Creative Technologies: A Retrospective

Andy M. Connor

Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand. Email: andrew.connor@aut.ac.nz

This paper undertakes an analysis of articles published in the area of Creative Technologies to inform the future development of the field. Articles were collated in a corpus and analysis conducted around keywords, content and authorship. The observations arising from the analysis is that there is some empirical evidence to support that Creative Technologies is an interdisciplinary field of research, with individuals having expertise across multiple domains having the potential to connect otherwise disparate disciplines. The results of the paper support some assertions around the nature of Creative Technologies, however it also suggests that more work is required to scope the field and change is required to secure a future for the Creative Technologies communities of practice. Pages 1 to 23




The President’s Contribution to Dissolving Parliament in the Parliamentary System

Arkan Abbass Hamzaa, Yasir Otaiwi Abboodb, Hussein Jabbar Abed Alnaylic, a,cBabylon University-College of Law, bKarbala University-college of Law, Email: aarkan_khafaji@yahoo.com,  byasir.arri@yahoo.com,  ch.alnaeli@yahoo.com

It is possible to reconcile the position of the President of the Republic with the principle of the duality of the executive branch in the parliamentary system, if it is independent of the Council of Ministers. The Iraqi constitution took the dissolution of parliament, but in the form of a ministerial solution, while adhering to that by the House of Representatives vote on it, and this is contrary to the characteristics of the parliamentary system. The constitutional legislator in Iraq did not explain the reasons for dissolving the parliament, and this is a welcome approach. The Iraqi legislator did not restrict the dissolution of the parliament by not permitting the dissolution again for the same reason or other reasonable restrictions. The role of the President of the Republic in the stage of proposing the dissolution of the Parliament is dependent on the Prime Minister submitting a request for dissolution. The role of the President of the Republic in the stage of separation in dissolving the House of Representatives depends on the members of the House itself. The Iraqi constitution lacked adequate guarantees that compel the President of the Republic to call elections during the period prescribed in the constitution. Pages 24 to 35




Students’ Progress in Integrated Thematic Learning with Scientific Approaches

Yeni Eritaa, Riyadhil Jannahb, Yanti Fitriac, Rifda Eliyasnid, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Email: ayenierita@fip.unp.ac.id,  briyadhil_jannah94@yahoo.com,  cyanti_fitria@fip.unp.ac.id,  drifdaeliyasni@fip.unp.ac.id

This study describes the improvement of integrated thematic learning with a scientific approach in Bukittinggi City Primary School. The approach used in this study was a qualitative and quantitative approach to classroom action. The results of research in planning the first cycle learning was 83.4% and increased in the second cycle to 93.1%. The results of the implementation of the actions of the first cycle teacher was 72% and increased in the second cycle to 90.6%. The results of the implementation in terms of the activities of students in cycle I, was 72%, and increased in cycle II to 96%. Pages 36 to 48




Investment Analysis of Rattan Farmers in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Ali Supriadia, Rajindrab, Mohd. Nasir Bin Nawawic*, Rasmi Nur Anggraenid, a,b,cUniversiti Malaysia Terengganu, dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Palu, Indonesia, Email: c*nasir@umt.edu.my

This study aims to determine the production of rattan, financial analysis, sensitivity, and monetary policy. The location of this research was conducted in Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province and the object of research was rod rattan, rattan symbol, bitter rattan, noko rattan, and wood. The sampling method uses a stratified random sampling system. To find out the financial feasibility, an analysis is carried out using the Pay Back Period, Net Present Value, Net B / C, Internal Rate of Return, and monetary policy models. After sensitivity analysis, all types of rattan combined with Suren wood at a 5% discount are still feasible. Bank interest rate policy given to farmers is not more than 5%. The results also showed that optimum rattan production was achieved at 33 years old while optimum suren wood production was reached at 25 years old. Pages 49 to 58




Assets as Welfare Instruments: The Interpretation in Local Financial Management Perspectives

La Ode Antoa*, Unti Ludigdob, Alimuddinc, Grace T. Pontohd, aHalu Oleo University, Indonesia bBrawijaya University, Indonesia cHasanuddin University, Indonesia dHasanuddin University Indonesia, Email: a*laodeanto@gmail.com

This study discusses the interpretation of local government assets. This study aims to uncover the interpretation of local government assets in the actors’ perspective. Researchers use the interpretive paradigm with a phenomenological approach. This study was conducted in Kendari City with local financial management officials as research informants. The study results showed that assets were interpreted as welfare instruments, both individual, organisational and society welfare. The assets usage to improve the society welfare was more important than the individual and organisations’ welfare. It was indicated that the value of social welfare exceeds the personal interest. Efforts to realise the ideals of prosperity in assets’ usage were a reflection of leadership norms to always adhere to principles of prevailing legal norms and systems, and these all come from God teachings through religion and customs. This study was expected to contribute to enrich the concept of public sector assets, especially local government assets and can be utilised by local governments to develop a more effective and efficient asset management and reporting system. Pages 59 to 77




The Enhancement of Fishers’ Economic Community: A Case of Gorontalo, Indonesia

Frahmawati Bumuloa*, Sri Umi Mintarti Widjajab, Budi Eko Soetjiptoc, Hari Wahyonod, aDoctoral Program in Economic Education, Universitas Negeri Malang/Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*frahmawatibumulo@ung.ac.id

This study aimed to develop an enhancement economic-based model for fishers in the coastal area in Gorontalo of Indonesia. The variables studied were a model of economic development based on fishing communities, social conditions of fishing communities, fishing community education, fisheries and processed products, and tourism objects. This paper applied a development study using a design-based research approach. The data were gathered through in-depth interviews with fishers and related agencies. There are several stages to develop a model, including identifying problems and analysing needs, developing product prototypes, testing, and the evaluating of economic-based fisheries community. From this study, it can be found that with the application of various stages of appropriate development and cooperation from various parties, related institutions, financial institutions, and private and coastal fishing communities, it is expected it will increase the income of the coastal fishing communities in Gorontalo of Indonesia. Pages 78 to 90




Evaluation of Educational Supervisors of Primary School Teachers in Relation to Effective Teaching Skills

Raheem Abd Jassim Alzamilia, Fatima Hawan Mohammedb*, aDepartment of Quranic & Linguistics, College of Islamic Sciences, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq, bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, Email: b*fatimah.hawan@qu.edu.iq

The study aimed to identify the opinion of educational supervisors in the use of the three teaching skills (planning, implementation and evaluation) in evaluating the performance of primary school teachers in the city of Diwaniyah. It also aimed to know the opinion of the educational supervisor in the arrangement of these skills in terms of importance and to indicate the extent of the views of supervisors in evaluating the performance of teachers by gender and specialty. To achieve the objectives of the research, a tool was made up of 42 items distributed on the three fields of study (planning, implementation and evaluation) applied to a sample of supervisors, who are 74 in number.  The researchers have investigated the psychometric properties of the scale from validity and consistency and the data has been statistically processed through using the mean, standard deviation and the second test. The research came out with a set of results, reached a number of conclusions and made a number of recommendations and suggestions. Pages 106 to 126




The Identification of the Morphological and Hydro-Oceanography Characteristics of Kaledupa Island

Al Azhara*, Ario Damarb, Dietriech G. Bengenc, Agus S. Atmadipoerad, aLPPPTK KPTK, Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia, bDepartment of Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine, cDepartment of Marine Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia, dCenter for Coastal and Marine Resources Studies, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia, Email: a*rahzala023@gmail.com

This study aims to identify the morphology and hydro-oceanography characteristics of Kaledupa Island as small island management input. Data used were Landsat 8 OLI Imagery (2016) and Worldview 2 (2013) to define beach typology; SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data was obtained from ftp:/topex.ucsd.edu/pub/srtm30_plus/srtm30/data/ to determine land elevation and its slope, and seafloor topography; and dataset (in 2017) downloaded from http://marine.copernicus.eu/ to illustrate hydro-oceanography parameters (currents, waves, and sea level temperature). Data processing applied were Global Mapper 18, Surfer 13, and ArcMap 10.3 (to analyse SRTM data); Ferret version 6.02 and WRPlot View (for currents, waves, and sea level temperature). Results showed that the northern part of the island consists of sandy and vegetated beaches (mangrove), whereas the beach on the southern part are dominated by rocky and sandy beaches; land elevation ranges between 0-180 m; land slope ranges between 0 to 53.7o; bathymetric value ranges from 0 to -1,800 m; the current speed reaches 0.2 m per second in July; the highest waves occurred in June at the range of 0.70-0.80 m; while the highest surface temperatures (around 30.5oC) occur from April to May and November. Pages 127 to 153




Factors Affecting the Implementation of the Teaching Factory in Vocational High Schools of Mechanical Engineering in East Java Indonesia

Dani Irawana*, Haris Anwar Syafrudieb, Dwi Agus Sudjimatc, Isnandard, a,b,c,dFaculty of Engineering, State University of  Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*the_boymaster2@yahoo.com

This study aims to find out the factors that significantly influence the model of the Teaching Factory (Tefa) implementation in terms of management, workshop, learning, human resources, marketing, industrial relations, and products in Vocational High Schools of Mechanical Engineering in East Java Indonesia. Data was taken from 105 teachers in 7 schools. Data analysis techniques used SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) with SPSS version 23 and AMOS 21. The results showed that the factors that significantly affected the product were management, workshop, learning and human resources. Factors that significantly influenced the implementation of Tefa were management, workshop, marketing and products. The interpretation of this relationship structure is that management, the availability of proper workshops, the availability of marketing and the presence of high products or productivity results, determines the determinants in the implementation of Tefa. Pages 154 to 174




Teachers’ Reflection; A Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis

Aprilia Susantia, Pratiwi Retnaningdyahb, Ahmad Munirc, Slamet Setiawand*, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Surabaya; 1Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sunan Giri, Indonesia, Email: d*slametsetiawan@unesa.ac.id

