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Effectiveness of Using Game-based Mobile Application for Chinese Classifiers Learning

Lay Shi Ng1, Chun Keat Yeap 2*, 1Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, 2*Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Melaka Branch, Campus Alor Gajah Melaka, Malaysia, Correspondence Email: 2*chunkeat@uitm.edu.my

In recent years, the use of mobile learning for languages has been a trend in Malaysian universities. The present study investigated the usability of a game-based mobile application named “Penjodoh Bilangan B. Cina” towards the learning of Chinese classifiers in a Malaysian public university. This mobile application was developed by a Chinese language instructor from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) in 2016 as an open educational resource to promote an enjoyment of learning the Chinese language among Malay students in UKM. Although there are already several mobile applications available in the market to enable learners to learn Chinese classifiers, none of them was designed specifically for Malay native speakers. In this study, 69 public university undergraduates from UKM (Experimental group: n=31 undergraduates; Control group: n=38 undergraduates) were selected to examine the usability of the two learning approaches (Experimental group: the mobile learning approach; Control group: the traditional classroom approach) in assisting Malay students in learning Chinese classifiers. The findings showed that the respondents were satisfied with their mobile learning experience and alleged that it was more effective and useful in helping them to learn Chinese classifiers compared to the traditional classroom learning approach. Pages 1 to 20

 

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The Effectiveness of Videoscribe Media to Increase Student Learning Activity

Yasinta Dwi Rahayua, Siswandarib, Sudarnoc, a,b,c,Sebelas Maret University, Email: yasintadwi03@gmail.coma, siswandari@staff.uns.ac.idb, sudarno251168@gmail.comc

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of VideoScribe to increase student learning activities. VideoScribe is chosen because it can present audiovisual materials combined into animation according to learning needs, attracting students' attention to be actively involved in learning. The research method is quasi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest control group design. The data collection technique used is a questionnaire. The research samples are class X Accounting 1 and X Accounting 2 at a Vocational High School. The data analysis technique used is independent sample t-test and N-gain. The test results show that the t-test value has a significance of 0.00 (< 0.05), meaning that VideoScribe is effective to increase student learning activity, while the increase in learning activity based on the results of the N-gain test obtains a score of 0.63 in the experimental class is categorized in the medium category. Thus, teachers can use VideoScribe in the learning process because it effectively increases student activity. Pages 21 to 33

 

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Mawhiba-IAU Gifted Summer Programs: Connecting Knowledge, Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship

Omar M. Muammara, C. June Makerb, aPh.D., Associate Professor, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, KSA, bPh.D., Litt.D., Professor Emerita, University of Arizona, USA

The world has been experiencing a paradigm shift from knowledge-based economies to innovation-based economies. Countries seek to transform their citizens from consumers to producers and from job seekers to job creators. The King Abdulaziz and his Companions Foundation for Giftedness and Creativity (Mawhiba) has responded to this need by encouraging and creating programs and services to develop students’ giftedness and creativity. The purpose of this article is to describe the Mawhiba-IAU program, an innovative summer residential program to prepare gifted students to thrive in an innovation-based economy, by integrating the concepts of knowledge, creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship.  The design of this program was to incorporate both explicit and implicit curricula. Participants joined five different tracks: the academic program, the company, the soft skills program, the physical education activities, and the volunteer work. A challenging program is now in place for developing student's potential and encouraging behavior management. After a description of the program, both challenges and opportunities for program improvement are discussed. Pages 34 to 50

 

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Industrial Relations Dispute Settlement at the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) in Indonesia and the Application of Procedural Law

Sugeng Prayitno1*, Djuhaendah Hasan2, and T. Subarsyah3, 1,2,3Doctoral Study Program in Law, Postgraduate Program, Pasundan University, Indonesia. *Corresponding Author: sugengprayitno310@yahoo.com

Problems that occur between workers/laborers and entrepreneurs who are bound in an employment relationship are called industrial relations disputes. To date, the settlement of industrial relations disputes through the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) has not been deemed able to provide a sense of justice to workers/laborers and entrepreneurs. One of the reasons why industrial relations disputes have not been resolved optimally through the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) is because the current procedural law uses civil procedural law that applies to the general court environment, where the civil procedural law is largely a legacy of the Dutch colonial which is no longer appropriate. with the development of the needs of the Indonesian people both in principle and in the rules it regulates. In this case, it is formulated, How the settlement of industrial relations disputes at the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) is related to the applicable procedural law, as well as the concept of reforming fair procedural law in the settlement of industrial relations disputes in the context of developing industrial relations courts in Indonesia. The research specification in this study is descriptive-analysis, with a normative juridical approach, namely: research that is intended to provide researched data about humans, circumstances, or other symptoms, which means to reinforce hypotheses, in order to assist in strengthening theories. old theories or find new theories, based on the provisions of the rule of law and legal principles currently in force. The research carried out by the researcher in this case went through two stages, namely library research and field studies, the data analysis used was juridical qualitative, namely the data obtained were then compiled systematically and thoroughly to get clarity on the problems discussed. The result of this research is the concept of renewing the procedural law for the settlement of industrial relations disputes at the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) which can provide a sense of justice, especially for workers / laborers as the weaker party in industrial relations disputes. The renewal of the procedural law applicable at the Industrial Relations Court (PHI), is very necessary because of the nature of labor law, which not only has a private element, but also contains a public element, so that in the settlement of industrial relations disputes, government intervention is required, as a form of legal protection. for workers/laborers through statutory regulations. Pages 51 to 61
 
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COVID-19 Pandemic Research Outcomes in Arab Universities

Abdelrahim A Hunaiti, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science. School of Science. The University of Jordan. Assistant Secretary-General Association of Arab Universities, Email: ahunaiti@ju.edu.jo or hunaiti2001@gmail.com

The main purpose of the present study was to assess scientific output on COVID-19 Pandemic published by Arab Universities and to identify key issues relating to the engagement of scientists and medical professionals from Arab universities in supporting the continuation of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic and adapting best health practice measures to help save lives. The study was descriptive and based on respondents to call for a prize award allocated by the association of Arab universities (AArU). Calls for research on COVID-19 award application was sent by email to AArU universities members and asked them to submit their COVID-19 Pandemic research relevant to the three areas of the pandemic specified by the prize committee: treatment, Spreading, and prevention measures and meet the following general requirements; the research submitted must be of high quality and published in peer-reviewed journals that have a good scientific reputation regionally or internationally, the principal researcher is affiliated to a university or research center in one of the Arab countries. We received 577 research documents written in English.225 in Prevention and Protection 177 in treatment and 175 in Spreading, from United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Qatar, Oman, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, Iraq. Egypt, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, Mauritania. Somalia, and Djibouti. The results of the research documents provide an overview of publishing trends in the business, education, and health fields. The most common studies are web-based surveys, meta-analyses, published articles, submitted articles, reviews, conference presentations, letters to the editorial on the effects and impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on physical activity, sedentary behavior, exploring the social psychology responses and level of psychological stress, prevalence, predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress, teachers’ responses to school closure, distance education as a response to pandemics Challenges and Solutions, COVID-19 Vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hemodialysis patients and patients with migraine. The prevalence of positive COVID-19 among asymptomatic health care workers, health information behavior during COVID-19 multiple sclerosis and COVID-19 infection, the legal regulation of world trade and business activities,  Spillover of COVID-19: impact on the stock market and gold price volatility manufacturing and service supply chain resilience electricity demand and medical supplies shortages COVID-19 spread - nonlinear modeling and simulation. Supporting SARS-CoV-2 Papain-Like Protease Drug Discovery: In silico Methods and Benchmarking, Sera Containing neutralizing antibodies collected from COVID-19–recovered patients as a probable therapy.70 articles were met the aforementioned criteria and were published in a peer-reviewed, indexed journal in 2020 and 2021 of which 20 articles published in journals with Scopus cite score 2020 ranged between 16.5 and 1.1. Pages 62 to 78
 
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Turnover Intention among Customer Service Executives at Contact Centers

Haliza Mohd Saida, Sarita Ibrahimb, Syahrazad Md Nohc, Mazwin Zaba’id, a,b,c,dUNITAR International University, Email: alizasaid@unitar.my, bsarita@unitar.my, csyahrazadmn@gmail.com, darewin@gmail.com

The intent of this research paper is to ascertain whether intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors and interpersonal factors have any influence towards turnover intention among the customer contact centre employees in Klang Valley. Employee turnover is one of the challenging issues confronting most of the industry workers in Malaysia.  It is more prevalent among the customer contact centres departments as given the nature of the job as front liners. High turnover rate among the customer service executives can lead to several problems including low productivity, high recruitment and training cost.  It can also affect the service index of the contact centres, which in the long run could lead to reduction of profit for the contact centres, hence impact the centres performance.    A total of 270 respondents using snowballing sampling technique among customer service executives at call centres located in Klang Valley. SPSS Statistics version 20 were used to analyse data collected from the questionnaire survey. Based on usable data, the findings show that only interpersonal factor such as work-family conflict has positive influence on turnover intention of customer service executives in contact centres in Klang Valley while intrinsic factors such as career advancement, extrinsic factor such as salary package, and interpersonal factors such as family expectation do not have any influence on the turnover intention.  These findings can assist management in developing policies and enhance employee retention programs and focus on areas that should be given extra consideration by the employers. Pages 79 to 98
 
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The Abrupt Transition into Online Learning during Covid-19 Pandemic: A South African Hospitality Management Student’s Perspective

