Students’ Cognitive Development Through Improvisations in a Theater Game-Based Approach

Norzuraina binti Mohd Nor1, Norasmah binti Mohd Nor2, Santhi A/P Letchumanan3, Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Arif4, Halim bin Busno5, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris1, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perempuan Melayu2, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tok Perdana3, Sekolah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdullah4, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Alauddin5

This study aims to examine students’ cognitive development during the teaching and learning of the topic of Mixed-media Paintings using a theater game-based approach. This study is based on a qualitative approach which involving 8 Form Five students who were selected as the study sample. Data were collected through observations where the researchers examined the learning process which involving five sessions, namely induction, perceptions of art, applications of art, expressions of art, and art in life. Teachers were provided with the modules of theater games and a teaching plan as a guideline for the theater game-based approach in teaching the subject matter based on Bloom’s taxonomic levels of mastery. Data was analyzed using Nvivo software to reveal students’ level of cognitive development based on the twenty-first century learning skills as they performed selected theater games during the learning of Fine Art Specialization. The finding shows that students made several spontaneous improvisations in performing the games in terms of voice intonations, gestures, movements, and emotional expressions. In performing in such games, the students demonstrated various levels of Bloom’s taxonomic skills in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, namely synthesis and analysis. Pages 1 to 12




Secondary Chinese Teacher Recruitment Examination Trends and Improvement Plan in Korea: Focusing on Questions from 2018-2021

Eun Young Jang, Department of Chinese Education, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Email address: j9902768@hufs.ac.kr

Studies on the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination had been steadily conducted. This paper examined the types and trends of the current recruitment examination by targeting the recruitment exam questions from the 2018 academic year to 2021, on which there are almost no studies, and presented ways to improve the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination in the future. There is a difference in the ratio of questions by year, but in general, the ratioof questions asked in Introduction to Chinese Language and Chinese Education Theory was high. The questions on Chinese conversation and Chinese reading did not appear at all, or even if they did, the ratio did not exceed 10%. And although the percentage of questions on Chinese culture course is not high, the questions consistently appear every year. This can be said to be related to the emphasis on comparison and understanding of mutual culture in the 2015 revised curriculum. This study presented improvement measures for the recruitment examination of Chinese secondary school teachers based on the results of analysis on questions from the 1st exam for the 2018-2021 school year and the evaluation contents of the 2nd exam. Pages 13 to 32




The Hospitality Students’ Experiences with Work-integrated Learning in TVET Colleges

Zandile Kubhekaa,  Mncedisi Christian Maphalalab, aUniversity of  South Africa, College of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, bNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: azandilekubheka@hotmail.com, bt25787810@nwu.ac.za

Work-integrated learning has been adopted in higher education worldwide as a strategy to transfer classroom activities to the workplace. There is a dearth of research in the South African context that seeks to explore the hospitality students’ experiences with work-integrated learning (WIL) in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges. Thus, this study sought to explore the students’ experiences with work-integrated learning in South African TVET colleges. The theories underpinning the study were the Experiential Learning Theory and Workplace Participatory Practices Theory. The study adopted a qualitative design comprising of 30 purposively selected students in 5 TVET colleges. A focus group discussion was used to gather data that was used to answer the research questions. Data was analysed using a thematic framework, following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach. The following themes resulted from the analysis: skills necessary for a hospitality graduate; students’ expectations and perceptions of WIL; students’ readiness for employment; support for students; resources, equipment, and infrastructure for WIL; work placements and the curriculum.  Pages 33 to 49




“The Time Machine” Social Innovation and Research-Creation Strategy for Risk Control in Informal Labor Communities

Gregorio Enrique Puello-Socarrás, ORCiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7507-5937 - Industrial Design / Business Administration Proffessional - Safety and Health at Work Management Specialist - Master’s degree in Development Practice. Teacher and Researcher at the Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios - UNIMINUTO Bogotá, Colombia. Email: gpuellosoca@uniminuto.edu.cogregorio.puello@uniminuto.edu

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151007

Strategies to control occupational risk factors face various challenges in terms of their application and effectiveness, even more so when it comes to providing risk-control solutions under informal working conditions. Purpose: explore opportunities presented by the use of social innovation strategies and methodologies derived from research-creation to establish educational control measures for occupational risk factors, for recovery and recycling workers in Bogotá (Colombia). Methods and procedures: There were two main phases for this research: one aimed to understand the different risk posed to informal labor communities based on workplace inspection and risk assessment norms NTC4114 and GTC45, the other one was aimed to develop a research-creation and social innovation-based strategy, to co-create innovative solutions to address risk factors with the informal workers New Results: Risk conditions were measured for the first time with this group of informal workers and a social innovation creation was made to control risk factors and to dignify working conditions Conclusions: Informal work has precarious and uncontrolled risk. In addition, the systematic exclusion of informal workers from public health labor systems organized by national governments means that protective measures for this group of people are often ineffective or inadequate, or in the worst case, non-existent. Pages 50 to 72