Reaching out to parents is challenging, especially for teachers. However, dominance, oppression, control or negligence is the issue in the home-school connection activity. Through a two hour reflective practice, five English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers share the personal experiences they have encountered during a home-school connection activity. The framework of classroom critical discourse analysis (CCDA) and multimodal discourse analysis (MDA) are carried out to reveal: what EFL home-school connection looks like; the biggest challenge the teacher encounters; and how meaning is made around EFL home-school connection across semiotic modes of teachers’ reflection. This study found that: 1) every participant indicates a different way of reaching out to parents; 2) the biggest challenge for each participant is different from one another, meaning that it is personal and context-based; and 3) verbal and non-verbal text such as semiotic devices indicate how participants make meaning of the home-school connection activity, particularly when dealing with parents. Pages 175 to 192




Examining the Student Entrepreneurship Intention using TPB Approach with Gender as Moderation Variable

Andi Muhammad Sadata, Mei-Lan Linb, aDepartment of Business and Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, bDepartment of Hospitality Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science & Technology, Taiwan, Email: aandims@unj.ac.id,  bmllin@stust.edu.tw

The purpose of this study is to find factors that influence student entrepreneurial intention by examining variables in the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991), that have been widely used in predicting behavioural intention namely: attitude toward behaviour; perceived behavioural control; and subjective norm; by placing gender as a moderating variable between subjective norm and behavioural intention. A total of 306 students from several departments within the Faculty of Economics-Jakarta State University were involved in filling out the questionnaire by performing convenient sampling techniques. The analysis was carried out using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method with PLS v2.0 M3. The results indicate that attitude toward behaviour and perceived behavioural control significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention, while gender has a quasi-moderation role in a negative direction. It means that gender has the reducing effect of subjective norms on students' entrepreneurial intention. Pages 193 to 207




Online Evaluation and Tourist Purchase Behaviours for Urban Homestay Selection

Jing Yua*, Kuo-Yan Wangb, a,bGuangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, China Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*yujing789@126.com

Homestays are an accommodation option many tourists are willing to consider. Compared to rural tourism online purchase behaviours, tourists place more emphasis on the location, environment and facilities at urban homestays. This study analysed the influencing factors for urban homestay accommodation based on online tourist ratings and comments to explore the impact of urban homestay purchase behaviours. Tourists intending to book homestay accommodation online were interviewed and analysed using descriptive analysis to assess the degree to which they paid attention to and trusted online evaluations. It was found that tourists tended to pay attention to online evaluations when making their homestay accommodation selections and paid particular attention to negative reviews. Therefore, it was concluded that online evaluations played a significant role in online purchase behaviours for urban homestay accommodation. Pages 208 to 219




The Effect of Range of Motion Exercise on Blood Pressure, Pulse and Sleep Quality among Hypertensive Patients

Nursalam Nursalama*, Yotide Aventus Irwindib, Lailatun Nimahc, Ferry Efendid, a,c,dFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, bStudent Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

Range of motion exercise is a simple nursing action that has many benefits and is easy to do independently. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of range of motion exercise on the blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality of hypertensive patients. This study used quantitative research with a quasi-experimental research design, including pre-test and post-test with a control group approach. The total population was 139 patients. A sample of 70 respondents was determined by stratified random sampling according to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the range of motion exercise conducted for seven consecutive days. The dependent variables were blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality. Data was obtained through the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) instrument and observation sheet. Research data were analysed using paired t-test and MANOVA. The results showed that the differences between the treatment and control groups were changes in blood pressure (p = 0.00), pulse (p = 0.00) and sleep quality (p = 0.00). MANOVA hypothesis test results obtained p = 0.00. Range of motion exercise affects the blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality of hypertensive patients at Primary Health Care. Pages 220 to 234




Determinants of Organisational Commitment on Nurse’s Performance

Sirajudin Noora, Nursalam Nursalamb*, Tintin Sukartinic, aDoctoral Program of Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya,  Indonesia, 60115 b,cFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: b*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

The role of organisational commitment is significant to improve the quality of nurse performance to achieve high patient satisfaction. This study aimed to identify the determinants of organisational commitment on nurse’s performance. The research method used was a descriptive-analytic design with a cross-sectional approach. The population was clinical nurses in four hospitals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  The total sample was 105 respondents obtained by purposive sampling. Independent variables were organisational characteristics, nurse’s characteristics, job characteristics, work experience characteristics, and beliefs. The dependent variable was the nurse’s performance. The data was obtained by questionnaire and analysed by logistic regression.  The results showed that organisational characteristics (T = 3.776; p = 0.000) and beliefs (T = 2.030; p = 0.045) have a significant correlation with the nurse’s performance. This research concluded that good nurse performance can be improved through strengthening organisational characteristics namely: reward; management by objectives (MBO); selection; training and development; leadership; and organisational structure. As well it can be improved through beliefs namely: perception of vulnerability and seriousness; benefits: resistance; and self-efficacy. Pages 235 to 248




The Lived Experience of Women with Breast Cancer

Tintin Sukartinia*, Lingga Curnia Dewib, Hanik Endang Nihayatic, Nadia Rohmatul Lailid, I Ketut Tirka Nandakae, Anita Nugrahenif, a,b,c,dFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115 eDepartment of Psychiatric, Dr. Ramelan Navy Hospital, Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60244, fDr. Ramelan Navy Hospital, Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60244, Email: a*tintin-s@fkp.unair.ac.id

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Women with breast cancer face many psychosocial and physical problems. In addition, such women have to deal with treatment problems, physical changes, feelings of loss and uncertainty, self-reconstruction, and changes in social interaction and support. This study aims to explore and identify their life experiences while undergoing chemotherapy. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the meaning of life with breast cancer for women undergoing chemotherapy at Surabaya, Indonesia. The patient's feelings and life experience with breast cancer were explored by using in-depth interviews with 30 women between 26 and 65 years. The results of this study reveal that the diagnosis of breast cancer produces various emotional responses. Participants explained their experience of living with breast cancer as losing something important, lack of self-confidence, living with fear, emotional dizziness and the need to be supported in the negative aspects of breast cancer and helping to explore new aspects of life as a positive aspect of this event. These findings have the potential to lessen health disparities in increasing utilisation of psychosocial treatments by Indonesian women with breast cancer.Pages 249 to 262




Mirror Therapy using Cylindrical Grip Muscle Strength and Extremity Range of Motion

Nursalam Nursalama*, Iqlima Dwi Kurniab, Bernadetta Germia Aridamayantic, aProfessor of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya,  Indonesia, 60115, bLecturer of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, cStudent of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the world, after heart disease and cancer. The main disability in productive age is caused by stroke. This study aimed to analyse the effect of the mirror therapy combination of cylindrical grip muscle strength, upper limb range of motion and post-stroke client self-care, at the two hospitals in Banjarmasin. A quantitative research design was used, with a quasi-experimental research design. The sample comprised 66 respondents. Interventions involved giving mirror therapy combined cylindrical grip three times a week for four weeks. Researchers used a handgrip dynamometer to measure limb strength over post-stroke clients. A goniometer tool assessed a joint range of motion and questionnaire as to the modification of the level of independence of patients, in fulfilling post-stroke client self-care. Analysis of the data in this study used normality tests with Kolmogorov Smirnov. Analysis of each group pre-test and post-test used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, while the post-test value of each group using MANOVA. The results showed that Muscle Strength (p=0.000) and Range of Motion (p=0.000) have a significant effect with  Mirror Therapy of Cylindrical Grip Combination. The effect of mirror therapy combined cylindrical grip muscle strength and upper limb range of motion. It can be applied to nurses and physiotherapists to carry out complementary therapy. It can also be used as a support for pharmacological therapy to increase muscle strength and upper limb range of motion.Pages 263 to 275




Combining Essential Ginger Oil and Acupressure Relaxation Techniques for Cancer Patients, Post-Chemotherapy

Tintin Sukartinia*, Gustini Gustinib, Ilya Krisnanac, a,b,cFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*tintin-s@fkp.unair.ac.id

An intervention with the aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques, upon acupressure meridian PC6, could reduce nausea and vomiting,  and increase comfort and decrease anorexia. However, the research has not been found to prove effectiveness if these two interventions are combined. This research explains the effect of combinations of the aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques, upon acupuncture meridian PC6, on nausea, vomiting, comfort and anorexia. Quantitative research was designed for a Quasi- Experiment with pre-post-test control group design (four groups pre- post-test). This research was upon a population of cancer patients post chemotherapy, who experienced nausea and vomiting. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used to select 30 respondents for each group, according to inclusion criteria. The research variables were essential ginger oil aroma, relaxation technique acupressure upon meridian PC6, nausea, vomiting, comfort, and anorexia. The instruments used were a nausea and vomiting questionnaire, an anorexia questionnaire, and a shortened general comport questionnaire (GCQ) analysed using MANOVA. There was a decrease in nausea and vomiting p=0,000, an increase in comfort p=0,000, a decrease in anorexia p=0,000 before and after the intervention of a combination of ginger essential oil and relaxation technique upon the acupressure PC6 meridian. The combination of essential ginger aroma and relaxation techniques for acupressure meridian PC6 were one of the alternative interventions that was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, increasing comfort, decreasing anorexia in cancer patients.Pages 276 to 290




The Role of Value Stream Costing in Reducing Product Costs: An Empirical Study

Laith Mahdi Azeeza, Nidhal Mohammed Ridha Mohsinb*, a,bAccounting Department, Faculty of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: b*nadalkalaf@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Economic units have begun to realise an important fact. Traditional cost accounting systems may not be consistent with the administrative tools and techniques produced by lean thinking, a concept that economic units are trying to apply. This research explains the theoretical foundations of value stream technology, and the most prominent lean accounting techniques. It distinguishes activities that add value from those that do not, to exclude the latter. It is hypothesised that the application of value stream technology reduces costs, and enhances the perceived value of the customer. This study shows that the value stream cost approach deals with a specific number of value streams, unlike traditional cost systems that deal with a large number of products. Consequently, the volume of planning, preparing, measuring and controlling costs is less than the value of current costs.Pages 291 to 304