Anisah Deena, Dawn Khuluseb, Erica Sao Joaoc, aLecturer: University of Johannesburg, Department of Hospitality Management, School of Tourism & Hospitality, Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa, Orchid id: 0000-0002-3276-2240, bLecturer: Durban University of Technology, Department of Hospitality & Tourism, 7 Ritson Road, Durban, 4001, South Africa. Orchid id: 0000-0002-6206-4355, cLecturer: University of Johannesburg, Department of Hospitality Management, School of Tourism & Hospitality, Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa. Orchid id: 0000-0002-6603-4030 Email: aanisahd@uj.ac.za, bdawnk@dut.ac.za, ͨ ericasj@uj.ac.za

The abrupt transition into online learning has subjected students to a range of challenges and emotions associated with online learning particularly with the high volumes of students who either do not have access to home computers or internet connection. This study aimed to locate the student perspective studying Hospitality Management during this abrupt transition into online learning as a result of Covid-19. Using a quantitative approach, data was collected from two South African universities. Findings revealed several salient issues such as, shortage of daytime data; severe connectivity issues; lack of proper devices to learn online; and the struggles of being away from university residences. Student well-being was also a factor whilst studying away from the classroom and fear of an uncertain future affected their ability to concentrate in their already anxious state. Despite students being able to organise themselves with the desire to complete the required work, the difficulty in working with the learning management system needs to be rectified and modules being offered should be addressed for online pedagogy. Thus, this paper provided substantial insight to inform teaching and learning practice for universities which offer a Hospitality Management programme to subsequently support students’ either online or with blending learning.  Pages 99 to 116
 
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Organizational Trust and its Impact on the Organizational Commitment of Human Resources

Bougherza Rédhaa, Abderrahmane Yasserb, Dr. Boulfelfel Brahimc, Dr. Chedli Baya Chattid, a,bMohamed Seddik Ben Yahia University, cDepartment of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University,P.O. Box: 2713 – Doha, dDepartment of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Email of the Corresponding Author: arida.bougherza@univ-jijel.dz

The present study aims to identify the nature of the impact of organizational trust with its dimensions (trust in colleagues, trust in supervisors, trust in Administration) on the organizational commitment of human resources.  For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed by the researchers as the main tool for data collection. It was then distributed to a random sample of 43 employees of the Central Library of Mohammed Seddik Ben Yahia University. Eventually, the collected data were statistically processed using the (SPSS) program. Thus, the results of the study showed that there is a positive effect of organizational trust on organizational commitment of the central library employees. As for the three dimensions of organizational trust, it was confirmed that there is an effect of the dimension of trust in Administration on the organizational commitment of the library employees, while it was completely absent in the two dimensions of trust in colleagues and supervisors. Pages 117 to 132
 
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Factors in Choosing a Community-Based Tourism in New Normal Form After COVID-19 Epidemic: A Case Study in Chanthaburi, Thailand

Supansa Thiampasit, Lecturer of Tourism and Hospitality Management, College of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports, Rangsit University, Thailand, Email: lekblack03102525@gmail.com

Covid 19 pandemic has changed the various settings of human life in most countries worldwide. The World Health Organisation mentioned this Covid 19 as a worldwide outbreak since this virus has attacked most countries. Bang Chan, Chanthaburi, Thailand, which is well known as one of the most famous destinations in the country being destroyed due to this condition. Various events held in Chanthaburi have been cancelled until an unspecified limit of time. At this time, the Thai government has issued regulations regarding new normal operations for all activities in Thailand. Including tourism activities. The new normal theme of travelling will be used gradually and will follow with the examiner. Therefore, this paper examines factors that affect the decision-making, level of satisfaction, and decision-making influence affects satisfaction on community-based tourism. The results of the study of the satisfaction of the New Normal community-based tourism found that the facilities are the most impact on satisfaction level, followed by the management and finally the hygiene. Influence of decisions that affect the satisfaction of New Normal community-based tourism after the epidemic of COVID-19 found that about 82.6%, which are places, promotions, people, physical characteristics and process factors, influence the satisfaction of new normal community-based tourism significantly. Pages 133 to 139
 
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Student’s Critical Thinking Ability in Scientific Debate

Ida Nuraeni1, Taqyuddin Bakri2, 1,2Tadulako University, Email: idanuraeni.untad@gmail.com

Critical thinking ability is an ability that is needed by students in completing their studies. This ability is one of the four skills needed in the 5.0 industry era. Critical thinking skills can be developed in scientific debate activities. This study aims to describe students' critical thinking skills in scientific debates. The research approach was chosen the qualitative approach. The type of research used is descriptive qualitative. The data sources of this research are the speeches of students from Tadulako University and Dato Karama State Islamic University from various study programs. The results showed that the students of the two universities had critical thinking skills identified in four aspects. The four aspects are focus, reason, conclusion, and clarity. These four aspects were seen in scientific debate activities when students responded to the motions submitted, both from government groups and opposition groups. Pages 140 to 149
 
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Leveraging Google Classroom to Promote E-Learning Initiative: Students’ Experience

Munienge Mbodilaa, Muhandji Mbodilab, Anele Mabovanac, Omobayo Ayokunle Esand, a,b,c,dDepartment of Information Technology Systems, Walter Sisulu University, Queenstown Campus, South Africa, Email: ammbodila@wsu.ac.za, bmumbodila@wsu.ac.za, coesan@wsu.ac.za, damabovana@wsu.ac.za

The rapid growth of modern technology in the global space has changed almost all aspect of our lives and the way we work. In education sector, the use of internet and other web-based technology have given educators and students opportunity to explore various learning environment to deliver remote education.  Most of these technologies are often right on the fingertips and have the ability to assist students ’career as well as the teacher vocation by keeping them updated everywhere and anytime using various mobile devices such as smart phone, Tablet, PDAs and Laptop. The most interesting aspect of these technologies in educational systems is their ability to enable e-learning environment over traditional face-to-face to allow educators deliver content and sharing of teaching and learning resources. In this paper, we optimize various e-learning techniques using google classroom to leverage e-learning. Furthermore, the paper assesses students’ perceptions in the use of google classroom, its effectiveness in delivery of teaching and learning resources and several other relevant issues. We report on the overall view of Google Classroom in the Department of Information Technology Systems in one of rural Universities in South Africa by linking Roger’s theory of diffusion of innovation. The findings of this study show an overwhelming response from students in the use of google classroom compared to other technology that are used for teaching and learning in their context as well as the need to incorporate this technology in the classroom. Pages 150 to 166
 
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The Role of Islamic Social Finance in Facing Covid-19 and Economic Crisis

Trisno Wardy Putra1, Abdullah Alshebel2, Kaisar Lahiya Sikki 3, 1First Author, Lecturer, Islamic Economic Department, Alauddin State Islamic University, Makassar, Indonesia, 2Assistant Professor, Economics Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3Third and Corresponding Author, Lecturer, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nusantara Indonesia, Scopus ID: 57214726729, Email: 1trisno.putra@uin-alauddin.ac.id, 2ashebel@ksu.edu.sa, 3kaisarlahiya@gmail.com

This study aims to examine the role of Islamic social finance in facing the economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic outbreak has an impression not only on the health sector but also on the economic sector. So, for that we need several solutions to anticipate the effect on the health and economy. This study employs library research data that examines some literature related to the role of Islamic social finance. Zakat, infaq, sadaqah, waqf, and qard al-Hasan are the win solutions in anticipating the economic crisis because of Covid-19. Pages 167 to 183
 
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Poverty and Vulnerability Crisis Facing Amathole District Municipality of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Xolisile G. Ngumbela, Senior Research Associate, School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Email: xolisile.ngumbela@gmail.com

The paper is an evaluation of poverty problems in the Amathole District. Despite numerous policy initiatives there is a lack of research that shows improvement.  Data used to examine how poverty conflict has impacted neighborhoods, individuals and how policy action programs this paper was performed in the six local municipalities of Amathole District Municipality and also with intentionally selected officials. Results reflect a multitude of problems with children already facing a variety of challenges, such as a high risk of deprivation, hunger and neglect. The study ends by proposing that government implement a participatory inclusive approach. Pages 184 to 200
 
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Feasibility and Implications of Public-Private Partnerships in Housing Delivery

Stewart Kaupaa, Maxwell Chufamab, a,bNamibia University of Science and Technology

This study aimed at investigating the feasibility and implications of the Public-Private Partnership (PPPs) initiatives in the provision of housing in Namibia. The study employed a qualitative method with an appreciation of the exploratory component. This approach allowed the researchers to collect detailed data that allowed for an in-depth analysis of the problem under investigation in this study. The findings from the study revealed that the public has mixed feelings and reactions when it comes to the provision of housing through the public-private partnership approach. The findings from this study revealed that some members welcome the PPP model as a housing provision development strategy as they perceive it to provide shelters for its inhabitants. It was noted that also noted that the private sector enters into the PPP primarily for profit making as a result in some cases there is corruption involved in the formation of these PPPs and in some cases this compromises the quality of work as the prices as inflated. Based on the findings the study recommends more transparency when forming the PPPs in order to remove the perception of corruption that members have about the PPPs. Pages 201 to 209
 
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Effectiveness of the Public-Private Partnership Initiatives in Agriculture in Namibia

Stewart Kaupaa, Shali Shindumeb, aNamibia University of Science and Technology, bBank Windhoek

This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Public-Private Partnership initiatives in the agricultural sector as a tool used to fight and eradicate hunger in Namibia. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the sustainability and effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships in agriculture, as well as identify the challenges faced by this partnership, an exploratory investigation was conducted using a qualitative approach. The study was conducted at Mashare Green Scheme in the Kavango region. A qualitative method was employed by the researchers with the aim of enhancing the robustness of the study. The study found that the PPP has been successful in transferring agricultural knowledge and skills to the local communities, it has also contributed greatly to the attainment of socio-economic objectives of the government by creating jobs and employment in the area, making this a collective approach to a sustainable and effective way of addressing poverty, hunger and achieving the desired goal of food security. Based on these key findings, the study recommends that the government should expands such PPP initiatives to other economic sectors so that the fight against poverty and hunger can be intensified as the government strives to achieve its National Development Plan goals 2030 of eradicating poverty in Namibia. Pages 210 to 218
 