The Challenges of Achieving Competitive Advantage at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Fatima Abdullah Al-Melhama, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, a,bCollege of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The study aims to identify the extent to which competitive advantage can be achieved across several areas (education, scientific research, community service, human resources, technology, and innovation) at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU) in Saudi Arabia. The study also aims to identify the most important challenges that prevent the achievement of competitive advantage across these areas. The descriptive approach was employed using a questionnaire as a tool of collecting data from a sample of (199) faculty members at the University. The results of the study showed a high degree of competitive advantage across the six areas. The results also indicated that many challenges prevent the achievement of competitive advantage. The most important of these challenges was the fierce local and international competition between universities. Pages 73 to 88

Leading Change and its Relationship with the Moral Spirit of the Faculty Members: An Applied Study on the University of Imam Abd Al-Rahman Bin Faisal in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Saja Suleiman Al-Turkia, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, aDeanship of Preparatory Year, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between change leadership and the faculty morale at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University. The researchers used the correlational descriptive approach. The sample consisted of 243 faculty members which constitutes (17%) of the total population (1428). The study used the questionnaire as a tool to collect data. The study data were processed using the statistical program (SPSS). The results of the study found that the degree of practicing change leadership skills among academic leaders at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The results also revealed that the level of morale among the faculty members at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The researchers also found a positive relationship between change leadership, and the level of morale among faculty members at the significance level (0.01). The study recommended several recommendations, the most important of which are: Encouraging academics to take initiative in new projects and ideas, contribute to the development of the educational system within the university, and support the university in the field of university research and university research. Pages 89 to 105

Poverty as an Impediment to Economic Growth and Development: Perspective on Education in Nongoma Area of Zululand District of Kwazulu- Natal

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyia, Bongani Thulani Gamedeb, Chinaza Uleanyac, a,b,cHuman and Social Sciences, University of Zululand

Poverty is more complex than just than it is because it is a determinant factor for the growth and development of the economy in the country and precisely in Nongoma.     The study argues that the impact of poverty has limit economic growth and development due to a poor education system that disadvantage learners from poor households from receiving quality education while many even drop out of school, some learners engaged in different criminal activities, because of the financial constraints. Amongst others, the study recommends joint efforts among all the stakeholders to alleviate poverty, political unrest, even distribution of income and resources in the Nongoma municipality. The study was anchored by the ecological theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner while the mixed method was adopted for the study. Pages 106 to 129

The Effect of Intellectual Capital on Achieving the Competitive Advantage of Jordanian Pharmaceutical Companies: A Case Study of Dar Al-Dawa Company

Majed Masadeh, Full Professor, Department of Business Administration, Zarqa University, Jordan

This study aimed to Highlight the role of intellectual capital and its components in achieving the competitive advantage of Jordanian Dar Al-Dawa Company, then to submit recommendations that should be taken into account for the intellectual capital to achieve competitive advantage. The study used descriptive and analytical approach and both secondary and primary data were collected, using questionnaire specially designated the to gather data form a sample consisted of (148) employees in the top and middle management (director, deputy/assistant director and head of department) in Dar Al- Dawaa Company. And the program used for measuring the data is Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS. The researcher used descriptive and statistical analysis.  The study reached a number of conclusions, including that there is a high level of Intellectual Capital dimensions at Dar Al- Dawaa Company, which also found to have a high level of   the Competitive Advantage", It also found a statistically significant impact of Intellectual Capital in their dimensions (Human capital, Structural capital, Relational capital) on Competitive Advantage. In light of the conclusions proposed some recommendations were presented for Dar Al-Dawaa Company in Jordan. That have been focused around continuity to develop its intellectual capital in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Pages 130 to 150

Village Savings and Loan Associations as Resilient Factors in the Era of COVID-19 in Zimbabwe

Nyashadzashe Chiwawa1*, Norman Chivasa2, Henry Wissink3, 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Management, IT and Governance, 1ORCID NR: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5180-2631, 2University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, 3University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email, School of Management, IT and Governance, *Corresponding Author, Email: 1*chiwawan@ukzn.ac.za, 2chivasan@ukzn.ac.za, 3 wissinkh@ukzn.ac.za

This article provides insights into the capacities of village savings and loan associations scheme to building the resilience of members of the scheme. This is true of ordinary people in Zimbabwe who are faced with financial exclusion and economic doldrums and a collapsing financial sector.  In the era of COVID-19, in which normal life has been disrupted, village savings scheme is a type of enterprise that seeks to empower ordinary people who are exposed to a myriad of vulnerabilities such as financial exclusion, poverty and inequalities. The capacities by ordinary people to take responsibility for their own well-being through savings is an indication of local agency and resilience. Pages 151 to 161