Determinants of Firm Value and Earnings Management in Indonesian Sharia Stock Companies

Sari Khalidya Putria, Azhar Maksumb*, a,bUniversitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: b*azhar@usu.ac.id

The objective of the research was to analyse the impact of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committees), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size on firm value, with earnings management as a moderating variable. Data are collected from the financial statements of manufacturing companies listed in ISSI in the period of 2014-2018. The result showed that, GCG (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committee), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size significantly influenced firm value. Institutional ownership did not have any influence on firm value. Audit committees negatively influenced firm value. Independent commissioners, profitability, financial leverage, and firm size positively influenced firm value. Earnings management as a moderating variable could not moderate the correlation of GCG (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committee), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size on firm value.Pages 305 to 324




Informing Wetland Management: An Economic Valuation of Tam Giang - Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam

Hong Chuong Phama, Ha Thanh Leb, Mau Dung Nguyenc, a,bNational Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam, cHanoi Agriculture University, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: achuongph@neu.edu.vn,  bthanhlh@neu.edu.vn,  cmaudung@vnua.edu.vn

Natural wetlands are ecosystems. They provide numerous goods and services for the local population inside a wetland or its periphery, and for communities in the wider landscape. Commonly the intrinsic and economic values of goods and services provided by wetlands are insufficiently considered in planning and decisions on socio-economic or sectoral development, to guide the conservation and wise use of wetland resources. This paper estimates the total economic value (TEV) of ecosystem services provided by the Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) wetland lagoon in Vietnam, at US$77.291 mill. The estimate is based on various methods, for specific ecosystem services. Two wetland management options, including: (i) “Business as Usual” and (ii) Establishment of wetland conservation area (WCA) are formulated, to conduct a quantified benefit analysis. The option of establishing a TG-CH WCA is able to bring the significantly higher TEV (around US$178 mill.) than the “Business as Usual” over a 20-year time horizon 2016-2035. Our findings add to the empirical evidence suggesting that wetland conservation is not only good ecologically, but also viable economic policy. The study’s results reinforce the significant economic value of wetland, and seek to support decision-making on wetland management strategies selection. Pages 325 to 344




Assessing Visitor Preferences as to Sustainable Heritage Tourism

Dyah Maya Nihayaha, Fafuridab*, Nurjannah Rahayu Kistantic, Agung Wahyu Handarud, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Email: adyah_maya@mail.unnes.ac.id,  b*fafurida@mail.unnes.ac.id,  cnurjannah.rk@mail.unnes.ac.id,  dagung_1178@yahoo.com

The tourism industry can be an economic multiplier for regional economic growth. Kota Lama is cultural heritage that must be preserved. Good planning is needed to develop it as a tourist destination. This study assesses tourist preferences, to evaluate the market for heritage tourism. This research is exploratory. It uses both primary data obtained from interviews and questionnaires from tourists. Data was taken by purposive random sampling method and analysed by quantitative descriptive method. A region becomes a tourist destination in five aspects; attractions, accessibility, facilities, promotions and information. The result show that Kota Lama fulfils all aspects as a heritage destination. Tourists’ perceptions will support its development policy. Coordination with the community and tourism stakeholders is needed, because tourist satisfaction is a determinant of Kota Lama becoming a sustainable, heritage tourism destination.Pages 345 to 358




A Musical Note: An Audio Gaming Aid for Listening to Traditional Thai Alto Xylophones

Pongsakorn Kingsuwankula, Thanakorn Uiphanitb, Thatsanan Chutosric, Pongpisit Liengyud, Wannarat Bunchongkiene, Yutakorn Sarikkaganonf, Kitsana Khengthongg, a,b,c,d,e,Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, fDepartment of Music, Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, gBumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: apongsakorn.ki@ssru.ac.th,  bthanakorn.ui@ssru.ac.th,  cthatsanan.ch@ssru.ac.th,  dpornpisit.li@ssru.ac.th,  ewannarat.bu@ssru.ac.th,  fyutakorn.sa@ssru.ac.th,  grapnew9138@gmail.com

In modern times, Thai musical study gets serious after secondary school where it is compulsory for students to learn both theory and practice. Playing Thai musical instruments has always been a privilege for musicians. They are taught to respect the instruments. Ranat ek or “Thai Alto” xylophone is a lead Thai percussion instrument. Learning to play alto xylophone can be difficult initially, especially when remembering the tone of notes. This research has the following objectives: 1) To develop a game that promotes listening to traditional Thai music via the sound of Thai xylophones, among first year college students; 2) To determine that experience; 3) To know the satisfaction of students towards the game. The sample group is students in Year 1, in Wat Bangbon school. The students are from three classes, 84 students in total. The research tools are questionnaires on the experience of listening to traditional Thai music. The researcher developed the tools. The result reveals that the efficiency of the system is, overall, high at = 4.43 and S.D. = 0.83. Further, the satisfaction level of users towards the system is, overall, high at = 4.42 and S.D. = 0.21.Pages 359 to 371




A Job Recommendation Machine Learning Model Using Elderly Lifestyles

Nichamon Sithiponporna, Uthai Tanlamaib, Achara Chandrachaic, Sipat Triukosed, a,cTechnopreneurship and Innovation Management Program, Graduate School Interdisciplinary Program Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, bDepartment of Accountancy, Chulalongkorn Business School Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, dResearch Group on Applied Computer Engineering for Medicine and Healthcare (ATM) Chulalongkorn University Big Data Analytics and IoT Centre (CUBIC) Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, Email: ansithiponporn@gmail.com,  buthai@cbs.chula.ac.th,  cachandrachai@gmail.com,  dsipat.t@chula.ac.th

One of the most significant social transformations nowadays is the aging society. The Baby Boomer generation is now becoming the majority segment of our society. This group seems to have different lifestyles and diverse characteristics from past generations of senior citizens. They tend to continue working into their older years. When recommending a job for this group, assessing their demographics may be insufficient. This paper suggests job recommendations, according to elderly lifestyles, using a machine learning process. Senior citizens living in Bangkok served as the sample for the study. The machine learning model was formulated in R programming language by a logistic regression algorithm to enhance accuracy. The model can recommend a job for seniors with 91.20% accuracy. The study provides the concept and empirical model for job recommendations for the elderly based on their background, lifestyles, and current quality of life norms.Pages 372 to 396




Using STSE-Model Learning to Examine Students’ Environmental Awareness of the Risk of Environmental Disaster

Rungtiwa Kongsona, aSchool of Education, University of Phayao, Thailand, Email: arungtiwa05.s.ppk@gmail.com

The objective of this work is to study the environmental awareness of students in areas at risk of environmental disaster. STSE-model learning is used, to compare students who are experienced and inexperienced as to the effects of such disasters. Students in year suksa 4 and year 5, under the Office of the Basic Education Commission in Thailand, were studied; in total 134 students. The data was analysed to find mean, standard deviation, and t-test independent. This work found that a high level of in-depth knowledge, appreciation, love and cherishing of the environment, through its examination and evaluation of learning. However, the aspect of anxiety and concern, and being able to act or solving various environmental problems by oneself and working group at the highest level. The data analysis of mean, standard deviation, and t-test independent indicate a difference in the environmental awareness of students, between pre and post learning, with statistical significance, from 41.75% to 89.50%. Students experienced and inexperienced affected to environmental disasters. Awareness toward environmental of students in the area at risk to environmental disaster by using STSE-model learning not different. Pages 397 to 414




Analysing The New Public Service of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

Thussaneeya Boripisa, Teeraphat Kitjarakb, aSchool of Political Science and  Law, Walailak University, Thailand, bPublic Administration Program in Faculty of Humanities and social sciences, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: aThussaneeya.bo@wu.ac.th,  bTeeraphat.kit@pcru.ac.th

This research aims to perform two roles. It aims: (1) to analyse the New Public Service of the Office of Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand; (2) To suggest new public service guidelines for that Office. The purpose of the study on the basic service provision by Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, is to improve "Lard Na Phra That" Mueang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand. This research is qualitative research using in-depth interviews with relevant persons and content analysis from relevant documents. The research  shows that the public services of Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality and the basic services provision of Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality i.e. water supply, electricity, waste gathering, security, mobile toilet provided for tourists comply with the idea of Denhardt and Denhardt  (2000 p.554). The public service management method of the local government organisation is mainly responsible for Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality.Pages 415 to 425




Hotel Website Quality Factors Influencing High-Quality Tourists’ Online Purchasing Intentions: A Luxury, Boutique Hotel in Bangkok

Prach Punnasuparoma, Therdchai Choibamroongb, aPhD candidate of the Integrated Tourism and Hospitality Management Graduate School of Tourism Management, National Institute of Development Administration Bangkok, Thailand, bAssociate Professor of Graduate School of Tourism Management, National Institute of Development Administration Bangkok, Thailand, Email: alimbo_prach@hotmail.com,  bted-choibamroong@hotmail.com

Websites have become a medium for hotel enterprises to sell their services online. High-quality tourists are significant to hotel sellers. They are passionately into online purchasing, making this segment a dominant, topical online market. Therefore, it is crucial to identify quality factors in hotel websites; the influencers of high-quality tourist’s online purchasing intention for luxury boutique hotels in Bangkok, Thailand. This research utilises a quantitative approach. Online questionnaires were distributed to 455 high-value tourists, people who have stayed in 13 luxury boutique hotels in Bangkok. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) related a set of observed variables to the construct. This research discovered that information content, website interactivity, website responsiveness, and website design were organised into functionality group, then ease of use, website viable substitute. Online processes were organised into usability groups. Those two groups were significantly influencing online purchasing intention. However, innovation of website, website visual appeal, and hotel image were not significant in predicting the variance in online purchasing intention. This study concluded that hotel website quality was significant in predicting online purchasing behaviour. Websites are a direct marketing tool for improving success, and hotel customers’ needs should be fully considered in the digital age.Pages 426 to 441




Milestones in Intellectual Property Rights Promotion (Trademark) and OTOP Business in Thailand under the Public Concept of “Pracharat”