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Character Education Cares about the Environment in the Family

Azizah Husin1, Dian Sri Indriyani2. 1Lector Kepala, Community Education, Faculty of Teacher Training, Sriwijaya University, Palembang Indonesia, 2Lecturer Assistant, Community  Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sriwijaya University, Palembang Indonesia, Email: 1azizahhusin@fkip.unsri.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to find out how character education cares about the environment in the family.  This research uses qualitative methods. Research location in Kemuning Palembang village. Data collection techniques using interviews and observations. The study subjects were addressed to parents of families. The findings found that character education cares about the environment is done by parents on the aspect of:  Frugal attitudes and behaviors towards the use of materials / objects (water, electricity, gases), affection for living things (animals and plants), and activities related in-house activities related to reuse, reduce, recycle. The findings show that not all of these aspects have been done. but attention and efforts towards energy saving are a concern and done because of related household expenses. It is advisable for the government to socialize environmental care character education in the family through local officials so that parents grow and improve environmental attitudes and behaviors. Pages 219 to 232
 
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Factors Influencing Acceptance of Mobile Learning as a Measure to Slow Down the Spread of SARS-COV-2

David Mutambaraa, Admire Chibisab, a,bMathematics, Science, and technology Education Department, University of Zululand

The SARS-COV-2 has changed the way we work, learn, socialize, travel, and do business. Most governments closed all non-essential services including schools and encouraged teachers and students to use mobile learning to minimize notional time lost during this period. The study's goal was to determine which factors teachers and students consider important when adopting mobile learning, as well as whether there is a significant difference in educators' and students' adoption of mobile learning. The study utilised a survey design, with data collected using a questionnaire. A survey was utilised to generate a quantitative picture of educators' and students' attitudes toward mobile learning. When embracing mobile learning as a measure to slow the spread of SARS-COV-2, educators and students regarded perceived usefulness, perceived attitude toward, perceived ease of use, perceived social influence, perceived skills readiness, perceived psychological readiness, and perceived resources as vital. These variables accounted for 43.7% of educators' and students' behavioural intentions to use mobile learning. Perceived attitude towards played a mediation role between the other factors and behavioural intention to use mobile learning. There was no discernible difference between educators’ and students’ path coefficients except for the path perceived resources to perceived attitude towards. Pages 233 to 249
 
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Digital Governance Implementation: Exploring Challenges Affecting Councilors in Shinyanga Municipality and Nzega District Council

Anna Linje1; Dovhani. R. Thakathi2 & Tafadzwa. C. Maramura3, 1,2Department of Public Administration, University of Fort Hare, South Africa 5600, 3Department of Public Administration and Management, University of the Free State, South Africa 9300

The application of digital technology in governance, has created wider opportunities than ever for councilors and communities to interact and share views regarding development and burning issues in their localities.  However, digital democratic governance has rarely been considered by councilors especially when it comes to participatory planning and decision making. This paper, therefore, explored the challenges affecting councilors towards digital governance implementation in Tanzanian Local government authorities. The paper contributes to the ongoing discussion regarding the challenges facing digital governance implementations in developing nations. It presents the outcomes of several discussions conducted with representatives from the two selected local government cases. A qualitative research approach was used specifically, the study used semi structured interviews and documentary review to collect data and then analyzed through the application of an inductive thematic data analysis. The findings indicated that digital governance is constrained by the local councils’ reluctance and preferences on the traditional approaches. Their low level of education provides a big obstacle to the digital world. The ongoing spirit of fear, lack of understanding and unwillingness continues to be challenges affecting digital utilization. The study recommends on the importance of leadership commitment to organizational changes. The study further, put forward digital strategies and best practice cases that one can learn from. Pages 250 to 264
 
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Learner Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools

Gawie Schlebuscha, Solomon Makolab, Mkhumbulo Ndlovuc, aDepartment of Post Graduate Studies Education, Central University of Technology, South Africa, bCampus Director, Welkom Campus, Central University of Technology, South Africa, cD.Ed Candidate, Central University of Technology, South Africa. Email: agschlebu@cut.ac.za

This paper sought to establish factors leading to learner indiscipline in public secondary schools in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Data was collected qualitatively. Purposeful sampling was used to identify the participants of the study. Data was gathered by means of semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Six schools in two districts of the Mpumalanga province were selected for data collection purposes. The principal, a class teacher, a Life Orientation Skills teacher, and the chairperson of the School Governing Body of each school formed the study sample. In total 24 participants were interviewed. Document analysis of incidence record books, school codes of conduct, minutes for school disciplinary committees and school safety committees was undertaken. Analysis and presentation of data was done through thematic content analysis. The findings and literature revealed that family settings, community settings, human rights, peer pressure, the educator, and the learner are all factors influencing learner indiscipline. Pages 265 to 284
 
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Positive Learner Discipline for Public Secondary Schools

Gawie Schlebuscha, Solomon Makolab, Mkhumbulo Ndlovuc, aDepartment of Post Graduate Studies Education, Central University of Technology, South Africa,            bCampus Director, Welkom Campus, Central University of Technology, South Africa, cD.Ed Candidate, Central University of Technology, South Africa. Email: agschlebu@cut.ac.za

This article sought to establish educators’ perceptions on positive learner discipline, where positive discipline focuses on discipline as opposed to punishment, thrives for correction, promotion of responsibility and self-discipline without undermining learner dignity. A qualitative approach to data collection was followed. Convenience and purposive sampling were used for identifying education districts and participants respectively. Data was gathered using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Six schools in two districts of the Mpumalanga province were selected for data collection purposes. In total 24 participants were interviewed. Six each of principals, class educators, Life Orientation Skills educators and chairpersons of School Governing Bodies formed the study sample. Document analysis paid attention to incidence record books, schools codes of conduct, minutes for school disciplinary committee and minutes for school safety committee. Data was analysed and presented through thematic content analysis. The findings and literature revealed that positive discipline pursues a preventive approach rather than a punitive one and demands that discipline should be proactive rather than reactive. Participants expressed both positive and negative perceptions of positive discipline. Pages 285 to 303
 
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Impact of Cooperative Learning’s Group Tasks on Students’ Academic Performance During Continuous Assessments

Oluwafunmilola Rebecca Oluwatosin1, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani2, 1Department of Educational Foundation, University of Lagos, Nigeria, 2Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Zululand, South Africa. Email: oaajani@gmail.com

This study explored the impact of using group tasks in cooperative learning, for the implementation of continuous assessments. Cooperative learning strategy is an effective approach to encourage collaborative work among a group of students, to derive concrete participatory learning. The strategy promotes independent interaction among the grouped students to achieve tasks. This quantitative study adopted a descriptive design survey to gather data from randomly selected 300 students and 50 lecturers from the Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta Ogun State. The respondents to this research instrument on the utilisation of Cooperative Learning Strategy for the implementation of Continuous Assessment revealed that the Cooperative learning strategy enables continuous interaction, collaboration, networking and independent knowledge production for the group among the students, during their continuous assessments and prepare them for team work after leaving the school. The result shows that there is a significant impact of group tasks on students’ academic performance when cooperative learning is used during the implementation of Continuous Assessment. The study therefore recommends the use of group tasks in continuous assessments for students in higher education institutions, to promote independent learning, participation of all students in group tasks, and also to promote critical thinking in every student-member of a group. Pages 304 to 322
 
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Curbing Social Impediments for Educational Innovations in the Context of Higher Institute of Learning 

Peggy Pinky Mthalanea, aDurban University of Technology, South Africa, Email: gumedepp@dut.ac.za

Social impediments are the greatest threats to higher institutions of learning in developing countries. The influence of social ills is felt as attendance in learning institutions continue to dwindle and result to growing students drop-out rates. Curbing and incorporating social impediments in the higher education system can enhance innovative collaborative skills to solve global problems thus providing adequate opportunities for students to experience real-life learning experiences in different fields of the job market. For the purpose of this study, the scoping review aided by qualitative approach were used to plot extant evidence for insights into social impediments in the context of higher institutions of higher learning. Primary data based on interviews was extracted through thematic technique supported by quotations and narrative summaries from forty-five (45) participants. The final outcomes show increasing interest by learning institutions to try and curtail social impediments. In addition, it was revealed that curbing social ills, more educational institutions should include social issues as part of their core curricula to shape students’ future for specialized innovative skills. Pages 323 to 343
 
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Three Factors that Impact Business Studies Graduates Employability: A Case Study of Gauteng Province South Africa

Albert Tchey Agbenyegaha, Vuyokazi Nkomob, aDurban University of Technology, Department of Applied Management, Riverside Campus, bCity Parks and Zoo House, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, Email: aalberta@dut.ac.za, bvnkomo@jhbcityparks.com

The concept of employability is steadily changing the higher education landscape though it has not been sharply defined. Inability by higher education to address graduates’ employability makes it extremely impossible to engage meaningfully in comparing empirical studies to determine quality of the educational system. This paper is designed to address three gaps relating to graduates’ employability namely functional, behavioural, and work experience competencies. Through closed-ended questionnaires primary data was collected from 124 business studies graduates from Gauteng, South Africa. Primary data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) through the Microsoft Excel software. The main results indicated that work experience has a positive but does not statistically influence graduates’ employability. These results imply that work experience alone is not enough in making graduates employable. There are other aspects including skill sets such as behavioural skills, technical skills, strategic skills, and functional competence that have significant effects on the employability of graduates. Pages 344 to 359
 
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Islamic Art in A Challenging Predicament