Female School Leaders and the Fourth Industrial Revolution in South Africa

Virginia Naidooa, Onoriode Collins Potokrib*, a,bUniversity of Johannesburg, South Africa, *Corresponding author, Email: avirginia@clps.co.za, b*cpotokri@uj.ac.za, b*cnuvie@gmail.com

The study explored the leadership skills female leaders in South African schools require to be adequately prepared for the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) era. It was conducted with female education specialists, principals, deputy principals and heads of department at primary and secondary schools. Both private and public schools were selected. A generic qualitative approach was used with individual interviews to collect data. Data analysis was conducted using a thematic inductive approach. Themes were generated from clusters of information relating to the research questions. The findings include the skills required for females to effectively lead schools for the 4IR era to become better 4IR-aligned leaders. The study revealed that female leaders recognize the need to adjust their leadership skills to the rapidly changing technological environment in schools. The study further revealed that support for development is lacking in public schools while private schools offer more mentoring and coaching of leaders to become 4IR-aligned. It is thus clear that leadership support/development, especially in public schools, requires effective administration and communication to ensure that schools receive the level of support that is drafted and structured at national government level. Pages 162 to 180

Developing Rural Economies through Small to Medium Tourism Enterprise: the case of Matatiele and Cedarville in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

aDr Siyabonga Mxunyelwa, bDr Obert Matarinano, cProfessor Dinesh Vallabh, a,b,cWalter Sisulu University, Faculty of Business Science, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Management, Email: asmxunyelwa@wsu.ac.z

Globally, nations depend on small businesses as engines for economic growth. Small to Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs), as part of the small business sector, are increasingly becoming important in terms of job creation, wealth creation and driving economic growth in smaller rural geographic areas. Utilising a mixed research approach, the paper identifies characteristics of SMTEs in Matatiele and Cedarville with the intention of identifying specific ways in which they can be supported to attain their real potential in enabling economic development in rural environment. Purposive sampling method was used to select respondents and self-administered questionnaires utilised to gather relevant data from managers/owners. The results indicate that the rural tourism is dominated by female-owned enterprises primarily offering accommodation services. Most of the enterprises have been in operation for a period of more than five years which points to potential growth as they are able to survive. The results further show that the businesses that participated in the survey intent employing more full-time employees. Furthermore, the results underscore that there is lack of local government support to promote entrepreneurship in the SMTEs sector particularly those that are located in the rural environment. The findings elucidate the ability of SMTEs to greatly reduce the high unemployment in rural economies if appropriate systems are put in place to support these enterprises. These findings have implications for the national, provincial and local government spheres in South Africa in their quest to create job opportunities in rural areas through entrepreneurship and SMTEs in order to provide impetus to the Eastern Cape Province and South African Economy. This paper recommends that government creates an enabling environment for SMTEs to operate optimally in the rural environment. Pages 181 to 196

Crisis Management Practices and Emergency Preparedness of Private Universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Basis for Framework Development

Dr. Yusuf Janahi, PhD from University of Bradford, UK, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: yjanahi@ahlia.edu.bh

The COVID-19 pandemic, unique as it seems, has a long-term effect on human capital, productivity, and behaviour. Consequently, the sudden closures of schools, colleges and universities highlighted the relevance of crisis management and emergency preparedness which have not received sufficient attention from universities leadership preparation programs. Likewise, scholars are currently digging deeper into the subject which demands deeper understanding of its theoretical underpinnings. This paper aimed to propose a reliable and valid development model that would best fit the crisis management practices and emergency preparedness of the private universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To understand the problem, a qualitative research method was used. Documentary analysis and WhatsApp technology were utilized to gather data in line with the current of practice of social distancing to contain the spread of the Corona virus. Consequently, purposive sampling technique was used wherein samples were chosen based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The results of the semi-structured interview revealed a negative response from the respondents when they were asked about the practice of crisis management policies and procedures within their university. This was supported by the results of the documentary analysis which has underscored the need for training programs and a felt-need to establish a crisis management and emergency preparedness plan which will serve as a framework within which the university will operate in the event of a crisis. Pages 197 to 204

The Development of Engineering TVET Instructor Standard Teaching Competency Framework for Vocational College

Muhd Khaizer Omar, Khamsiah Ismail, Arnida Abdullah, How Shwu Pyng, Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: khaizer@upm.edu.my