Thepparat Phimolsathiena, aFaculty of Administration and Management, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Email: athepparat@hotmail.com

This research has three objectives. They are 1) to study promotion levels of Trademark and One Tambon One Product (OTOP) Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, 2) to study factors influencing the promotion of Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, and 3) to study and propose guidelines for promoting Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat. The study was conducted by qualitative and quantitative research methods.  The sample group was OTOP entrepreneurs in five pilot provinces from four regions, totalling 2,000 people. The key informants were those who played an important role in managing the OTOP product. Research tools were questionnaires and interview forms. The research revealed that opinions on promoting Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under Pracharat concept were at a moderate level. When considering each ground, the first opinion was about the rights of OTOP trademark owners. Other factors were also found including accessing production factors, administration, knowledge management, communication and awareness for sustainability, respectively. Such variables can presumably foresee the promotion of Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, by 74.5 percent.  Milestones in Intellectual Property Rights Promotion (Trademark) and OTOP Business in Thailand under the Public Concept “Pracharat” include value added creation and product development, and improvement of trademark protection regulations in the current situation.Pages 442 to 457




Innovative Communication Mechanism for the Psychological Well-being of Caregivers and Elderly with Dementia in the context of Thailand

Taksaya Watcharasarnsapa, Uthai Tanlamaib, Rajalida Lipikornc, aTechnopreneurship and Innovation Management Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, bDepartment of Accountancy, Chulalongkorn Business School Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, cMathematics and Computer Science Department, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Email: ataksaya.w@gmail.com,  buthai@cbs.chula.ac.th,  crajalida.l@chula.ac.th

The present research aims to develop an innovative communication mechanism to promote the relationship between caregivers and people with dementia. A mobile application system was developed based on the Reminiscence therapy framework in conjunction with an effective interpersonal communication method using enabling technology, which is the Speech to Text and Natural Language Processing (NLP).  Thirty pairs of caregivers and their counterparts with dementia were the experimental subjects with another thirty pairs as the control. The results indicated a better relationship and psychological well-being after the use of this mobile application. The experimental group also has a higher rating score on both counts than the control group. Pages 458 to 474




Value Creation of Local Identity in Thailand: Marketing Promotion for Enhancing Community-Based Cultural Tourism

Thanarat Ratanapongtraa*, Thong Khamkerdb, Sukhum Kongditc, Tharanee Nawatnateed, a,b,c,d Tourism Program, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Thailand, Email: a*thanarat.r@rmutsb.ac.th

This research aims at defining a strategy to develop marketing promotion for community-based cultural tourism of the Bang Mae Mai community in the central part of Thailand and analysing a model of marketing promotion used to enhance community-based cultural tourism through value creation of local identity. The study was conducted by using qualitative focus group discussion which found that in order for a community to be able to attract tourists it is required to analyse the distinction of resources and tourist attraction capacity as a fundamental factor in defining marketing strategy for cultural tourism. For the case study of the Bang Mae Mai community, 7 strategies have been defined, which consist of organising tourism promotional activities, advertising community’s tourist attractions, conducting online marketing, improving tourism-related skills for community’s members and personnel, encouraging the participation of a new generation, developing offline advertising media for community’s tourist attractions, and developing cultural market of the community to become more distinctive. These will be used for analysing a marketing promotional model for enhancing community-based tourism in order to be applied to other communities with the corporation of five parties including tourism group leaders in the community, public sector, tourism association, tourism enterprise, and mass media. This study can be utilised as a guideline in supporting community-based tourism for other places. Pages 475 to 488




Indonesian Young Moslems in a New Social Movement in the Post Reformation: Sahabat Hijrahkuu Community

Rizabuana Ismaila*, Sahran Saputrab, Muryanto Aminc, T Ilham Saladind, a,b,c,dUniversitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: a*rizabuana@usu.ac.id

This paper discusses the migration movement by Sahabat Hijrakuu community as a new social movement of young Muslims in Medan. The objective of the research was to find out the patterns through some articulation typology of Islamic social movement and the aim of socio-political change, using the Islamic perspective of populism and post-Islamism. The data were gathered using qualitative methods by conducting observations, interviews, and library research. The result of this paper shows the development of the migration movement in the series and the collective awareness of young Muslims in Medan in the post-Islam Defence Action movement. In the polarisation of the movement and the objective of socio-political change which is wanted in the Sahabat Hijrakuu community, it can be said that this movement is Islamic populism, and that Post-Islamism movements split into two perspectives. First, the objective of the socio-political change in the Islamic populism perspective is identified by the existence and the representation of a middle class of Moslems as Ummah. Secondly, the objective of the socio-political movement through the perspective of Post-Islamism is identified by the adaptation and the negotiation of middle-class Moslems in democracy. Pages 489 to 504




Improving Students’ HOT and Literacy Skills in the context of Indonesia

Nana Sepriyantia*, Sasmi Nelwatib, Wan Nasirc, a,bUniversitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, 25153, Indonesia, cBalai Diklat Keagamaan Padang, 25173, Indonesia, Email: a*nanasepriyanti@uinib.ac.id

The results of some research indicate that a student’s Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) skills and literacy skills are low in Indonesia. This is thought to be because students tend to do the learning process mechanistically. Through this research, 21st century competency-based learning has developed a valid, practical and effective set of Education Statistics courses to improve the HOT Skill and Literacy Skills of FTK UIN Imam Bonjol Padang students. This research was conducted through a cyclical process: preliminary phase, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. Data collection methods used were observation, interviews, checklists, videotaping, analysis of student work, validation sheets and HOT Skill tests and Literacy Skill students. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed 21st Century Competency-Based learning improved HOT Skill and Literacy skills of UIN Imam Bonjol Padang Students as a valid, practical and effective tool.Pages 513 to 529




The Rise of the Mediation Method in Wealth Management

Nur Khalidah Dahlana, Ruzian Markomb, Rozlinda Mohamed Fadzilc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, The National University of Malaysia,

Alternative Dispute Resolution, or ADR, is a process for resolving conflicts - one that respects the dignity of individuals while creating mutually satisfying solutions. ADR uses communication skills, collaboration, negotiation, and mediation to produce an agreement that meets the interests of the parties involved. Alternative disputes resolution method has appeared to be more in line with Islamic precepts that consist of consultation (shura), mediation and conciliation (Sulh), as well as arbitration. When participating in Alternative Dispute Resolution, parties maintain the right to seek agreement and settlement. Mediation enjoys consistently high satisfaction rates by participants. In Malaysia, the organisation bodies for mediation are the Malaysian Mediation Centre, Securities Industry Dispute Resolution Centre (SIDREC) and the Ombudsman Financial Service (OFS). All these centres are focusing on banking and financial instruments.  There is an indication that ADR options can lead to more efficient use of resources by the courts, saving time and money for litigants, and reducing levels of subsequent litigation. This paper will focus on some of the organisation bodies that practice mediation which and have been successfully undertaken in the past. Thse practices are examples of those that can also be similarly applied in the future. Pages 530 to 544




The Role of Technology in Shaping the Future of Oil Production and Consumption

Maan Abood Alia, Khawla R. Hassanb, Hasan Rasak Ghyadhc, Rajaa Abdullah Esa Alsalimd, aFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq, bFaculty of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq, cImam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University, Misan, Iraq, dFaculty of Administration and Economics University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq, Email: amaanabood3@gmail.com,  bkhawla.hassan@uobasrah.edu.ig,  crshkhsn0@gmail.com,  dRajaa_essaa@yahoo.com

This study aims to explore the impact of modern technological innovations in the field of oil on the levels of global production and consumption of oil through the use of a descriptive and analytical approach. The results show that oil technologies led to a real revolution in changing the course of events during the past few years, especially in the field of production and consumption of oil squarely on the throne of energy, through increasing oil reserves, using three-dimensional exploration techniques (D3 and D4) that reduced the failure rate in drilling wells up to limits (8/10). In addition, it helped to find other oil basins, as well as in the discovery of oil reserves in the Atlantic Ocean and the coasts of Mexico, Brazil and West Africa, such as the Republic of Guinea and others, as well as reservoirs in deep waters. The technology is merited with increasing production from existing fields, through the development of drilling and production techniques, and enhanced production that added new energy estimated at two thirds (2/3) of the primary production capacity of the well, and the technologies helped in the production of unconventional oils, such as shale oil, shale oil and bottoms oil oceans. In addition, technology also is greatly credited with reducing oil consumption, by improving the efficiency of engines in energy production and reducing the level of fuel consumption, as it brought the car to run at 57.1 kilometres / gallon. Pages 545 to 560




Needs Analysis of Regional Potential-Based Vocational High School Development

Wagirana*, Pardjonob, Yudha Yanti Cahyaningrumc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*wagiran@uny.ac.id

This study aims to reveal vocational high schools’ (VHSs’) areas of expertise and expertise programs that are feasible to be developed based on regional potential. As an  exploratory descriptive research conducted in Berau Regency, it employs documentation and interviews to collect  data. Quantitative data analysis is carried out through principal component analysis, location-quotient method, Sprague multiplier method and  exponential method. Qualitative data analysis was carried out by using data reduction, data presentation, and verification. The results reveal that the sub-districts that need VHSs in Berau Regency include Kelay, Tabalar and Maratua. The areas of expertise needed at Kelay include agribusiness and agrotechnology with the agribusiness program of estate crops and estate crop processing. Tabalar necessitate agribusiness and agrotechnology with agribusiness plant expertise program and agricultural product processing. Maratua require the fields of tourism with hospitality and tourism services, as well as food engineering. Pages 561 to 574




The Effect of Marketing Deception on Consumer Purchasing Decisions -An Analytical Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Baghdad University Students

Alaa Nabeel Al-Healia, aMarket Research and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