Dr. Beenish Tahir, College of Art and Design, University of the Punjab, Pakistan

Islamic art is a comparatively new and very significantly small academic field with different at times contradictory, areas, and an uncommonly complicated ancestry. Its true forefathers all existed in the 20th century, and several of them are nevertheless effective and prominent in the present day. The scholarly persons dedicated to its research are much too limited within obviously substantial number in the United States and to a smaller scope in the old European colonist centers in particular London and Paris, and a disturbingly limited existence in the Islamic world. Its professionals across the world figure in the smaller numbers likes hundreds, and several of them extend to additional areas for unavailability of prospect in their own. Its academic productivity has consequently far been unavoidably limited and inadequate in it extend and implication. Usually in research of Islamic art up to very lately embraced whichever a biological, typological, or artistic context on the one hand or are faith based or ethnically relativists, essentialist, or traditionally fatalists one or the other. These methodologies manifested the lasting impact of the two main and patently mutuality intellectual institutions and governed the expansion of this art as its foundation. The initial slowed from the strange record of the analysis of Islam in the West that we happened to know as Orientalism and its numerous passages in the 19th and 20th century. The next was the influential record of art and architectural description which up until at slightest the 1980s outlined the possibility and approaches of all the other disciplines and allocated them their spaces in a geologically, chronologically, and even conceptually arranged ancient and creative grading. This paper investigates the historical disparities in the study of Islamic art and architecture and determines deeper relationships with other parts of artistry such as Chinese, Indian, African and in Western art. It underlines the significance of regional histories in their theoretical and scholarly establishment. Pages 360 to 368
 
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The First Semester Students’ Mastery on Gt/F, Ra and Sc Uses of Simple Present Tense

Anselmus Sahan, Hesni Neno, Fransiska Densiana Luruk, Erlinda S. Pale, Lecturers of English Study Program, Timor University, Kefamenanu, East Nusa Tenggara Province Email: anselsahan@gmail.com

This study aims to find out whether or not the students have mastered simple present tense, types of problems they face and their level of mastery in learning the uses of simple present tense. To analyze the data, we revised the students’ answers, gave scores, and categorized their scores. To give them scores, we counted the total number of the right answers divided with the total number of the whole items times 100%. Then, to know their average score, we counted their scores divided with the total number of the students times 100%. Finally, to categorize their scores, we applied the standard score of mastery level ranging from 0-100 as used in Timor University Academic Regulation. The results of data analysis show that they have mastered the uses of simple present tense. The data shows that the students’ average score is 84. Then, they still found difficulty in mastering the use of general truth of fact indicated by 112 (or 28%) right answers and 46 (or 11.50%) wrong answers. Finally, their level of mastery is categorized very good because 16 of 20 students have scores ranged from 80-100 while 4 students are good. Therefore, it is suggested that the teachers pay more attention to teaching about the uses of simple present tense using attractive and innovative ways that can motivate to participate in learning simple present tense. Pages 369 to 380
 
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Textile Design Curriculum: A Collaboration Between Textile Education and Industry

Dr. Beenish Tahir1, 1University of the Punjab, College of Art and Design & National College of Arts, Pakistan

The Textile Industry has always transformed and evolved according to the socio-political circumstances. Its ever-changing progress has made it compulsory to merge the domains of craft, academia, and industry. As all include culture, artistic and productive pursuits demonstrating a correlation that cannot be ignored. On one hand craft is part of traditional cultural expression, and includes elements such as “substance, tools, methods and abilities” which are understood to be shared, accessible and very communal. This tacit knowledge is inherited from the history, obtained through training and knowledge. Industry on the other hand while supporting the cultural economy includes undertakings, commodities and customer services resulting from the artistic, creative, and aesthetic design. Design based activity makes some perception of things and at the same time does not forsake past relationships. So, the industry’s actions are addressed to the upcoming future, yet its method is notified by both the past and the present. Designers are the leading contributors in the progress of supplies and services with native cultural subject matter. The textile design curriculum should view culture as a possessor of traditional legacy and based on this perspective there are certain prospects to explore characters and inspirations of heritage in design process. The paradox among preserving the past and creating for the future is maybe the most interesting aspect of formulating a curriculum. This research views the motivation to see the intriguing aspect of shared perspectives by craftspeople, designers, and educators. It is a study to explore ways in which professionals in domain of textiles can collaborate effectively to formulate curriculums and design courses. Disclosure to interdisciplinary influences will help learners to express themselves, ethically appreciate and empathies professionally. While promoting and inspiring the learners to experiment and discover the fiber medium. This research is a participation in dialogue and practice that suggests an acceptance of the effect, historical and contemporary culture has on social accountability and responsibility. The method of multidisciplinary method is used in this research to evaluate and suggest the focus areas for the textile curriculum. And various aspects are identified which provide room for collaboration between the domains of craft, art, design, and academia. Pages 381 to 396
 
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The Usage of Internet of Things (IoT) in an Effective Fighting of Covid-19

 Wesam Ibrahim AL Abdallat1, Mohmmad Abdel- Hammed Ali Al-Hussein2, Omar Alhawari3, 1,2,3Al Balqa' Applied University (BAU), 3Ohio University, United States of America, Email: 1W.alabdallat@bau.edu.jo, 2mohammad_jawarneh@bau.edu.jo, 3alhawari@ohio.edu

Governments all over the world have been fighting COVID-19 virus with the hope of putting an end to it; however, the virus has continued to spread with many new cases and several deaths. Fighting Covid-19 requires a proactive approach which many felt government is yet to do. The proactive approach therefore warrants the use of Internet of Things (IoT) which enables the government to identify, track and monitor patients with Covid-19 in any location, thereby reducing the spread. It is based on that the present study investigates the relationship between IoT and effective fighting of Covid-19. In other words, the study investigated how IoT can be used to effectively fight Covid-19 in Jordan. For this reason, a cross-sectional survey design was employed on the population of the study which consists of doctors, health workers and health informatics specialists from different healthcare facilities in Jordan as earlier used by (Suleiman et al., 2020). Copies of survey questionnaires were sent out through emails to all participants, however, only 90 email survey questionnaires were returned filled. The data being primary in nature were analyzed using multiple analytical tools-SPSS version 21 and STATA version 15. First, the finding revealed that IoT generally affects the effectiveness of how government fights Covid-19. Specifically, the findings show that both government decision making, and health information system are statistically significantly related to the effective fighting of Covid-19 in Jordan. Additional finding equally revealed no statistical differences between the statistical tools used in analyzing the data. Thus, it is concluded that IoT including government decision making and health information system are significant in fighting Covid-19 in Jordan. Several implications of the findings are discussed in the study. Pages 397 to 415
 
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Identification Factors Affecting E-learning Satisfaction during Pandemic Period among Students at UiTM Melaka Malaysia

Chun Keat Yeap1, Foo Terng Hoe2, Ira Syazwani binti Zainal Abidin3, Sze Boon Eng4,  Han Kok Heng 5*, 1,Academy Of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Melaka Branch, Campus Alor Gajah Melaka, Malaysia, 2academy Of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Penang Branch, Campus Permatang Pauh Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, 3Universiti Kuala Lumpur - Malaysian Institute Of Information Technology, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4academy Of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Melaka Branch, Campus Bandaraya Melaka, Malaysia, 5faculty Of Accountancy, Management And Economics, New Era University College, Selangor, Malaysia, *Corresponding Author’s E-Mail: hankok.heng@newera.edu.my 

This research was based on a survey of students in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), a higher learning Institution in Malaysia about their satisfaction towards e-learning. This research attempted to find out the effect of some demographic factors and other potential factors on the satisfaction of the e-learning system. The sample consisted of 106 respondents from different courses. The tool used was Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). 14 questions were divided into three main factors such as perceived ease of use, self-efficacy and institutional support. The study will be not only beneficial to lecturers but also institution in order for them to understand better about the students’ e-learning satisfaction so that their performance can be improved. The study questionnaire developed is reliable and valid instrument which can be utilize to discover the e-learning satisfaction among students at UiTM Melaka. The result of this study determined that perceived ease of use, self-efficacy and institutional support are the factors that addresses e-learning satisfaction. Pages 416 to 430
 
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The Innovative Use of Hegemonic Masculinity Concept in WWI Poetry

Tarik M. Sh. Hamadneh1, Radzuwan Ab. Rashid1, Hanita Hanim Ismail2, 1Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, 2Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43000, Malaysia,                                            Email: 2hanitaismail@ukm.edu.my

This article explores the innovative use of hegemonic masculinity (HM) in WWI poetry as one of its strategic promotion in general, along its aesthetic employment to express feelings towards violence; besides observing the changes in the persona’s masculinity in anti-war poems in particular. Based on 14 purposively selected war poems, an analysis was carried out using thematic analysis guided by HM theory perspectives. The selected poems address the research questions, and define both the scope and the purpose of the study. The poems chosen contain a wide range of stunning poetic ambivalences; such as the glorious versus the gruesome, the heroic versus the hellish, and the romantic versus the realistic. The poems do not only provide insights into the gender through HM but also discuss the effects of violence through the conceptual use. The findings show that the soldier poets who experienced WWI, used the concept HM as an act of defiance. This article observes a change in the use of HM concept which began as a propaganda to attract male youth towards favouring military life but later, changed to be used to rebel against violence with the advance of war. Pages 431 to 446
 
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Social Media Users and Cybersecurity Awareness: An International Perspective

Dr., Fahad. Z. Alshammari1 Dr, Waleed. M. Eyadat 2, 1,2Department of Curriculum and Instructions, Kuwait University, P.O. Box: 13281, Kuwait 71953, Email: 1Fahad.alshammari@ku.edu.kw, 2waleedeyadat85@gmail.com

