and innovation capability in this association while suggesting the potential for future researchers to explore this relationship with possible moderators like top management support, employees’ commitment, and/ or readiness for change. Pages 1153 to 1172
 
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The Deeper the Well the Colder the Water: The Role of Brand Coolness and Love in the Formation of Consumer’s Engagement with the Lens of S-O-R Approach

Saman Attiqa, Ansir Ali Rajputb, Muhammad Umerc, Hannan Afzald, Muhammad Sufyan Ramishe, aAssociate Professor, Air University School of Management, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan, bAssociate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, cLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan, dPhD Scholar, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, eVisiting Faculty, IoBM Karachi, Pakistan . Email: asaman.attiq@mail.au.edu.pk, brajput@cust.edu.pk, cm.umer@comsats.edu.pk, dhannanafzal6@gmail.com, esmsufyan@gmail.com

Marketers always strive to make their brands more sophisticated and differentiated to outperform their competitors. One way to do that is to increase brand coolness, a recently conceived construct in marketing literature. This study while integrating stimulus organism response (SOR) model with brand attribution theory has conducted quantitative study to test the outcomes of brand coolness in young users of smart gadgets in Pakistan. A total of 578 respondents participated in this survey study. Data collected through purposive sampling technique was analyzed through structural equation modelling. Results of the study found that brand coolness (stimulus) has a positive impact on brand love (organism). Brand love also mediate the relationship between brand coolness and brand engagement (response). Conclusion of the current study offers very unique theoretical and practical implications by assessing untapped links of brand coolness and its likely outcomes. This study also contributes to consumer wellbeing literature supporting the recent stream of research that is interested in knowing the impact of marketing strategies on consumer’s engagement. Moreover, integration of SOR model with brand attribution theory is another theoretical contribution of this study. Main limitation of the study is its cross-sectional research design and non-random sampling technique. Future research must explore these links in a longitudinal study. This study has also offered some practical implication for marketers and practitioners such that increasing brand coolness not only stimulates positive emotion (love with brand) among consumers, but it also fosters consumer responses in terms of brand engagement. Pages 1173 to 1195
 
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