The study aims to discover the effect of  marketing deception practised by mobile phone companies in after-sales services, whether they are providing guarantee services, after-sales service price, promotion or distribution regarding the decision for  consumer purchase. A descriptive analytical method has been selected. Data was collected through a questionnaire that was distributed electronically to  random individual samples, represented by graduate students in both the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Post-graduate studies  and the Higher Institute for Financial and Accounting Studies / University of Baghdad. The sample size consisted of (60) students while the data analysis showed that there is a correlation between  marketing deception of  after-sales service and  consumer purchasing decision. Marketing deception related to  price significantly affects  consumer purchase decisions, however  marketing deception in service, promotion and distribution does not significantly affect  consumer sparks decision. This result is due to the nature of  consumer culture, the studied sample and the extent of their understanding of the questions. Amongst the most important recommendations of the study is the necessity of working to activate the role of the Consumer Protection Association to monitor the market in the after-sales services sector by conducting awareness campaigns for consumers of their rights to enhance their ability to test the quality of services provided to them and impose penalties on marketing companies that demonstrate the practice of marketing deception in order to reduce unethical practices. Pages 575 to 595




Evaluating Laboratory Skills of Students in the Department of Electromechanical Engineering according to  Suggested Standards

Sahira Al-saadia, Shawq Azizb, Haidar Al-ijrshc, aProfessor, Educational Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad, Karada, Iraq, bLecturer, Methods of Teaching Science public, University of Babylon, Babylon, Hella, Iraq, cProfessor, Methods of Teaching Social, University of Babylon, Babylon, Hella, Iraq,

This study aims to evaluate the laboratory skills of students in the  Department of the Electromechanical Engineering–Systems Branch according to  suggested standards. The research tool consists of the (22) standard observation cards   presented by researchers to a group of experts and specialists in the method of teaching Science and  the ability to express  opinions and observations in order to verify confidence and objectivity. The descriptive method was  selected as appropriate to achieve the research aim . The sample  consists of (65) students of the Department of Electromechanical Engineering- Systems Branch. Statistical analysis is conducted through  IBM® software SPSS 25.0.The results indicate that the laboratory skills of electromechanical engineering students in the systems branch at the University of Technology, did not fully meet the suggested standards (NGSS-STEAM-GLP), when compared to the hypothetical mean. The researchers recommend the need to review the content of laboratory courses to take into account the standards, and activate the role of laboratory supervisors as well as the need to train professors who prepare practical experiments and teach  practical aspects  within the laboratory concerning  necessary laboratory skills and familiarise students  with laboratory teaching methods and  standards . Pages 596 to 605




Understanding Medication Errors as Leading Factors amongst Nursing Staff Working at Basra City Hospitals, Iraq

Utoor Talib Jassima, Samira Muhammed Ebrahimb, aDepartment of Basic Science, College of Nursing, University of Basra, Iraq, bDepartment of Nursing Science, College of Nursing, University of Basra, Iraq , Email: adrutoortalib67@gmail.com,  bsamiraebrahim7@gmail.com

Background: Medication errors are one of the most common medical errors that threaten health services and lead to disorder in the treatment process. Aims: To determine the main leading factors that contribute to medication errors from the perspective of nurses, to assess the nurses’ understanding about the factors related to medication error and to estimate the relationship between nurses’ understanding of factors that contribute to medication errors with demographic characteristics. Methods: the present study contains descriptive methodology; a structured questionnaire was given to 100 nurses working in various departments in three Basra city hospitals. Results: Tiredness resulting from overwork (56%), department environmental noise (60%), insufficient number of nurses in relation to patients (83%) and physicians’ illegible handwriting in patient files (55%) are the leading causes for medication errors from the nurses’ perspectives. It has been found that 11%, 45%, 44% of respondents had good, medium and poor understanding respectively regarding factors related to medication errors. Conclusions: The main factors contributing to medication errors are insufficient numbers of nurses compared to number of patients, environmental department noise, tiredness resulting from overwork and physicians’ illegible handwriting in patient files. A considerable percentage of nursing staff have poor awareness about factors leading to medication errors. There is a significant negative correlation between nursing staff awareness age and duration of employment. Furthermore, there is significant correlation between understanding and formal education as well as participating in training courses related to the subject.Pages 606 to 615




The Mediating Role of Team Perspective between Paradoxical Leadership, Innovative Work Behaviour and Team Innovation

Ali Isam AlSoltanea, Hussein Adnan Issa ALallaqb, a,bDepartment of Business Administration- Faculty of Administration and Economics- Al-Muthanna University-Iraq, Email: ateme-2009@mu.edu.iq,  bHussein.easa@mu.edu.iq

Team innovation and performance are a major concern for  management. Paradoxical leadership can assist in sharing and obtaining knowledge from team members to enhance innovation and management needing to develop innovative team behaviour  to share information amongst team members to improve innovation. The purpose of the current study  is the mediating role of team perspective between paradoxical leadership, innovative work behaviour and team innovation. The sample size consists of  73 team members of University Departments  at Qadisiyah. The 5 point Likert scale was used to obtain  responses and PLS (AMOS) 3.0 was used to analyse the response. The study findings show  that the role of paradoxical leadership needs to improve in assisting knowledge sharing and team  innovation . However, team members have a strong sense of innovative work behaviour to share and obtain information from other members to enhance their sense of innovation. This study conducted was conducted at the University departments of . Respondents were  taken from a large area. The study also suggests that team learning behaviour and a high-performance work system can assist the team perspective  to enhance team innovation. Pages 626 to 642




The Mediating Effect of Employee Engagement between Sustainable HRM Practices and Job Performance

Asmaa Abdul Wahid Malik Alghnimia, Liqaa Miri Habeebb, Rabab Ibrahim Kadhimc, aAL-Furat Al-awasat Technical University Al-Dewaniyah Technical, bCollege of Administration & Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, cFaculty of administration & Economics Department of Finance and Banking, Email: aAssmaali666666@gmail.com,  bLiqaa.miri@qu.edu.iq,  cRabab.Ibrahim@qu.edu.iq

This study examines the role of sustainable HRM practices on job performance through engagement. The study measures the effect of participation and employee empowerment on job performance. The population was all the employees in the Diwaniyah General Hospital of Iraq. By using a random sampling technique, 200 sample participants were selected as the target population. The 5-point Likert scale was used to collect the responses. The findings of the study by using PLS 3.0 are to examine the role of practices of HR on performance and the mediating effect of employee engagement between HR practices and job performance. The findings of the study show that HRM practices, such as participation and employee empowerment, have a positive effect on employee job performance. Specifically, the study confirms that employees’ engagement significantly mediates between HR practices, such as employees’ participation, employees’ empowerment and the performance of employees, and the sustainability of HRM practices have a great impact on job performance. Furthermore, a future research direction is presented. Pages 643 to 659




The Social Function for University Youth Use of Internet Techniques in Jordanian Society

Alaa Zuhir Al Rawashdeha, Asma Rebhi Al Arabb, Noura Nasser algahtanic, Mooza Isa Aldoyd, a,bAjman University– UAE) / (Al Balqaa Applied University-Jordan, cKing Saud University-KSA, dDepartment of Social Sciences, University of Bahrain, Email: aalaa_rwashdeh@yahoo.com,  cahtani@KSU.EDU.SA,  dm.aldoy1@hotmail.com

The study aimed at identifying the social function for university youth use of internet techniques in society, according to some variables, by using a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 450 Jordan university students. The study found that there were no significant differences (α = 0.05) attributed to the effects of all variables except for the place where the internet was used and the website type. The study recommended that the youth should be appreciative of the importance of the internet, that they should activate the role of social sciences, rehabilitation and training of social specialists and workers to use the internet and be appreciative of its recent developments to be employed for the benefit of the youth and society Pages 660 to 681




A Study on Foreign Direct Investment Flows in Vietnam

Van Su Haa*, Thu Thuy Nguyenb, aAssociate Professor, Faculty of Economics & Law, Thuongmai University, Vietnam, bAssociate Professor, Faculty of Financial & Banking, Thuongmai University, Vietnam, Email: a*hvsdhtm@tmu.edu.vn,  bthuy.nt@tmu.edu.vn

Integration is forecasted to have a substantial impact on not only import and export activities but also on the ability to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) into Vietnam. Our regression results show that trade openness has a positive impact on Vietnam’s inward FDI (an increase of 1.0% in trade liberalisation can result in an increase of 0.23% in FDI inflows to Vietnam). Notably, our simulation results reveal that the CPTPP will increase the growth rate of FDI into Vietnam from 2.0% -2.4%/ year compared to the base scenario. However, the degree of impact will vary over time. Between 2019 and 2025, FDI inflows will tend to increase faster than in the following period 2026-2035. This shows that CPTPP will have a faster and stronger impact in the first 6 years (2019-2025) (with a steeper impact curve) when the agreement officially takes effect for Vietnam. Then the impact will decrease gradually in the following years. Pages 682 to 700




The External Factors Affecting the Dividend Policy: The Case of Listed Companies on the Hanoi Stock Exchange

Anh Le Nguyen Dieua, aUniversity of Economics - Technology for Industries, Vietnam, Email: alndanh@uneti.edu.vn

This paper is conducted to investigate the impact levels of external determinants on the dividend policy of listed companies on the Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX). Data was collected from getting 155 questionnaires from listed companies on the HNX. Based on the data collected, we use Cronbach’s Alpha, EFA and run regression model to find the impact levels of each independent variable on the dependent variable of the dividend policy. The results show that three external determinants, including tax policy (TP), inflation and interest rates (IIR) and legal environment (LE) have relationships with the dividend policy. Based on the findings, some recommendations are given for improving the dividend policy of listed companies on the HNX to ensure sustainability. Pages 701 to 719




The Construction of Corporate Waqf Models for Indonesia

Miftahul Hudaa, Lukman Santosob, aFaculty of Sharia, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Ponorogo, Indonesia, bDoctoral Program, Faculty of Law Indonesia Islamic University (UII), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: amiftahul.huda@iainponorogo.ac.id,  blukmansantoso4@gmail.com