The aim of the present study was to investigate privacy awareness on social media platforms among 817 undergraduate students from different departments in college of education at Kuwait University. The main objective of the research study was to promote students’ knowledge of their use of privacy setting, privacy security, and awareness of social media risks through their actions when using social network platforms. For the purpose of this study, the researchers applied a descriptive analytical approach that used data gathered through a set of questionnaires. The findings revealed the following: (1). The majority of students were concerned about their privacy when using social media while claiming to be somewhat aware of the privacy risks, and privacy settings, of SNSs. (2). Furthermore, the results indicated that the majority of participants revealed their personal information, such as their hometown, date of birth, and phone number. (3). A significant difference related to self-disclosure and information sharing in students based on their gender. Pages 447 to 473
 
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Contextualising the Determinants of Job Embeddedness in the Higher Learning Institution with the Lenses of African Culture

Carol Dineo Diale, Lecturer and a registered industrial psychologist, Psychology department, industrial psychology unit, Rhodes University, 1 University Road Makhanda, Eastern Cape, South Africa Email:c.diale@ru.ac.za

The researcher investigated how African culture and additional factors contributes to job embeddedness in the higher learning institution. 12 participants, including academics and non-academics, formed part of the study at a higher learning institution. In-depth interviews were carried out, and the data collected were analysed utilising thematic content analysis. The main results of the participants' perception are that they are embedded in their current job influenced by the African culture (Ubuntu). Additional influences of job embeddedness discovered in the current study are spiritual wellbeing, African culture and spiritual wellbeing, embedded to the community through Ubuntu, emotional and psychological attachments. The conceptual framework with the lenses of industrial and organisational psychology is then formulated as part of the practical implications. Future research recommendations are also provided in the current paper. Pages 474 to 491
 
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Women's Social Roles in Time of Peace and War in Hanan Al Sheikh's Novel "The Story of Zahra"

Afrah Abdul Jabber¹, Raghad Shakir Deair², ¹,²University of Misan/ College of Education /English Department, Email:1Afrahaljabar15@gmail.com 2raghad_shakir2000@yahoo.com,                                     

This paper investigates the role of woman in Hanan Al –Sheikh's Zahra . It discusses woman's place in the Arab society in peace and war-time. In this novel, a woman is presented as a victim of all tragedies, from cruel parenthood to wars and violent tensions afflicting nations and people. Zahra tries to move beyond the limitations forced by society, but she fails to completely transcend them. Pages 492 to 499
 
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Entrepreneurial & Entrepreneurship Strategies to Generate Economic Amplification

M Abdur Rahman1, Mohammed Masum Iqbal2, 1,2Daffodil International University (DIU), Faculty of Business & Entrepreneurship (FBE), Email: 1rahman@diu.edu.bd

The purpose of the study is to examine the theory by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) perform the validation of the first-order analysis and establish the partial least square SEM of the entrepreneurial and entrepreneurship strategies. In the modern global era, entrepreneurship has become a broadly taught course in universities, particularly in business schools. However, in this area have only a small number of studies have explored the economic amplification. Likewise, the research has examined for entrepreneurial strategies of graduate students. Yet, the surveyed data has been executed through AMOS for the CFA model and Smart-PLS for the PLS-SEM analysis for the hypothesized model, whereas, the surveyed data has been explored structurally through partial least squares structural equation model to validate and develop the model. The relationship of entrepreneurial and entrepreneurship strategies the outcomes have shown positively an impact on generating economic amplification. Therefore, results have identified structurally indicate that graduate students have stronger positive intentions of entrepreneurship that generated economic amplification. Pages 500 to 512
 
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A Semantic Study of Reciprocal Pronouns in Hawthorne's Novel "The Scarlet Letter"

Zainab Hussein Alwan1, 1Department of Religious Tourism, Faculty of Tourist Sciences, University of Kerbala, Iraq, Email: zainab.hussain@uokerbala.edu.iq

 Reciprocity plays a vital role in daily life. It is hard to determine the reciprocal relation in mental actions such as missing and thinking, however, there is symmetry in certain aspect of relevant situations. The paper aims to explore reciprocal pronouns which are employed in Hawthorne's Novel "The Scarlet Letter". The semantic purposes of reciprocal pronouns used in "The Scarlet Letter "are the focus of this study. Reciprocal pronouns may function as the tone of victimization of little Pearl in the data under study. It is hypothesized that reciprocal pronouns have positive and negative indications in some selected texts. Semantically, their uses in one situation is different from their uses in another. It is expected that one pronoun is used more than the other. The findings of the investigation validate the hypotheses above. Pages 513 to 523
 
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Human Capital Management of Educational Officers Toward Excellent Universities

Ahmad Rusdiana1 Nasihuddin2, 1Faculty of Tabiyah and Teacher Training, Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University, Bandung. West Java Indonesia ORCID: 0000-0002-4033-8909/ID. Scopus: 57216643239, 2Faculty of Tabiyah and Teacher Training, Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University, Bandung. West Java Indonesia Email: 1rusdiana@uinsgd.ac.id, 2nspono20@gmail.com,

This study aims to discuss the correlation between human capital management of Education Personnel and Superior Universities at Private Islamic Religious Universities in KOPERTAIS (Coordination of Private Islamic Religious Universities) Region II West Java. This research uses descriptive method with mixed methods research design. The qualitative approach used a questionnaire for data collection, and analyzed descriptively. Quantitative approach as a data analysis tool, using correlational inferential statistical analysis. The results showed that: (1) the results of a qualitative analysis of the opinions of 15 PTKIS leaders regarding the implementation of human capital management were well implemented; (2) The results of the partial quantitative analysis of human capital management variables according to the opinion of 90 education personnel, including the good category tend to be sufficient; (3) Educational staff's work motivation towards PT Unggul is in the good category; (4) Statistical analysis shows a correlation of 0.42 between human capital management, including the category of moderate correlation, with a percentage of 16.1% of influence, this means that 83.8% of educational staff's motivation towards PT Unggul is influenced by other factors. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that human capital management on the maintenance of Tendik's work motivation is correlated with being on the way to Superior Higher Education. Pages 524 to 540
 
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The Effect of Organizational Culture in International Business Performance

Mohammad T. Bataineh, Ahmad Fawaz Malkawi, Business Administration Department, Jerash University, Jordan, E-mail: aboqais2003@gmail.com 

To investigate the effect of organizational culture on international business performance through (Involvement, Consistency, Adaptability, and Mission). A survey was handled on 327 employees in Jordan Sweden Medical and Sterilization Company. Hierarchical regression model was used to study the effect of organizational culture on international business performance through studied the effect of involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission on international business performance. The results show that improving organizational culture leads to improve the international business performance in Jordan Sweden Medical and Sterilization company. The selected elements of organizational culture (involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission) improved international business performance also. Moreover, the company should be interested in involving their employees in the decision-making, the managers should be recognized the ability of the employees to do their jobs, the managers should be encouraging the employees to do their jobs, the company must have a long-term purpose and direction, and the company must have a clear mission to give meaning and direction to their works. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any study that has previously investigated effects of organizational culture on international business performance through selected elements; involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission. Organizational culture and its elements are positively related with international business performance. Pages 541 to 551
 
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The Role of Universities in Developing and Protecting Intellectual Property Rights Legislation

Prof. Dr. Abdulwahab Abdullah Al-Ma'amari, Dr. Abdallah Hameed Al- Ghuwairi, Faculty of law, Isra University

Intellectual property is of great importance in universities and scientific research institutions, which play very important roles in promoting intellectual property concepts and developing their legislation, whether through the teaching and scientific research functions or through innovation, creativity, inventions, computer programs or designs covered by such protection, in addition, the teaching activities undertaken by universities or public research institutions in intellectual property courses, and scientific theses that discuss topics related to their issues, as well as training courses, workshops and scientific conferences where researchers meet to present their research and scientific papers that contribute in the  development of intellectual property concepts, or through the legislation that issues to protect these rights. This study aims to research the subject of intellectual property in universities and scientific research institutions in the  light of development of modern technology, and the Internet, and the accompanying ease of access to scientific materials, which necessitates the research in issues that related to the intellectual property and management of teaching materials, and access to the scientific information, and the role of the  universities in promoting the intellectual property rights, promote and protect their concepts through the legislation which issued by these universities. The descriptive and the analytical approaches were used in the research, by describing the reality of intellectual property in universities, and analyzing texts and written programs related to the intellectual property in universities in order to derive results and reach useful recommendations in this field. Pages 552 to 570     
 
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Informal Economy Governance and The New Public Service: A Case Study of Street Vendors at Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia

Ema Sumarna1, Oekan S. Abdoellah2, R. Widya Setiabudi Sumadinata3, Ida Widianingsih4, Kurniadi5 1Graduate Program in Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, 2Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, 3Department of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran, 4Public Administration Department, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, 5Entrepreneurship Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Emails: 1hema1966.es@gmail.com, 2ida.widianingsih@unpad.ac.id, 3ida.widianingsih@unpad.ac.id, 4ida.widianingsih@unpad.ac.id, 5kurniadi003@binus.ac.id

In the early 2000s, the economic recess marks the rise of the informal sectors as the following impact from rampant unemployment, especially in several third world countries, including Indonesia. In the other hand, there are significant paradigm shift within the science of public administration. A shift, towards a more citizen-oriented, humane, and collaborative governance, under the name of The New Public Service. Using mixed method approach, this study aims at; first, summarize current empirical conditions of street vendors in Bandung City, including its policies, and second, evaluate the conditions by using The New Public Service perspective. This study concludes that there are changes towards a more democratic, collaborative, and mutual trust built between governance and many stakeholders, the problem, however, lies on the dynamic nature of the informal economy itself. Pages 571 to 584
 