Individual competency consists of a set of knowledge, skills and personnel characters to execute specific responsibilities and designated tasks. A competent person upholds the highest integrity and ensures perfection to fulfill self-satisfaction and meeting the standard. Competency can be classified into myriad components,  known as generic and specific skills. In light of the daunting issues on lack of skills among graduates claimed by the industries, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) educators have been pointed out to resolve the issue. The key aspect discussed on TVET instructor competency components is to empower graduates' employability. Thus, TVET instructors are requested to comply with the necessity to upgrade their theoretical and practical knowledge content and become adroit to compensate for the 21st-century teaching and learning environment. Emphasizes are from the development of teacher professional characteristics and specific competency traits in pedagogical aspects as well as soft skills training to synchronize with the ever changing educational milieu. This research employed a qualitative strand of a case study by compiling the narrative collected from the structured interview to obtain research data. The participants were selected among teachers, students, and vocational college directors in Selangor, Malaysia. The objective of the study is to explore the required competency components of the TVET instructors in engineering-related courses. The data was compiled using NVivo software and thematically analyzed by extracting and determining the ‘meaning-making process’ of participants to answer the formulated research questions. The findings of the study incited personality and values, ethics and professional practices, knowledge-development, professional skills, effective management, socializing skill, and pedagogical skill as pivotal themes emerged from the analysis. It is hoped that the findings will initiate a significant impact particularly to the Engineering TVET instructors at the vocational colleges. More importantly, it is to execute the competency components and drive instructors’ motivation to remain in the teaching profession and enhance the quality of TVET education as well as demonstrate professionalism among instructors.  Pages 205 to 227

Government Governance in the Utilization of Traditional Forests in Kampar District, Riau, Indonesia

Winda Lestaria, Ahmad Fitra Yuzab*, Syahrul Akmal Latifc, Rendi Prayudad, Khairul Rahmane, *Corresponding Author, a,b,c,d,eRiau Islamic University, Email: awindalestari2113@gmail.com, b*fitra.ip@soc.uir.ac.id, csyahrul72@soc.uir.ac.id, drendiprayuda@soc.uir.ac.id, ekhairul.ip@soc.uir.ac.id

This article wants to discuss about government governance in the use of the Rumbio customary forest in Kampar Regency, Riau, Indonesia. The current forest area is 64% of the 7.4 million hectares of customary areas mapped by the Alliance for Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (Aman). According toThe Minister of Environment and Forestry (LHK) (in 2020 granting access to forest area management through Social Forestry covers an area of ​​4.062 million hectares, with the number of SK Permits or rights totaling 6,464 SK units for the community totaling 821,371 families. Recognition and designation of customary forests covering 35,150 hectares scattered in 65 indigenous peoples with 36,438 families and indicative of customary forests covering an area of ​​915,004 hectares in 22 provinces and 48 districts. Social forests in Riau are 108 thousand hectares of a potential 1.05 million hectares, for all of Indonesia covering 4 million hectares. The results of the investigation by the Kampar Indigenous Forest Acceleration Recognition Team (TP2HAK) that there are two customary forests that have been recognized, namely the imbo putui kenegerian petapahan customary forest covering 251 hectares and the kenegerian kampa customary forest covering an area of ​​156.8 hectares. Kampar District has at least eight areas that are included in the customary forest area. However, so far only seven customary forest areas have been submitted for issuance of SK to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, two of which have been issued decrees. Meanwhile, the other five proposals have not been issued yet because they are still in process. Pages 228 to 238

Saudi Arabia’s Social Commentary Art in Photography

Roba Abdullah Alromiha,b , Husaini Yaacobb, aCollege of Education, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, bFine Art Department, School of the Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang, Malaysia, Email: robaalromih84@gmail.com (Roba Abdullah Alromih); husaini@usm.my (Husaini Yaacob)

Photographers have their artistic creativity to express relevant social comments about the global social trend. In this respect, the current Saudi photographers have no exception. Compared to other countries in the West, images which publicize comments towards a society’s norm, also known as social commentary, images that have been a part of Saudi’s daily life since decades ago were produced as a way of expression. Unfortunately, photography in Saudi Arabia has attracted little scientific and international attention. Thus, this study intended to get a clear picture of the public's point of view on photographic representation and its role in social commentary, portrayal of social comments from Saudi photographers as a way to better understand the ideas, practices and attitudes of Saudi photographic artists. When there are limitation of open criticisms in Saudi, photographers tend to express their thoughts to the public through photography. Photographs were chosen from photographic artists who pro-duce extreme expressions of creations through their photographs. This study provides insight about public understanding on how contemporary photographic artists of Saudi Arabia utilize photographic images to comment on sociocultural circumstances of the country in relation to social norms, cultural manifestations, and politics overall. Pages 239 to 258

Social Networking Sites and Political Knowledge: Factors that Affect Individual’s Knowledge Acquisition from Facebook and Twitter

Sara Basyouni, Middlesex University

This paper seeks to investigate the impact of social network sites (SNS) specifically Facebook and Twitter on the acquisition of the political knowledge. Further, it attempts to identify the extent to which both political interest and level of users’ education affect this process. Results indicate that only Twitter’s usage is positively correlated with political knowledge acquisition, in the sense that Facebook is ineffective in political learning education; a result that bears many important implications for election campaigns, political socialization and diffusion of political knowledge. This paper also shows that individual’s political interest and level of education determine type and amount of knowledge people gain from SNS. An interesting result of this paper states that SNS effect on learning domain specific knowledge is more powerful than on the general one. Data of this paper was obtained from Egyptian youth where 311 respondents were randomly selected via online survey. Pages 259 to 275