This study aims to explore the management and development models of waqf assets of companies in Malaysia and Singapore, as well as their relevance for the development of corporate waqf constructions that are in accordance with Indonesian waqf law and the wisdom of traditions that have been developed in keeping with the culture. By using an interpretative exploratory type qualitative approach, this study yields findings that the construction of management and development models of corporate waqf assets in Indonesia that are in accordance with Indonesian legal endowments and traditional wisdom are business entities, banks, universities, foundations, hospitals, and cooperative companies. This study aims to demonstrate the strengthening of the holistic corporate waqf model in Indonesia, as it is necessary to strengthen regulatory stakeholders as well as an integrative and holistic understanding among scholars. Pages 720 to 734




The Role of Batam Island during the Period of the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation

Bunaria, Nina Herlinab, Mumuh Muhsin Zc, Kunto Sofiantod, a,b,c,dPadjadjaran University, Email: abunari17001@gmail.unpad.ac.id,  bnina.herlina@unpad.ac.id,  cmumuh.muhsin@unpad.ac.id,  dkunto.sofianto@unpad.ac.id

This article discusses the role of Batam Island during the period of Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1964-1966), which in Indonesia was propagandised under the slogan “Ganyang Malaysia” (“Crush Malaysia”). The discussion focuses on why Batam Island was chosen as the command centre of the volunteer army in its mission to “Crush Malaysia”. The study shows that Batam Island’s strategic location was the main reason for its selection as the volunteer army’s base. The choice was also based on the island’s proximity to Sambu Island as the command centre of the KKO (the Indonesian Marine Corps). The two islands were prepared as the starting point of a planned attack against Singapore, then still part of the Federation of Malaysia. For Indonesia, Singapore was the most crucial part of the confrontation, and as part of the plan was to to sabotage it, Indonesia chose Batam Island as the volunteer army’s base due to its proximity to Singapore. Pages 735 to 743




Factors Influencing Process Structuring in IT Risk Management

Urairat Maneerattanasaka*, Nitaya Wongpinunwatanab, Chainarong Kaeowaranonchaic, Metha Suvanasarnd, aThammasat Business School, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment of Business Administration (Management Information Systems) Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, cFreelance IT Auditor, Bangkok, Thailand, dIT GRC consultant, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: a*urairat-man59@tbs.tu.ac.th,  bwongpinn5@gmail.com,  cCkaeowaranonchai@gmail.com,  dsuvanasarn@gmail.com

Information technology risk management (ITRM) is being enforced by regulators on strategic and complex organisations such as financial institutions. This research paper investigates risk management problems uncovered while doing case study analysis with selected organisations. This study revealed that factors most impacted by organisation size are tools, interdependence and expertise of the three lines of defence. The findings imply that risk management tools need development to fit with the interdependent working of the three lines of defence structure. Also, people in the organisation need training to improve risk management expertise and to drive the three lines of defence to work effectively. Size of an organisation also impacts ITRM practice. Furthermore, the results of this research reveal problems different from previous ITRM research as most of the prior research suggested improving ITRM processes and models. The theoretical contribution of this research is the framework of principles and practice fit focusing on process structuring. Pages 744 to 760




Individual Characteristics and Job Characteristics on Work Effectiveness in the State-Owned Company: the Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence

Henry Aspana*, Etty Sri Wahyunib, Ari Prabowoc, Ami Natuz Zaharad, Ika Novita Sarie, Mariyanaf, aUniversitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, b,c,dUniversitas Sumatra Utara, e,fUniversitas Batam, Email: a*henryaspan@yahoo.com

PT. Jasa Marga is a company that specialises in the service business sector thats main business is managing roads and bridges. To carry out its duties and responsibilities, PT. Jasa Marga needs employees who play a large role in carrying out all activities of the company with a variety of individual characters and various existing work characters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of individual and work characteristics on work effectiveness and which is moderated by emotional intelligence. Analysis tools using SPSS Version 22.00 with the analysis model Moderated Regression Analyze (MRA). The results showed that individual characteristics and job characteristics partially had a positive and significant effect on work effectiveness. Emotional intelligence acts as a moderating variable in testing the effect of individual and work characteristics on work effectiveness. Pages 761 to 774




Development and Validity of an Environmental Knowledge Instrument

Aynin Mashfufaha*, Joko Nurkamtob, Sajidanc, Wirantod, aDoctoral Program of Education Science of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, dMath and Science Faculty of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*ayninn@student.uns.ac.id

This research aims to develop an environmental knowledge instrument. This research employs qualitative and quantitative methods. Five experts check the developed instrument based on evaluation, content and language aspects. The respondents consist of 120 pre-service biology teachers. The test results are analysed from the difficulty level and distinguishing power index. Test items that meet both aspects are analysed using the confirmatory factor analysis, to measure construct validity, and estimated for its coefficient of reliability. The result shows that all items have a medium difficulty level and a good distinguishing power index. The confirmatory factor analysis shows that the items met the construct validity from factor loading of higher than 0.07 and t-value of higher than t-table. The coefficient of reliability, according to Cronbach alpha, is higher than 0.70. Based on the analysis results, the developed instrument to measure environmental knowledge has met the criteria for a valid and reliable instrument. Pages 775 to 793




Corporate Governance Mechanism and Cost of Capital to Firm Value

Bernardus Y. Nugrohoa, aFaculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Indonesia, Email: anugroho_yuliarto@yahoo.com

This study examines the use of corporate governance to the cost of capital and corporate value. Corporate governance is a set of rules which manages the relationships between stakeholders, government, internal and external parties, employees and management that are related to their rights and obligations. The proxies used for corporate governance variables are independent commissioners, board size, managerial ownership, institutional ownership and non-institutional ownership. The research method used is panel data regression. The sample used in this study is non-financial listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) in the period 2008-2018. The results of this study indicate that variables of corporate governance, such as independent commissioners, board size, managerial ownership and institutional ownership, have a significant influence on capital costs. The results of this study also found that variables of corporate governance mechanism such as board size, institutional ownership, and non-institutional ownership significantly influence the firm's value (Tobin's Q). Pages 794 to 807




Navigating Through Domestic Impediments: Suharto and Indonesia’s Leadership in ASEAN

Darwisa, Bama Andika Putrab*, Abdul Razaq Cangarac, a,b,cDepartment of International Relations, Universitas Hasanuddin, Email: adarwis.hi@unhas.ac.id,  b*bama@unhas.ac.id,  cacacangara@unhas.ac.id

This paper focuses on the implementation of Indonesia's free and active foreign policy in Southeast Asia, during the presidency of Suharto. It looks at a wide range of study cases from 1967-1998 that reflect how Indonesia’ free and active policy has shaped most of its interaction in the Southeast Asian region during the Cold War. The research adopts analytical-descriptive research methodology in interpreting Suharto’s policies in responding to the Southeast Asian political landscape. The paper concludes that the success of Indonesia’s free and active foreign policy in Southeast Asia during Suharto’s rule is based on (1) historical aspects of Indonesian kingdom dominance in Southeast Asia, (2) the political culture of Javanese ethnicity, (3) increasing military support that strengthened the regime’s power, and (4) aligned policies with dominant domestic institutions in Indonesia. Pages 808 to 824




Viewpoints of Teachers of Natural Science Subjects on STEM Education at the Secondary School Level in Vietnam

Nhi Thi Nguyena, aVinh University, Vietnam, Email: ahongnhi1076@gmail.com

STEM education (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) is an educational orientation that of interest to Vietnam as well as most countries in the world. However, how STEM education should be implemented, especially in the context of developing countries like Vietnam that have certain restrictions on economy and facilities, is still a matter of concern and needs to be studied and investigated. Currently, there are still many different interpretations of STEM education, which lends itself to a very diverse and inconsistent  implementation of STEM education. In order to implement STEM teaching effectively and comprehensively, it is necessary to understand the perceptions of STEM education by educators, and thereby find an appropriate way to implement this educational orientation so as to contribute to improving training effectiveness. This paper presents the ideas of 200 teachers of natural science subjects at the secondary school level in Vietnam on STEM education, from which the orientation for implementing STEM education is appropriate. Pages 825 to 843




Patient Satisfaction in a Rural Health Facility: Reliability, Responsiveness and Assurance

Tusy Novita Dwi Wardania, Aulia Ramadhanib, Nadia Rifqi Cahyanic, Hanifiya Samha Wardhanid, Windhu Purnomoe*, a,c,dGraduate Student of Policy and Health Administration Department , Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, bDepartment of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, eDepartment of  Biostatistics and Population, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Email: e*purno.win20@gmail.com

Background: Puskesmas are the health service facilities in Indonesia that organise public health efforts and first-level individual health service. Patient satisfaction is very important for Puskesmas to assess its quality service towards the public by measuring the level of patient satisfaction from the dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, and assurance. Purpose: This study is to determine whether the performance of health services in the Community Health Centre can be considered good or not by measuring the level of patient satisfaction from the dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, and assurance Method: The sampling technique was accidental sampling with a sample size of 138 people. This study used a questionnaire instrument. The data analysis conducted in this research was descriptive analysis and bivariate analysis with the chi-square test. Result: the results of this study found that the level of satisfaction obtained from the three dimensions was low. Reliability has a low result with a percentage of 55.1%, responsiveness has a low result with a percentage of 71.7% and an assurance assessment has a low-value percentage of 88.4%. Conclusion:  From this study, Puskesmas’ health services were considered insufficient by the community, according to the level of patient satisfaction specific to reliability, responsiveness, and assurance. Pages 844 to 854



Big Banana Cultivation: Agricultural Productivity and Return Analysis

Arus Kongrungchoka, Sarapee Chanatupb, Atcharawan Rattanaphanc, a,b,cFaculty of Management Science, Suratthani Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: aarus.kon@sru.ac.th,  bsarapee.cha@sru.ac.th,  catcharawan.rat@sru.ac.th