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An Investigation of the Effect of Gender, Experience, and Occupation on Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) among English Language Teachers in Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Al Khateeb1*, Hassan Mahdi2, Hind Al Fadda3, Fawaz Qasem4, Yasser Alsuhaibani5, 1Department of English, College of Arts, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4196-5338, 2,4Department of English, College of Sciences and Arts, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia, 2https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4023-82194https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2314-1768, 3,5Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7049-9324,  5https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0689-1620, Emails: 1*ahalkhateeb@kfu.edu.sa, 2almatari7@gmail.com, 3halfadda@ksu.edu.sa, 4fawazrajehbu@gmail.com, 5yalsuhaibani@ksu.edu.sa

Technological, Pedagogical, and Content knowledge (TPACK) has been used in several studies as a theoretical framework to explore teachers’ use of technology in instruction. Numerous studies have contributed to understanding the effect of interaction between varied knowledge domains and differences between pre- and in-service teachers’ knowledge. However, studies conducted to examine the influence of teachers’ experience, gender, and occupation on TPACK have been limited. This study addresses this issue by evaluating 105 English language teachers from Saudi Arabian schools and universities. A TPACK survey and interview were used to measure pre- and in-service teachers’ utilization of technology to support their teaching. Results indicated that using technology in language learning is unaffected by gender, experience, or occupation. However, a positive correlation was observed among the seven constructs of the model as established by the factor analysis test. Finally, the results indicated positive attitudes toward the TPACK model and provided suggestions for better integration of technology in language learning. Pages 585 to 608
 
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Multimodal Analysis in Hansel and Gretel by the Brothers Grimm

Aliya Fadhilla1, Ichwan Suyudi2, 1,2Gunadarma University, Email: 1aliya.fadhilla@outlook.com, 2ichwan.suyudi@gmail.com

Children’s literature is written work of art, such as stories, books, magazines, and poems, which is intended for children. One of the form of children’s literature that we are familiar with, is story book with pictures in it, or known as picture books. The source data of this research is a story of Hansel and Gretel (1812) by The Brothers Grimm that was published on 1982 by Western Publishing in a picture book version. This research focuses on the multimodality found in the book, which are text and illustration. The method used in this research is qualitative method as this research focused on the utilization of multimodality in the book.  The result of this research is relations between the narrative text of the story and the illustrations in it. Pages 622 to 633
 
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A Comparative Study on Morphology Between English and Arabic Language

Shebli Younus Idham1, Rabaa Said Mohamed Aljangawi2, Heba Fathi Younis Massa’d3, Samah Yaslam Saleh Baagbah4, Hanan Nagi Omar Elshatshat5, 1Department of science, College of Basic Education, University of Sumer. Iraq, 2,3,4University of Sains Malaysia, 5University of Benghazi, Email: 1shebliyounus@gmail.com, 2Sweetra2009@yahoo.com, 3hebamassad@students.usm.my, 4Samahyess@gmail.com, 5Hanaelshatshat84@gmail.com

The point of this investigation is to portray the Arabic and English morphological frameworks so as to recognize the similitudes and contrasts between them. There are a few different ways of framing words in English and Arabic, yet the most widely recognized ways are deduction, affectation and exacerbating. This part is an endeavor to talk about the derivational frameworks of English and Arabic similarly. The investigation and depiction of the components of morphology: affectation, induction and exacerbating. The two portrayals will cover the structure, the importance and the circulation of morphemes. The circulation of morphemes is the aggregate of the considerable number of settings in which they can happen. A full comprehension of any morpheme includes understanding its dissemination just as its significance. The different sorts of limitations on the blends of morphemes, the request in which morphemes can be masterminded, sets of morphemes which can never happen together in a similar word, classes of morphemes required to happen in specific conditions will be given. Complex examples of choice of allomorphs will be given. The kind of importance inferred without any morpheme of a given request will be brought up. All allomorphs will be recorded and runs for the right choice will be given. General morphophonemic proclamations which apply all around in the framework will be made. Pages 634 to 660
 
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Characteristics of Functional Drinks Based on Variations in the Composition of Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia) and Pineapple Juice (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.).

Asep Dedy Sutrisno1, Neneng Suliasih2, 1,2Food Technology Department, Pasundan University, Bandung, Indonesia, E-mail: 1sister.asepdedeysutrisno@unpas.ac.id, 2nenengsuliasih@unpas.ac.id

Functional drinks are a type of drink that is beneficial for the health of the human body, because generally they contain nutrients not only needed for metabolic purposes, but can act as a preventive and cure for certain diseases. So functional drinks besides being freshconsumption drinks are also useful for supporting health. In this research, a functional drink was made using the raw material of Binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) mixed with pineapple juice (Ananas comocus (L.) Merr.). The purpose of this study was to determine the method of extracting nutrients from binahong leaves and determining the composition of the best formula from a mixture of binahong extract and pineapple juice through variable response to vitamin C content, antioxidant activity, and sensory/organoleptic tests. The results of this study can be used as a reference if industrial scale production will be carried out. The methodology in this research is carried out in two stages, namely the first stage research and the second/main stage research. The first phase of research intends to determine / select the binahong leaf extract method through 3 methods, namely maceration, dissolving by heating, and pulping followed by filtration, the selection is based on the highest vitamin C content and the most active antioxidant activity.. The second / main stage of the research was carried out by formulating the composition of binahong leaf extract and pineapple juice with a variation of 9 formulas also mixed with sugar (sucrose) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) stabilizer, then functional drinks were analyzed for variance analysis to determine the significance of the response to vitamin C content. , antioxidant activity, and sensory/organoleptic tests, as well as determining the relatively best formulation. The results of this study showed that the response to the variable content of vitamin C and antioxidant activity showed significant differences, while the results of the sensory/organoleptic test showed significantly different responses to taste and aroma, but not significantly different in response to color. Based on the consideration of the results of experiments and analyzes or tests on the response of these variables, it can be concluded that the composition of binahong leaf extract and 4:1 pineapple juice is the best to be used as a reference in industrial scale production. Pages 661 to 673
 
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Criminal Law Policy on Criminal Liability of Political Parties in Criminal Acts of Money Laundering

Maria Silvya E. Wangga, Dian Adriawan Dg. Tawang, Ahmad Sabirin, Faculty of Law, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: maria.s@trisakti.ac.id

In its development, the criminal law outside the Criminal Code, including the Law on the Prevention and Eradication of Criminal Acts of Money Laundering, has positioned individuals and legal entities or corporations as perpetrators of criminal acts. The policies for holding political parties criminally liable are still limited to political party members or administrators, not yet reaching political parties. This research questions how criminal law policy along with its limitations holds political parties criminally liable for criminal acts of money laundering. This research concludes that the conduct and fault of the administrators constitute the conduct and fault of the political party as a corporation which can be held criminally liable for criminal acts of money laundering by way of Article 5 of the Law on the Prevention and Eradication of Criminal Acts of Money Laundering. The limitation or weakness of the Law on the Prevention and Eradication of Criminal Acts of Money Laundering is that it is extremely difficult or rare to apply Articles 3 and 4 in the form of placement and layering against political parties. It is expected that in the future, criminal law policy for holding political parties criminally liable will be maximized to be applied on political parties considering the fact that political parties are highly vulnerable to the integration stage for money laundering. Pages 674 to 691
 
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The Mystery of the Writing Process: A Comparison of Mechanistic and   Developmental Organic Writing

Prof. Dr Solehah Yaacob1, Dr Ismail Haron2, Assoc. Prof. Dr Adli Yaacob3, Dr Zainah Hussain Awdah AlQahtani4, 1Professor in Philosophy of Arabic Grammar in Dept. of Arabic Language & Literature, AHAS Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge & Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 2Post-Doctoral Fellow of Professor Dr Solehah Yaacob, 3 Associate Professor in Dept. of Arabic Language & Literature, AHAS Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge & Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 4Assistant Professor in Modern Linguistics of Arabic Translation, Najran University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/16154

Every writer knows putting words on paper is a difficult task. Sometimes the difficulties become insurmountable. He got himself into a state of frustration in writing when the flow of ideas stopped. A writer got stuck and banged his head against the wall for long hours instead of writing. His struggle becomes futile without getting the desired result. Despite being armed with knowledge and language ability, he cannot execute his task. The objective is primarily to understand the cognitive processes in writing employing different approaches: mechanistic writing and developmental organic writing models. This understanding is derived and inferred from some learning theories such as the behaviourist and mechanical models coupled with issues related to the functions of brains and ‘mind’ in writing as expounded by some known linguists and writers. It is hoped that by understanding the cognitive processes at work in writing, anyone who intends to write can benefit in terms of enhancing his writing skill and making writing a challenging and enjoyable task. The study is on a qualitative analysis of a book written by Peter Elbow on `Writing Without Teachers` and `Writing with Power.` Compared to the researchers, the data collected from his experiences will embark on the meaning of `organic writing.` Pages 692 to 707
 
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Behavioral Difficulties in Sight-Reading: A Quantitative Study on Uitm Classical Guitarist Students

Ezzaty Nadhira Ahmad Syahril1, Adee Arifin2, 1,2,Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 2adee@uitm.edu.my

This study aims to analyze the behavioral issues experienced by classical guitar students concerning poor sight-reading skills and factors that hinder students' excelling in this skill. Data were collected from thirty respondents from the Universiti Teknologi MARA’s Faculty of Music, degree departments for this research. A descriptive analysis of this investigation was presented in frequency and percentages. The outcome of this research found that the majority of the respondents were not able to sight-read. They were not capable of reading music fluently at first sight. The study also found that the majority of classical guitarist students were used to learning music by utilizing other alternatives such as reading tabs, watching tutorials, and imitating fingerings, instead of sight-reading. The analysis of this research has proven that the majority of classical guitarist students among the Faculty of Music neglected their sight-reading due to poor habits. This study will contribute to the understanding of the causes behind classical guitarist students who neglect sight-reading to understand its intention of sight-reading benefiting musicians. The findings will benefit classical guitarist students to realize the advantages if they mastered the sight-reading skill. Pages 708 to 728
 