Contribution of Personality Competencies and Social Competencies of Tutor Teachers in Increasing the Value of Alternative Education National Examinations for Citizens Learning Equality Package C in Banten Province

Sudadio, Nandang Faturohman, Professor Lecturer, in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sciences and Lecturer in Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, dr.dio@untirta.ac.id

Pamong teacher is one of the components of the educator who has a very strategic central role in supporting the implementation of the equality education process activ ubi. 9mities in various educational institutions outside the school whose program includes equality of packages in the province of Banten in particular and in general throughout the region. To find out the strategic role of the tutor teacher, researchers on this occasion presented article writing from the research results with research problems:”  Contribution of personality competencies and social competencies of tutor teachers in increasing the value of national equality tests for citizens learning package C in Banten “In order to get the data as needed, researchers used a data collection tool in the form of a questionnaire that was distributed to thirty civil servant teachers as respondents to the main data source, then the data obtained on the answers to the questionnaire, then carried out processing and analyzing data quantitatively using correlation statistical formula product Moment Person. Based on the results of processing and data analysis, it can be stated that: 1) the contribution of competitor to the tutelary teacher's personality in increasing the national test scores of equality in the package C learning population in Banten province is stated to have can be stated as contributing enough (0.242), 2) the ratio of equality in learning package C residents in Banten Province was stated to can be stated as contributing enough ( 0.236 ), thus contributing personality competencies and social competencies which had a role as a driving force in supporting the implementation of pedagogic competence and professional competence, meaning the tutor teacher would carry out the task properly if the condition of the personality and privacy of the tutor teacher is in a conducive condition. Looking at the level of contribution of the personal competencies and social competencies of the civil servant teachers who contribute relatively equally, this condition shows that personality competencies and social competitiveness are one entity, where each other is interconnected, needs each other, and supports each other for the implementation of educational process activities held at non-formal education, especially equality of package C. Pages 276 to 286


Customer Satisfaction: Refunds from European Airlines during COVID-19

Oluwaseun Alexander Dadaa,b, Sunday Adewale Olaleyec, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusid, George Obaidoe, Kehinde Arulebaf, aDepartment of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, Pietari Kalmin katu 5, 00560 Helsinki, Finland, bThe School of Software, Lekki-Lagos, Nigeria, cOulu Business School, Department of Marketing, Oulu Business School, Department of Marketing, Management and International Business, University of Oulu, Finland, dSchool of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, 80100 Joensuu, Finland, eDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States, fDepartment of Information Technology, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. Email: alexander.dada@helsinki.fi, sunday.olaleye@oulu.fi, ismaila.sanusi@uef.fi, gobaido@eng.ucsd.edu, arulebak@gmail.com

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected most industries globally and has led to many sectors coming to a standstill. One of the major problems it has caused concerns restrictions on movement as well as travel bans. These restrictions have negatively affected the transport industry, and especially aviation, worldwide. This paper analyses reviews given by passengers to different European airlines regarding refunds during the pandemic. The data was extracted during January 2020 and February 2021. According to the results, over 94 per cent of the customers were not satisfied with the services they received. Airline names turned out to be negatively correlated with the final overall ratings of the airlines, indicating that the higher the negative perception of the name, the lower the passengers’ ratings of the airline. Ninety per cent of the passengers concerned flew Economy Class and 27 per cent of them were citizens of the United Kingdom: 88 per cent of them were travelling for “leisure”. The vast majority of flights originated in London (9%), and the busiest route was London to Stockholm. The city with the highest number of layovers was Istanbul. Pages 287 to 304

Investigating the Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Quality Implementation of HIV and AIDS Education in Selected South African Schools

Mzimela, A.M., Nzima. D.R., Ndlovu, B.H., Sibanda, M., Kutame, A.P., Gafos, M., & Ajani, O.A., Faculty of Education, University of Zululand, South Africa. MzimelaAM@unizulu.ac.za, oaajani@gmail.com