This study aims to ascertain factors for enhancing productivity and analysing return in terms of big banana cultivation.  The research asked how to obtain the sustainable return and productivity for big banana cultivation. Questionnaires were responded to by 157 Thai agricultural households including 33 volunteered agricultural households who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews for collecting data.  Statistical techniques were used for analysing questionnaires while interview transcripts were analysed using content analysis with a phenomenological research approach.  The result discovered that agriculturists’ competency; appropriate cultivated processes; demand and supply equilibrium for agricultural products; selection for sustainable agricultural product market; investment for cultivation; and agriculturists’ resources management approach, these crucial factors must be concentrated to enhance the productivity and economic return including reducing cultivated costs by Thai agricultural households especially agriculturist’s competency which has been important, as partially transmitted from their ancestors, and impacted the agricultural productivity and the rate of cultivated returns on investment. Another result revealed all factors impacting cultivated operation have directly and positively influenced the successful big banana cultivation of agricultural households whether higher agricultural products targeted price and returns; increasable quantity and quality of target agricultural productivities; and their happily well-beings.  This study can be used for assessing farmers’ decision-making for cultivated investment. Pages 855 to 871

Needs Assessment of Electronics Shops in the Rinconada Area of Camarines Sur: Basis for an Extension Program

Arly B. Balingbinga, aCollege of Education, Arts and Sciences, Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges, Camarines Sur, Philippines, Email: aarlybalingbing@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the needs of electronics shops in the Rinconada area of Camarines Sur. It aims to determine the following: business address, capital, services offered, number of technicians with or without a national certificate, educational qualification, business permit and licenses, and number of years in business operation; the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the electronics shop in the Rinconada area; the extent of identified weaknesses that affect the operation; and the extent of the proposed program to improve the operation. The study uses descriptive quantitative research to gather data from 58 electronics shops in the Rinconada area through a questionnaire. Based on the analysis of the results statistically treated using percentage and weighted mean, a SWOT analysis was considered as a basis in the preparation of the extension program. It was found out that most of the electronics shops in the Rinconada area are operating, even though there is a lack of training and exposure to technological advancements demanded in the market and the great competition with other shops in the business centre. Based on these findings, the researcher prepared an extension program to address the needs of electronics shops in Rinconada using SWOT analysis. Thus, the researcher recommends implementing this extension program to solve the problem. Pages 872 to 889

The Impact of Speech Training with Symbolic Modelling Technique on Students’ Speech Competence

Syafryadina, Noermanzahb, Wisma Yunitac, Dian Eka Chandra Wardhanad, Reni Kusmiartie, a,b,c,dBengkulu University, Bengkulu City, Indonesia, eUniversitas Muhammadiyah Bengkulu, Bengkulu City, Indonesia, Email: asyafryadin@unib.ac.id,  bnoermanzah@unib.ac.id,  cwismayunita@unib.ac.id,  ddec.wardhana@unib.ac.id,  erenikusmiarti@umb.ac.id

This study was designed to investigate whether Speech Training with Video Modelling Technique is more effective than Speech Training with Systematic Desensitisation and ABC Model Technique, to teach speaking  for low and high anxiety students in alleviating students’ speaking anxiety and speaking competence hindrances; it was also designed  to investigate whether the students having high level anxiety have better speaking competence than the students who have low level anxiety by using Symbolic Modelling Technique, Systematic Desensitisation Technique and ABC Model Technique. This study used Solomon Three-Group design. The population of this study was all fourth semester students in the English Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Kendari. Three classes were used as the samples of this study. The instruments of this study were speaking or a speech test, an observation checklist, an interview guideline and note taking. The data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative data were analysed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA), two ways in SPSS 22, while the qualitative data were analysed by using thematic analysis or coding.  The findings of this study were that Speech Training with symbolic Modelling Technique (A1) was more effective than Speech Training with Systematic Desensitisation Technique (A2)  and ABC Model Technique (A3) in enhancing the students speaking competence. It was proved that A1 (81.22) was higher than the students trained by using A2 (79.08) and A3 (78.15). Pages 890 to 910

Economic Literacy and Financial Studies in Higher Education: A Theoretical Approach to the Learning Model and Its Impact

Neti Budiwatia, Eeng Ahmanb, Suparnoc, a,bFaculty of Economics, Universitas pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Universitas negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: anetibudiwati@upi.edu,  beengahman@upi.edu,  csuparno@feunj.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine economic and financial literacy in aspects of the learning process and its impact to provide a reference for effective learning. Economic literacy in Indonesia is still low, so the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Financial Services Authority, and the 2035 National Development Strategy make literacy a part of 21st-century learning and the 4.0 Industrial revolution. This research is a qualitative study using the literature study method with grounded theory, to provide concept mapping in the development of economic literacy. Literacy is an important part of individual development in economic and financial behaviour because it forms a lifestyle and future economic success. The Learning Constructivism Theory is studied comprehensively with Bruce Joyce's models of teaching. The findings of this study are that economic and financial literacy influence consumer behaviour, investment, individual welfare, and organisational performance. Economic and financial literacy learning is carried out by teaching early in the family environment, learning formally and informally; also teachers can choose and develop essential material to be applied to a family of scientific-based information processing learning models. Pages 924 to 939

Impacts upon Non-Performing Loans in Commercial Banks: A Vietnamese Case Study

Nguyen Kim Quoc Trunga*, Bui Quang Hungb, Nguyen Thanh Bec, aFaculty of Accounting – Auditing, University of Finance – Marketing, Vietnam and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, bCollege of Statistics (COS) II, Vietnam and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, cHo Chi Minh Tax Department and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Email: ankq.trung@ufm.edu.vn,  bkingsnake2310@gmail.com,  cbenguyen.01041975@gmail.com

This article examines and builds a model of the factors affecting non-performing loans in Vietnam's joint-stock commercial banks from 2009 through 2017. The theory and empirical research related to some macro and microeconomic factors affecting non-performing loans are also mentioned, in this research paper. System generalised method of moments (SGMM) is used to model the major impacts on non-performing loans. The results demonstrate two models with the following results. The first model has six statistically significant variables. The second has only five statistically significant variables. Pages 940 to 959

The Evaluation of State University Remuneration Policies for Increasing Performance

Siti Nurjanaha, Margunanib, aFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: asnurjanah@unj.ac.idbmargunani@mail.unnes.ac.id

This study evaluates remuneration at the State University of Jakarta (UNJ) in 2016. The 2008 remuneration policy is intended for all civil servants in all government agencies. This research uses an exploratory research method, with the following research sample: (1) students, consisting of diploma students - stratas one, two and three; (2) lecturers; (3) education personnel; (4) graduate students (5) the leadership of  UNJ. The SWOT (described below) analysis show that UNJ is in quadrant one. It has strong strength and opportunity as well as quadrant two, which has strength although challenges remain. Results of balance scorecard analysing show four perspectives. There is financial perspective, learning and growth perspective, internal business process perspective and customer perspective. The results of key performance index analysis generate a strategic program on each of the perspectives, adjusted with an objective strategy chosen by priority. Suggestions for UNJ involve a socialisation and system development for remuneration. Pages 960 to 973

Promoting Good Governance in Labour Relations, among Thailand’s Public Higher Education Institutions

Aree Phasansinthuwonga, Chokchai Suttawetb, a,bFaculty of Social Science & Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: aaphasansinthuwong@gmail.com,  bcsuttawet@gmail.com 

This paper studies good governance in human resource management of public higher education institutions in Thailand. It then suggests developing the labour relations system. Qualitative data were collected from in-depth interviews with 58 informants, and a focus group discussion with seven participants. Questionnaires collected quantitative data from 83 public higher education institutions. The results revealed 1) a patronage system used in every process of human resource administration in universities, and 2) human resource administration, especially as to university employees, is based on each university’s regulations. This paper suggests that guidelines for promoting good governance in such matters consist of two key mechanisms. They are a joint consultation system, by establishing a joint consultation committee of the university staff, and management representatives with roles comparable to those of a trade union in a company’s consultation body. The State should review labour relations laws, to ensure the rights of all university employees and other workers. Measures should be announced that integrate labour relations at organisational and national levels. The universities should practically promote the roles of lecturers and staff council as a workers’ democratic organisation, to negotiate and consult with management. Pages 974 to 990

The Development of Public Policy and Administration on Social Security in ASEAN: A Case Study of Social Insurance for Thai Migrant Workers

Wilailak Yoosamrana, Chokchai Suttawetb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand,

This research was aimed at studying the development of public policy and social security administration, including the study of operational conditions and problems of protecting social insurance benefits for Thai migrant workers working abroad (Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei) along with developing schemes and guidelines on protecting social insurance benefits for such migrants. This study was a mixed-method research that employed concurrent procedures using a qualitatively-driven core component coupled with the simultaneous QUAL+quan method. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 55 key informants and focus groups with 30 Thai migrant workers in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Quantitative data were collected from 275 Thai migrant workers working in those three countries by using questionnaires. The results revealed that development of social security protection policy and administration for migrant workers in ASEAN had no clear measures for cooperation between ASEAN member countries. In the meantime, work conditions and problems of the social insurance protection for Thai migrant workers were found to have numerous limitations, especially on the topic of benefits, which were usually short-term benefits, including obstacles imposed by different countries. This created inferior treatments for Thai migrant workers as compared to the country own citizens. Regarding protection schemes and social security benefit protection guidelines for Thai migrant workers who work abroad, unilateral measures of Thailand or the country of origin had the highest suitability and likelihood of implementation, followed by bilateral measures of countries in dispute and multilateral measures in the name of ASEAN. Pages 991 to 1012

Development of an Investability Prospect Score in Indonesia: Early Stage Digital Startup

Deny Rahardjoa, Sugiartob, Gracia Shinta S. Ugutc, Edison Hulud, aDoctoral Program, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, bFaculty member of Universitas Prasetiya Mulya, Indonesia, cDean of Business School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, dLecturer, Graduate School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia. Email: aDR70020@student.uph.edubProf.sugiarto@gmail.comcgracia.ugut@uph.edudedison.hulu@lecturer.uph.edu