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Media Sentiments towards Spotify in the United States and Malaysia

Edriz Imran Ramli1, Afiqah Aisyah Saiful Bahar2 Muhamad Amirul Faiz Abd Ghani3
1,2 College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia. 3School of Humanities and General Studies, Kompas International College, Malaysia. Email: 2afiqahaisyah@uitm.edu.my

The music industry’s reliance on streaming platforms is now unequivocal. Despite the low-profit margins in comparison to physical products, streaming platforms’ colossal consumerism has made music streaming platforms invisible to an extent that its non-existence could lacerate the music industry. Susceptible to media like any other business, Spotify, one of the current leading music streaming platforms is constantly under the media’s radar. Understanding media’s acceptance towards this particular platform would display the potential of future similar business, therefore, this paper presents the comparison of media sentiments towards Spotify in the United States and Malaysia. Through the sentiment analysis, it was found that the United States media are more hostile towards the Spotify whilst Malaysia media are more in favour of the studied streaming platform. Pages 729 to 737
 
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Copyright and Royalty Among the Composers in Malaysia

Lidyana bt Aziz1, Alia Farahin Abd Wahab2, 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: 2aliafarahin@uitm.edu.my

There is a lack of awareness when it comes to music copyright law in our society both internally and externally whether the musical owner or the listener who plays their musical composition. Composing a song is a general matter that and each composer has their rate and agreement between the production company or the producer. Apart from that, there are several third-party bodies including MACP, PPM, and RPM  in coordinating the copyright and royalties of a musical composition. There is still a  question mark of how an organization is run and how the collection is done each year and are these licensing bodies transparently carry out their duties of collecting and apportioning royalties accordingly. This also includes problems that occur unexpectedly including pirated music from the digital world today. In this research also, the author talks about the awareness of most listeners about pirated music, do they realize if they have taken or listened to pirated music, and are they aware of the act of music piracy. This research project intends to investigate the level of awareness regarding music copyright issues and regulations for musical composers and listeners in Malaysia. Secondly, to find out how the royalty is collected and distributed to their members according to the rate and set percentage. The core of the creative process of the legal framework has evolved around music composition. Pages 738 to 752
 
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Analysing Hans Zimmer`s epic scoring style in “The Dark Knight Rises”

Farrah Dhaniah Mohd Salleh1, Amanina Alwani Badaruddin2, Mohd Ridzdzuwan Md Jusoh3, 1,2 College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia. 3Animonsta Studios Sdn Bhd. Email: 2amanina@uitm.edu.my

In film scoring world, Hans Zimmer is one of the composers who succeeded in developing his own signature sound which they call it the ‘epic style’. This research aims to study the development of leitmotif and the usage of minimalism in the ‘The Dark Knight Rises’ 2012 Batman`s film score. The objectives of this study are to identify the minimalism techniques used by Hans Zimmer in the scoring and to analyse the motivic development used to expand Batman`s leitmotif. The overall data were derived from secondary data and the outcome of the findings are through score analysis. As a result, it was found that Hans Zimmer uses several approaches such as cathartic ostinato in maximal minimalism, marcato motto, the usage of abstract anthem, repetitions and several other motivic development techniques to expand his ideas. In conclusion, the data and findings identified in this research can be a point of reference and bench marking among budding film composers to make their way in creating epic film scores. Pages 753 to 767
 
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Teaching and Learning Music among Younger Children: Methods and Impacts of Pedagogy Development

Muhammad Izzul Zamri Zulfadli1, Juwairiyah Zakaria2, 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 2juwairiyah@uitm.edu.my

There are several methods in teaching music to young children. This paper aims to investigate the methodologies  for teaching music for young children of  five to  ten years old. The research objectives for this study was to investigate the methodologies used by music teachers  in teaching music to young children; and to determine the impacts of music learning on young children’s behavior. A total of six purposely-selected respondents took part in this qualitative study with music teachers who had at least five years of teaching music with young children. Open interview questions were carried out using a guided interview protocol of ten questions supporting the research objectives. Findings posited that three teaching methods namely: 1) imitation method facilitates learning for psychomotor development skills for young children; 2) instructional and visual aids in the teaching processes facilitates the cognitive development and learning skills; and 3)  incorporating movements into the teaching process which inculcate fun and enjoy but with guided learning. The study revealed the impacts of music learning supports the young children’s development specifically:  1) improve learning skills and performance, 2) improve self-discipline and emotional control, 3) encourage creativity in young children. However, the teaching methodologies on teaching music on young children need supporting factors to capture their span of attention in learning namely: 1) facilitation to their needs to maintain their focus to learn; 2) voice projection and facial expressions  from the teachers to retain the young students span of attention; 3) movement method to create fun and joyful learning environment for the young learners; and 4) offering rewards to create a healthy competitive learning culture among the young  children. Pages 768 to 782
 
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Preschool Teachers' Perspective on The Influence of Singing Activity covering Expression of Children's Emotion in Malaysia

Muhammad Syamim Haikal Sa’aid1 , Maryann Magdalena Linnis2, Masashi Kishimoto3 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 2mmagdalena@uitm.edu.my

The most important question in the psychology of music is how music affects an individual's emotional experience, which has been the subject of extensive research. However, the outcome appeared from a variety of perspectives, and at times it devolved into endless debates and arguments. When it comes to music, every individual's emotional state will have a different impact on how it is influenced, depending on whether the emotion is expressed through listening, playing, or participating in musical activities. Musical activities such as singing in preschool are examples that can be used to demonstrate how music can influence an individual's emotional responses. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of teachers' perspectives on the influence of singing activities on the expression of children's emotions because they are the ones who organize the activities and can observe the children's participation. This qualitative study was conducted by interviewing 7 preschool teachers that are currently teaching in Shah Alam, Selangor to study their perspectives on the influence of singing activity on the expression of children's emotions. For this research, a qualitative method approach will be deployed to analyze the teachers' perspective on the influence of singing activity on the expression of children's emotions. Data for this research was collected in the form of recorded audio interviews. The analysis is then done based on the transcriptions. The findings of this research acknowledge that music can influence human emotion. The outcome of this research can be used to contribute knowledge to other music researchers and psychologists on the importance of music and emotion. Pages 783 to 794
 
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Novice Teacher’s Preparation to Teach Music Education in School

Nuriman Shah Ruslian Shah1, Md Jais Ismail2, Mazli Nordin3, 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, 3Zhika Trading & Resources Sdn. Bhd. Email: 2mdjais@uitm.edu.my

School teachers face challenges during their first few years of teaching, and they need guidance and time to understand their new work culture or environment. Unfortunately, many new teachers are not able to adapt easily. This is due to the lack of support from other employees and the time it takes for the teacher to adapt to the current teaching load can create barriers and frustration. This can then escalate into stress related to job dissatisfaction and lower rates of teacher job retention. This study is intended to explore the best practices and preparation in teaching Music Education in primary schools. This study applied qualitative research design specifically a content analysis study. A total of four (4) videos from YouTube were selected through purposive sampling technique. Data were analysed using thematic analysis through coding techniques. All the domains or themes were verified by two experts in the field. Results revealed novice music teachers must prepare themselves with skills and knowledge before jumping into the real education situation. Classroom management, plan, understanding, motivation, memory, self-professionalism, and social are among the criteria that should be possessed by music novice teachers. This research guides new music teachers and ensures that they are properly prepared throughout their first few years of teaching.  Pages 795 to 817
 
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Reminiscing the Joys of Aidilfitri in the Times of Covid-19

Anis Zahira Binti Mohamed¹, Nur Izzati Jamalludin², ¹XENO Entertainment Asia, ²College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Malaysia. Email: nur.izzati.jamalludin@uitm.edu.my

The introduction of music for advertising or jingles started with the popularization of the radio and television in the early 20th century (Beyer & Meier, 2010). Some popular tunes have even evolved in terms of length, such as the Universal Pictures theme, over the years, retaining its main melodic motive. Jingles are designed to evoke associations between the tune and the product or a service. The act of associating a tune as an emotion adds another dimension to disassociate from other competitors. By using childhood memories and nostalgia (Davis, 1979) this paper aims to study the response on “TM RAMADAN/SYAWAL 2020” advertisement from internet viewers and the emotions they share with the unknown internet community. The analysis of the responses will greatly understand the musical impact towards viewers to understand how other advertisements related to nostalgia can be evoked effectively among viewers who share the same emotions. Pages 818 to 840
 
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Analysis of Breathing Techniques in Flute Playing

Mohd Syazrin Riman1, Rita Mardhatillah Umar Rauf2, 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 2rita_umar@uitm.edu.my

Perfecting one’s breathing technique is a fundamental skill among woodwinds players in achieving mastery to control the instrument better. To explore this issue further, this research paper aims to ascertain the strengths of various breathing techniques in flute playing, to strategize the selection and execute a particular breathing technique. Using the piece “Concertino for Flute and Piano” by Cecile Chaminade’s recorded performance performed by Jana Jarkovska as an example, this research will observe, document, and carry out thorough performance analysis. Results of this research show that the complexity of the breathing technique is one of the main issues for flute students from all levels to achieve a satisfactory level of mastery. To date, flutist has been utilizing three main types of breathing technique that is a deep breath at the beginning of a section or when having longer rest, bridge breath which is mostly used in between phrasing or in the middle of phrasing, and quick breath, especially in the fast passage. The outcome of this research found that the ‘Bridge Breath’ is one of the most frequent breath strategies practiced by flutists to get suffieint air when practicing or performing.  The findings of this study will help provide players insights on breathing techniques decision-making. Pages 841 to 865
 