The instructional delivery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education in many South African schools has long been characterized with difficulties. Though much has been accomplished in terms of guiding policies on HIV/AIDS education in schools, the effective implementation of the stated policies has remained worrisome. The key issues revolve around who should implement these policies in schools and whether the characteristics of whoever is in charge of implementation have any bearing on execution and quality. The study adopted elements of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT) to underpin this study, to provide insights into how teacher characteristics such as motivation, cognition and power may influence effective implementation of HIV/AIDS education in schools. The relationship between the characteristics of teachers and the quality of policy implementation, using questionnaires as data collection instrument was established. A total of 371 questionnaires were retrieved from Life Skills and Life Orientation teachers from 28 different primary and secondary schools in rural and urban settings. The respondents for the instrument were selected through a systematic sampling technique. The questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS version 22 for basic descriptive statistics to interpret the results, establishing the binary regression modelling, to identify factors influencing the implementation of high-quality HIV and AIDS education. Findings revealed that 83% of Life-Skills and Life-Orientation teachers were implementing HIV and AIDS education in their classrooms, whereas 17% of teachers were not. Some of the teachers' qualities that influenced HIV/AIDS education implementation in the selected schools were (a) confidence, (b) comfort, (c) capability, (d) knowing the contents of HIV and AIDS policy, (e) time, and (f) support. The binary logistic regression model revealed that support from colleagues and superiors, with the construct "strongly agree" being significant at the 5% level (p=0.038), and comfort in handling sexuality issues in class, with the constructs ", strongly agree" and "agree significant" also at the 5% level (p=0.038), were teacher characteristics that significantly influenced the quality implementation of policies. The study, therefore, recommends that teachers should be given enough support to enhance the teaching of HIV/AIDS education in schools. Adequate and regular workshops/training should be designed for teachers to effectively deliver HIV/AIDS education to instil and promote the required development of these characteristics in teachers. Pages 305 to 328

Effective Learning Skill Implication on Labour Market: Perspective for Community Growth and Development

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyia, Gamede Bongani Thulanib, a,bUniversity of Zululand, Human And Social Sciences

Learning is a lifelong process in which people apply what they've learned to deal with new situations, form new connections, and solve new issues. Learning at school must not be viewed as sufficient for resolving everyday problems; therefore, new skills must be learned and developed that are practical and can help people gain employment in the labor market. The problem of unemployment presently exists all across the world. However, individuals who have obtained the essential skills will find work in any circumstances. This research looks at the abilities that university graduates need to be employable or self-sufficient in their own enterprises. The study was conducted using a survey-style descriptive research design. The study gathered data from a sample of 100 respondents via a self-designed questionnaire titled "Effective skills for the Labor Market and Implications for Community Development." Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the acquired data. The study's results reveal, among other things, that there is a strong association between effective labor skills and employability, and that employability is significantly related to enhanced living, which is a measure of community development It is therefore advised that graduates be equipped with effective skills that will lead to their productivity in the labor market in order for them to be gainfully employed in order to contribute to the development of their individuals as well as their communities. As a result, their living conditions will improve, and they will be able to make a difference in their communities. Pages 329 to 341

Kartu Prakerja (Pre-Employment Card) Policy and Its Impact on Economy and Community Income

Suryadia, Emi Syarifb, Yuniarti Tri Suwadjic, Ardhian Kurniawatid, Hennigusniae, Ivan Lilin Suryonof, Beni Teguh Gunawang, Nurlia Rahmatikah, Faizal Amir P. Nasutioni, Nur Siti Annazahj, Zelius Ragilliawank, Firdausi Nuzulal, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,lPolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower, Email: asuryadi.value@gmail.com, bemi.elmyanda@gmail.com, cyuniartits85@gmail.com, ddheant85@gmail.com, ehenigusnia@alumni.ui.ac.id,fivanlilins@gmail.com,gbeni.teguhg@gmail.com,  htiikaa.fad@gmail.com, ifaiz10march@gmail.com, janazah.siti@gmail.com, kzellius.ragiliawan@gmail.com, lfirdausinuzula.02225@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151025

This Kartu Prakerja (Pre-Employment Card) Policy Study aims to analyze the impact of the government's 2021 budget allocation of IDR 30 Trillion (US$ 2.065 billion) on the Indonesian economy and the increasing of community income, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of implementing the pre-employment card program. The novelty of this study is regarding to its study ability to find solutions for quantitative government budget allocation policies in the context of policy making. The results show that the government's budget allocation for the Pre-Employment Card Program is able to increase Indonesia's Economic Growth by 0.23 percent and community income by 0.53 percent. Pages 342 to 360

Rhetorical Strategies in Thai TEDx Talks

Thinnawat Sroikudrua, Ph.D.1, Piyaporn Punkasirikul, Ph.D.2, Suphachai Tawichai, Ph.D.3, 1Department of Thai Language, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, 2Department of English Language, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, Corresponding author, 3Department of Thai Language, Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand, Email: 2ppiyaporn@kku.ac.th

The objective of this study is to examine types and functions of rhetorical strategies in Thai TEDx Talks. In Thailand, TEDx Talks have been organized by 8 local communities:  Kasetsart University, Chulalongkorn University, Khon Kaen University, Chiang Mai University, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Mahidol University, and Silpakorn University. These Thai TEDx Talks are also shared on YouTube. The data of this study, therefore, was selected from the top-five most viewed talks of each community on YouTube, and a total of 40 talks presented by 40 speakers from diverse backgrounds were analysed. The analytical frameworks are adapted from Angkapanichkit (2014)’s rhetorical strategies in Thai public discourse and Lucas (2015)’s structure of a public speech. The findings reveal 5 rhetorical strategies: structural repetition, lexical repetition, the use of rhymes, the use of songs or poetry, and the use of mottos or quotations. Among these 5 strategies, structural repetition was the most frequently used strategy in Thai TEDx Talks. Moreover, in certain talks, two strategies such as structural repetition and rhymes were used in the same statement. In addition, it has been found that although the talks were mostly delivered in the Thai language, some speakers used English and a dialect in their talks as well. Each speaker selected the rhetorical strategies based on their careers, speaking skills, styles and preferences, including the backgrounds of the audiences. These strategies were employed by the speakers to reinforce their ideas and to make their speech attractive, memorable, inspiring, and powerful. Pages 361 to 378  

The Economy of Devotion in Northwest Iberian Sanctuaries

Anxo Rodríguez Lemos, University of Santiago de Compostela, Email: a.rodriguez.lemos@usc.es

In the Modern Era, devotional practices at sanctuaries in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula left an economic trail associated with fulfilment of promesas or vows, which tended to be local in nature. Behind this devotion or curiosity, the Church and its lay and ecclesiastical administrators found a religious universe in which local devotion in the form of offerings or ex-votos obtained validation from the community, which accepted it as a bridge between the earthly and the divine. The administration of the material goods left at the sanctuaries in thanks was governed and managed hierarchically. Material profit often took precedent over spiritual gain, detracting from religious aspects in favour of internal control groups based on economic factors. Pages 379 to 401

Cathedral Clergy in the Iberian Peninsula in the Early Modern Period: The Example of the City of León

María José Pérez Alvarez, University of León, ORCID: 0000-0001-5490-3895, Email: mjpera@unileon.es

The aim of this study was to analyse the canons in the cathedral chapter of the city of León, from the broad perspective of social history. I shall focus on their social origins, their access to the institution, their family connections and the composition of their households. Demography is closely associated with social history and shall be used to determine the age at which they became chapter members or died. The main sources used were the blood purity documents and the Récesit books, which recorded all the stages of an individual’s ecclesiastical career, from the award of a prebend until his death or transfer, although those responsible for record-keeping were not always as meticulous as one might have wished. Other sources consulted besides these documents included the family book of the Catastro of Ensenada (a large-scale census carried out in Spain in 1749), deeds contained in notary public records and the chapter records. Pages 402 to 415 

Strategies of the Elite of the Ancien Regime for Obtaining Prebends: The Chapter of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

María Seijas Montero, University of Vigo, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6173-2200, Email: mariaseijas@uvigo.es

In the Modern Age, the family was the institution in charge of guaranteeing any possibilities of social mobility for different groups. In theory, positions in the Church could not be formally inherited. However, in different cathedral chapters, numerous individuals interceded for a relative, resorting to instruments of transmission such as resignations and coadjutorships. Thus, the prebendaries helped their relatives to move up in their ecclesiastical career. Starting from this premise, we intend to detail, in the first place, the characteristics of the forms of access to the Compostela chapter based on the vacancy and its motivations. Secondly, we will analyse relations of kinship within the association. The intention is to demonstrate that the existence of these networks resulted in the formation of lineages that were perpetuated in the chapter for several generations. Finally, the strategies used by some families to move up the social ladder are traced. Pages 416 to 433

Rule of Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate in Improving Teacher Performance During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Mirhamida Rahmaha, Noermijati Noermijatib, Achmad Sudiroc, Mintarti Rahayud, a,b,c,dDoctorate Program Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, University Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia, Email: amirhamidar@gmail.com

This study examines the direct and indirect effects of organizational culture and organizational climate on teacher performance (TP) through spiritual work motivation (SWM). Designed as an explanatory research which aims to provide an explanation of the causal relationship between variables through hypothesis testing and aims to obtain appropriate testing in drawing causal conclusions. The sample of this research is 180 respondents of Islamic boarding school teachers in Madura Regency using stratified random sampling. This study uses PLS analysis (Partial Least Squares regression) with the SmartPLS version 3.0 program resulting that organizational culture and organizational climate do not directly affect TP but indirectly affect TP through SWM. The results of this study found that organizational culture and organizational climate directly did not significantly affect TP. Meanwhile, indirectly, organizational culture and organizational climate affect TP through SWM. This shows that SWM is able to bridge the influence of organizational culture and organizational climate on TP, which can be interpreted that organizational culture and organizational climate can have a good effect on TP when accompanied by SWM owned by Islamic boarding school teachers in the Madura area. Pages 434 to 452

The Proposed of Social Media Strategy Framework for Private Businesses

Kritcha Yawiseda, Darlin Apasrawiroteb, a,bFaculty of Business, Economics and Communications, Naresuan University, Thailand, Email: aKritchay@nu.ac.th (Corresponding Author)