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The Jazzomat Graph Analysis on “Billie’s Bounce” By Charlie Parker

Siti Nurnajihah Derani1, Rizal Ezuan Zulkifly Tony2,  1,2College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 2rizaltony@uitm.edu.my

Practising improvisation is fundamental in obtaining an ideal desired sound. Some would think that improvisation is impromtu, but in reality, most professional musicians have sufficient knowledge about how improvisation should be carried out. Jazz education has been taught widely in schools and universities by using a combination of codified notation materials, theory, recordings, and ensemble practices. This study aims to find out the way Charlie Parker improvises in terms of using motives towards phrase development in the song “Billie’s Bounce”. A qualitative and quantitative approach is used by having an analysis of musical notation and the phrasing development. Results were obtained by utilizing the conventional notation and also using the 5 Jazzomat Graph, which is the extended chordal pitch class graph, pitch-class graph, semitone interval graph, fuzzy interval, and duration classes graph. Based on the score analysis, it is found that Parker begins his solo by starting with a small or simple pattern obtained from the neighbouring tone, chromatic notes and develops a more complex passage later in his solo. The data gathered from the literature review, analysis of the music score, and the graphs help to determine the phrasing and improvisation development of Charlie Parker’s improvisation and will be used as a practicing method and guideline for performers. Pages 866 to 882
 
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Jazz Compositional Style of John Coltrane: The Interpretation of Giant Steps

Norfarah Shafika Nazir1*, Sarah Alia Ahmad Jamal2, 1, 2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia, Email:  2sarahalia@uitm.edu.my

Interpretation is a difficult yet crucial compositional technique. However, at the present, many young composers had difficulties in interpreting the use of this compositional technique in their works which may have an impact on their compositional style. To adjust the perspective on this issue, This research aims to investigate the jazz compositional style of the composer, John Coltrane, and the performance interpretation of one of his pieces called Giant Steps. This study will give a better view of the compositional style of John Coltrane as well as the use of interpretation based on the particular piece. Therefore, this research is conducted to (i) identify the jazz compositional style of John Coltrane and (ii) study the performance interpretation of his piece, Giant Steps. To fulfill the needs of this research, a qualitative research approach was adopted using the descriptive method. Data collection for this research was gathered from the score analysis transcribed through the transcription. The outcome of this research shows that there are many techniques of compositional style that we can obtain such as using melodic devices that can be found in traditional harmony. It can also be concluded that John Coltrane had innovatively used most of the techniques covered in this research such as anticipation, melodic and rhythmic sequencing and imitation as well. Pages 883 to 906
 
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Self-Directed Memorizing Methods Engaged by Pianists

Stoffel Seah Zixiang1, Sharifah Faizah Syed Mohammed2, Nathan Fischer3, 1Swee Lee Music Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia, 3Indiana University Jacobs School of Music Office of Entrepreneurship and Career Development (JSoM OECD).  Email: 2sharifahfaizah@uitm.edu.my

Memorizing music is one aspect of piano performance and training necessary to become a professional. While playing from memory is expected among performers, some music institutions do not make this mandatory. One example is the Faculty of Music, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Malaysia, where classical pianists rarely memorize their music. This research investigates the self-directed memorizing methods employed by three UiTM students who performed music from memory. In each case study, the respondents recount their experience of subconsciously formulating a habit (process) in memorizing a selected work. The study's outcomes identify the techniques adopted for memorization, such as listening, score analysis, visualization, repetition, singing, and creating a story to help memorize expressions. While the students can utilize these basic methods, they do not enhance the multi aspects of learning, such as singing melodic lines, varying rhythms, or rotating their practice methods. In addition, inadequate guidance to memorizing reduced the mental preparation to boost confidence. Pages 907 to 922
 
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Piano Major Students’ Practice Routine Towards Piano Examination

Arfah AB Razak1, Nurul Athirah Manap2, Siti Nur Hajarul Aswad Bajunid3  1,3 Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, 2 Tarrega Music Studio, Klang, Malaysia. Email: 3hajarulbajunid@uitm.edu.my

A Malaysian public university, Universiti Teknologi MARA offers various music programs at the bachelor's degree level. Each program has a major instrument as a requirement. This study reports piano students’ practice routine of the two programs in  Music Education and Performance towards their piano examination.  A combination of semi-structured interviews and a survey was conducted based on practice routine, practice structure, and the level of preparation. The classes of the semester are conducted online which has given an impact on the students’ behavior. Different music majors depict similar results in their practice routines because of the environment and time management. The study contributes to the understanding of students’ perspectives on self-practice and their level of effectiveness in preparation for the piano examination. Pages 923 to 937
 
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The Importance of a Police-Community Partnership (Co-production): A Study of the City of Johannesburg

Dr Mary S. Mangai1, Dr Tyanai Masiya2, Linkie Luvhengo Murwamuila3, Prof. Natasja Holtzhausen4, 1,2,3,4School of Public Management and Administration (SPMA), University of Pretoria, South Africa, Email: 1mary.mangai@up.ac.za, 2tyanai.masiya@up.ac.za, 3lmurwamuila@gmail.com, 4natasja.holtzhausen@up.ac.za

This study analysed the importance of police-community partnerships aka co-production in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (hereafter Johannesburg) as a way to fight crime. A police-community partnership is a form of community policing used to fight crime to ensure a safe living and working environment for the public. It closes the gap between the police and the community by establishing a working relationship and deep engagement between the two. Therefore, communities share responsibilities with the police, such as street patrolling and guarding private and public properties. This study found that the strengthening of  police-community partnership is an effective way to reduce crime, as it enables the community to be watchdogs for the police and report any suspicious activities happening. A qualitative research approach was used, and data was gathered through key informant interviews conducted at nine different police stations around Johannesburg. The study found that police‑community partnership is essential in curbing crime; however, its success in Johannesburg has been affected by a lack of resources and insufficient support from the government. The study recommended that the South African government should support the police services with the required resources and amend legislation protecting criminals. Pages 924 to 939
 
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Entrepreneurial Orientation and Entrepreneurial Competence on Business Competitiveness with Business Performance as A Mediating Variable (Study on Batik MSMEs in Cirebon)

Hilmiana1, Kartono2,1 Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, 2Universitas Swadaya Gunung Jati Cirebon, Indonesia. Email : 1hilmiana254@gmail.com, 2 kartono.unswagati@gmail.com,

Business competitiveness is one of the critical factors for business actors, indicating the success of the business they pioneered, starting from investment, growth, and sustainability. Several factors can affect business competitiveness, including business performance, social competence, local culture, and entrepreneurial orientation of the business actors. This study aims to obtain data and information that will be further analyzed and describe the effect of entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial competence on business performance and competitiveness. Additionally, this study aims to examine and descriptively analyze entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial competence, business performance, and business competitiveness. Quantitatively, this study examines the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on business competitiveness through business performance, and entrepreneurial competence on business competitiveness through business performance, as well as business performance on business competitiveness. The method used in this study is the quantitative approach. Pages 940 to 960
 
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The Obligation of Countries Not to Introduce Dangerous Living Species

Dr. Shatha Ahmad Al-Assaf, Head of Public Law Department, Assistant Professor in Constitutional Law, Faculty of law, Isra University, Jordan. Email: shatha.alassaf@iu.edu.jo

Environmental pollution is no longer restricted to the borders of a specific country. This has led to global attention to transboundary pollution and its various types, most notably the pollution of international watercourses and seas. Facing these challenges requires uniting international efforts by obligating the countries that have international watercourses and the countries that have sea borders under the international law with specific duties to prevent, combat, or limit pollution of international watercourses and seas which should include the obligation of countries not to introduce dangerous living species into international watercourses and seas that cause tangible damage to the biodiversity. Hence, this research revolves centrally around the obligation of countries having international watercourses and riparian countries not to introduce new, dangerous living species that cause tangible damage to biodiversity enshrined in the international law. The research followed the analytical and comparative method, by conducting a comprehensive review of International and regional conventions and protocols concerning watercourses and seas. The research provides several recommendations including the necessity to enshrine the obligation not to introduce new, live species to international watercourses and seas in treaties and instruments of international organizations, also It is needful to establish an effective system of international responsibility. Pages 961 to 971
 
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Corporate governance and audit report timeliness: Evidence from Kuwait

Abdullah Almutawa1, Mishiel Said Suwaidan2, 1College of Business Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET)- Kuwait, 2Department of Accounting, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan, Email: 1abdullahalmutawa@yahoo.com, 2msuwaidan@yu.edu.jo

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/16159

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of corporate governance mechanisms, among other variables, on audit report lag (ARL) for a sample of 97 companies listed on the Kuwait Stock Market (KSE) in 2020. Audit report lag is measured as the number of days between the date of the financial year end and the date of the audit report. The descriptive statistics indicate that there is considerable variation in the ARL between the sample companies, ranging from 13 to 121 days, with an average of 69 days. A multivariate regression model was employed to examine the association between ARL and corporate governance proxies, namely: board size, board meetings, board financial expertise, non-executive directors, and institutional ownership. The results indicate that companies whose boards have considerable financial expertise are associated with lower audit delay. For other (control) variables, the results indicate that profitability, company size, type of audit opinion, and industry type are found to have a significant impact on the timeliness of financial reporting. More profitable and larger companies were found to issue their audited financial reports faster. Moreover, financial institutions show a shorter lag in releasing their annual report than other sectors, and companies which seek qualified opinions have longer ARLs. Finally, in order to improve the timeliness of annual reports of companies listed on the market, the study suggests the adoption of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL). There is convincing evidence to suggest that the use of XBRL results in timelier stock market filing and shorter ARL. Pages 972 to 987
 
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