This research study investigates the current situation of Social Media (SM) usage by private sector businesses. This paper also proposes a SM strategy framework aimed at helping on the alignment of the business strategy. This study is an empirical research with concurrent mixed method approach to collect data from data from business owners, senior IT and marketing managers, using 418 businesses from surveys, incorporating semi-structured interviews from 21 different businesses. The findings reveal that the use of SM is relatively superficial and ad hoc in the absence of a formal integrated marketing strategy and policy framework. Business size, sector, type, age of business and leadership knowledge and skills of Marketing and IT are critical factor for SM in strategy formulation. Additionally, the integration of both findings has further extended into the development of proposed practical framework called a ‘SM strategy house’ to illustrate how SM should be carried out from a business’s strategic perspective. The limitations of the study are its subjective and self-reported nature of the data. Thus, the study focuses on a single developing country may limit the generalizability of the findings to other countries. Pages 453 to 474

Public Relations in Jordanian Governmental Sector Functions, Communicative Strategies and Activities - A Survey Study on Jordanian Ministries

Dr. Nawzat Abu Al-Asal1, Dr. Mikhled Al-nawafah2, 1Yarmouk University, Jordan, Irbid. 2Al-Khwarizmi Applied University College, Jordan, Amman. E-mail: 1nawzat25@yahoo.com, 2m.nawafha@khawarizmi.edu.jo

The current study sought to answer the following major question: What is the reality of public relations in Jordanian governmental sector? The study followed what public relations practice in this sector through their (functions, communicative strategies and activities). To get the information and especial field data related to the study, the instrument of the questionnaire was designed and applied to (22) ministries included (98) individuals from directors and practitioners using the comprehensive survey method. The study concluded with a set of results, the most prominent were: the public relations bodies practiced all their functions with a high degree and came in the first rank (communication function, followed by evaluation, planning and research). These bodies applied the communicative strategies with a high form; in the first rank came the strategy of (information, then persuading, agreement and dialogue). A lot of communicative activities were introduced that contained various contents with a high degree foremost of publishing activity represented in (news materials, press release, images, drawings and statistics). Pages 475 to 501

Review of Wage Increase Indonesian Migrant Workers Domestic Sector in Taiwan

Suryadia, Hennigusniab, Ivan Lilin Suryonoc, Firdausi Nuzulad, Baskoro Putra Adityae abcdePolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower of Indonesia, Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kavling 51

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151029

Indonesia is a country that places the largest number of migrant workers in Taiwan dominated by female workers with the majority working in the domestic sector. However, the minimum wage of domestic sector Indonesian Migrant Workers working in Taiwan has not increased since 2015 at NT$ 17,000. In the meantime, the minimum wage for non-domestic workers increased annually until 2020 to NT$ 23,800. In addition to that, the amount of overtime wages of NT$ 567 is still small compared to the wages of local domestic workers. Novelty of this study is the composition of the model of adjustment of the minimum wage and overtime wage of Indonesian domestic workers in Taiwan based on academic studies. Wage adjustment using Prorate approach, namely domestic Indonesian Migrant Workers wages, is calculated using Taiwan's minimum wage increase growth approach starting from 2016 – 2020 and for overtime wages following the rules applicable in Taiwan Labor Standard Act Articles 24, 32, and 36.  Over the past 4 years Taiwan's minimum wage has increased by 5% annually from 2017 to 2019, and 3% in 2020. The minimum wage of the domestic sector Indonesian Migrant Workers if it follows Taiwan's minimum wage growth becomes NT$ 20,222. Based on the calculation of the minimum wage, the overtime wage per day (≥ 8 hours) is NT$ 1,067. Pages 502 to 520

Path Modeling of Online Learning Indicators and Learners’ Satisfaction During Covid-19 Pandemic

Musa Adekunle Ayanwalea, Jumoke Iyabode Oladeleb, a,bDepartment of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. ahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7640-9898, bhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0225-7435, Email: aayanwalea@uj.ac.za, bjumokea@uj.ac.za

With upsurge of Covid-19, many educational institutes at basic and post-basic level had shifted paradigm from top-bottom teaching and learning process, and passive to a more interactive, collaborative approach in which learners and instructor co-create the learning process. Thus, the goal of this paper is to explain and predict the endogenous construct of learners' satisfaction in the Partial Least Square (PLS) path model through four exogenous constructs namely; content quality, learners’ quality, system quality and service quality respectively. A non-experimental design of correlational research type was used. The sample consisted of 501 drawn senior secondary school students (K-12) of Lagos Central Senatorial District, Lagos State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used, and data obtained were subjected to a two-step technique to composite based structural equation modeling; Measurement and Structural model. Also, the construct validity and reliability were established using average variance extracted (AVE), heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT) and MacDonald Omega. The significance of the hypothetical constructs' relationship was assessed using a structural model. The findings supported the hypothesised direct constructs relationship except for service quality. The authors concludes that in order to promote learners’ satisfaction in online learning during Covid-19, it would be apt for school managers and instructors to direct efforts on the content quality, learners' quality, and system quality because they are essential ingredients in ensuring satisfaction of online teaching. Consequently, it was recommended that both public and private schools should integrate these factors into their virtual teachings. Pages 521 to 541
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