Research shows that radical innovation is more likely to come from smaller companies such as ‘startups’. Startup is drawing a lot of attention given the growth potential for both entrepreneurs and investors. One of the most challenging aspects in this venture is the investability readiness level of the startup as it is difficult to assess the usual financial aspect such as cash flow in the initial loss-making company with no or limited financial data. The authors developed an Investability Prospect Score (IPS) based on a similar approach from Altman’s Z-score by using a Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) method. Responses to questionnaires from a cross sectional online survey were then used to identify factors such as industry structure, product readiness, founders’ background and management structure, financial robustness and risk management towards investment readiness in Indonesia and the early stage digital startups ecosystem. The contribution aspect of this article is to provide a structured approach in identifying the readiness status of startup for investment. This could also be used as additional determinants towards a valuation model such as real options which is deemed to be more suitable in dealing with the flexibility and uncertain nature of digital startups. Pages 1013 to 1038

Evaluating the Role of a University in the Development of a “Pedestrian Walk” In Palembang

Muhammad Juliansyah Putraa, Bambang Hermantob, Bukman Lianc, a,bUniversitas Padjajaran, Indonesia, cUniversitas PGRI Palembang, Indonesia, Email: ajuliansyah.pgri@gmail.com,  bbambang.hermanto@unpad.ac.id,  cdrbukmanlian@univpgri-palembang.ac.id

Palembang City is the capital of South Sumatra Province which has great potential for the development of tourism. Geographically Palembang City is divided by the Musi River into two parts, the crossing of Ilir in the north and the opposite of ulu in the south. There is Ampera Bridge which is the icon of Palembang City in the middle of these two regions. This paper was qualitative. The paper evaluated the role of Universitas PGRI Palembang as a stakeholder for the development of the “pedestrian walk” in Palembang and it was analysed through the dimensions of Context, Input, Process, and Product. The evaluation concluded that collaboration of Universitas PGRI Palembang with the government continues and public trust for the Universitas PGRI Palembang is increasing. Pages 1039 to 1055

The Effect of Service Quality in an Indonesian hospital: Patient Satisfaction in a Coastal Emergency Department

Amaliyah Ardilaha, Vien Anggarani Prasetyanab, Aulia Ramadhanic, Windhu Purnomod*, a,bGraduate Student of Policy and Health Administration Department, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. cStaff of Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, dDepartment of Biostatistics and Population, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: d*purno.win20@gmail.com

Health workers are directed to provide services that fulfil high standards for improving public health. Poor service quality can affect the number of patient visits, because the level of patient satisfaction is determined by the quality of service components available. The hospital is one of the health service providers in which there are health service units such as an emergency room. The Emergency Department provides patient care first, then triage is performed. Objective: This study aims to reveal the quality of service to patient satisfaction in the Hospital Emergency Department. Method: The study design used a cross sectional study design. The study sample was 118 respondents. Data collection involved questionnaires and data analysis with chi-square. Results: The results showed that the overall service dimension, namely the suitability between tangible quality, reliability, responsiveness, assurances, and empathy to patient satisfaction with a P-value of 0.000. Conclusion: The quality of service has a significant effect on patient satisfaction at the Hospital Emergency Installation. Pages 1056 to 1066

The Availability of Quality Assurance Standards in the Curricula of Basic Education Colleges

Ali Abdul Karim Al-Saffara, Qasim Ismailb, Haider Hatem Falih AL.ijrishc, aScientific supervision and evaluation device, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq, bDiyala University College of Basic Education, Iraq, cCollege of Basic Education, Babylon University, Iraq,

Determining  the statistically significant differences between the averages of  responses of  categories of the study sample (specialists, specialists in  educational departments, supervisors, and supervisors in  teaching  Arabic ) on the importance of comprehensive quality standards for educational decisions that are attributed to gender. Setting a general concept for adopting the comprehensive quality system for educational curricula for students of the Faculty of Arabic Language at Umm Al-Qura University in each  previously identified field. Pages 1067 to 1080

Factors Affecting Creative Accounting Practices and Means Used to Limit their Effect on the Credibility of Financial Statements

Alaa Miran Husseina, Hayder Oudah Kadhimb*, Raheem Abed Mohammadc, aAssistant Lecturer, Collage of Management and Economics, University of Al-Qadisiayah, Iraq, bLecturer, Collage of Management and Economics, University of Al-Qadisiayah, Iraq, cAssistant lectures, Karbala Technical Institute, Al-Furat Al-AwsatTechnical University, Karbal, Iraq, Email: aalla.miran@qu.edu.iq,  b*hadeir.saidy@qu.edu.iq,  cinkr.rah@atu.edu.iq

The research aims to study the foundations of knowledge for creative accounting and factors influencing their practices and means. These means are used to reduce the effect of these practices on the credibility of the data contained in the financial statements of Iraqi government banks.  Two main hypotheses were formulated. To test these two research hypotheses, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of accountants and auditors working in Iraqi government banks. The research concluded that the factors chosen as indicators in the practices of creative accounting in Iraqi government banks had a significant effect and this effect varied from one paragraph to another. In addition, the means or methods that have been tested, had a significant effect on reducing or preventing the practices of creative accounting and minimising their impact on the credibility of the data contained in financial statements. Pages 1082 to 1100

The Violation of the Principle of Equality in the Iraqi Penal Code

Mazin Khalaf Nasera, aDepartment of public law - Criminal Law Al-Mustansiriyah University- College of Law- Iraq, Email: aDr.mazin.khalaf@gmail.com

The concept of criminal equality is highly associated with the development of criminal law function; it has acquired a new concept that goes in line with the diversity of methods and objectives of criminal law. Equality is no more referring to only that kind of solid equality which is limited to criminalisation and punishment, but its content has expanded to include, in addition to punishment, social qualification by seeking to achieve best methods of reforming and qualifying the convicted in order to redress him, which leads us to think that not achieving equality in some cases is, in fact, the achievement of its real equality. The legislator made it sure to set many guarantees that achieve equality in criminal law, but there are cases that depart from the equality principle in criminal law which the legislator did not interfere in or fix. This raises the questions about the reasons why he corrects some cases of equality violation in order to achieve specific considerations that can be justified in specific cases and cannot in others. Violation of the principle of equality in some cases can be intentionally acceptable for the legislator to achieve particular purposes, and it can happen unintentionally, which would be unacceptable in other cases. Pages 1101 to 1109

The Visual Language of Photomontage in the Works of El Lissitzky

Darraji Khalid Fakhir Abdullaha, Mamonova Victoria Alexandrovnab, a,bSaint-Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, Russian Federation, Email: akhalidfnon@yahoo.com,  bvict.mamonova@gmail.com

El Lissitzky's talents diversified into many artistic fields including graphic design, drawing and photography, making him one of the most important artists in the avant-garde field. The theoretical and visual works of Lissitzky presented to us during his short life encompass various styles facilitating the use of technologies, including the use of photomontage. This article concentrates on analysing the artist's works in the 20th century, by reading his theoretical texts published in the avant-garde magazines of the period and through analysis of his visual works. Based on the results, the diversity of visual messages and speeches is highlighted in his works, specifically through the use of photomontage techniques. Pages 1110 to 1123

Motivation and the Millennial Generation

Aris Setiyania, Ahmad Sutawijayab, Lenny Ch Nawangsaric, Setyo Riyantod, Endri Endrie, a,b,c,d,eDoctoral Management, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: asetiyani.aris@gmail.com,  bahsuta69@gmail.com,  clenny.nawangsari@gmail.com,   dsetyoriyanto@gmail.com,  eendri@mercubuana.ac.id

This fast changing world increases competition in the business world and is linked with the increase in technology. The modern company strives to find new sustainable alternatives so that it can sustain business, especially concerning its human resources. The purpose of this study is to see whether 3 variables, namely employer branding, compensation and flexible working hours, can increase employee motivation. Employee motivation is essential so that the company's vision can be achieved. As the workforce has begun to be filled with generations of millennials it is not easy to maintain employees. From the results of this study, it was found that compensation, employer branding and flexible working hours can increase employee motivation. Of the three variables, flexible working hours have the biggest loading factor, the second is compensation, and the last is employer branding. After we know that flexible working hours can motivate employees, it is hoped that the human resources department can consider whether this can be implemented in the modern company. Pages 1124 to 1136

Development of Batik Crafts using Natural Colourants Mixed with Cow Powder in Bantul, Special Region of Yogyakarta

aRahmawati Rahmawati, bSoenarto Soenarto, cFitri Susilowati, dSarah Rum Handayani, eArdi Gunardi*, aUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, bUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, eUniversitas Pasundan, Indonesia, *Email: ardigunardi@unpas.ac.id

Batik is a feature product in Bantul Regency, which is a special region of Yogyakarta. batik has the unique characteristics of using natural dye and has been marketed overseas as an export commodity. Batik Small to Medium Enterprises (SME) in Bantul have now developed their own unique motifs and have increased their technological capabilities. Amid the booming batik industry which a key feature is theuse of synthetic colour materials, one of Batik SMEs in Bantul, ‘UKM Batik Wongso’, still maintains the use of natural dyes, derived from plants and animals. This paper will discuss the implementation of science and technology in the batik production service includes discussion, workshop/studio work, factory operations, training and mentoring (groups and individuals). Training activities are carried out with assistance both individually, and within groups to be able to improve management aspects, which have been carried out conventionally. The application of science in mixing natural colourant and cow bone powder and the innovation of mordan basin, slide basin and other production enhancements that can improve efficiency, production quality and capacity will also be discussed and analysed. They will be discussed particularly with relevance to the ability to meet export demands, increase the assets and turnover of SMEs, which will have an impact on improving people's welfare. Pages 1137 to 1156

Vulnerability of Stock Returns and the effects of Covid-19: An Event Study from the Energy Sector of USA

Hafiz Waqas Kamrana, Muhammad Atif Nawazb, Muhammad Rizwan Ullahc, aAssistant Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan, bSenior Lecturer, Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: ahafiz.waqas@iqra.edu.pk,  batif.nawaz.baloch@gmail.com,  cmrizwanullah77@gmail.com

The outbreak of COVID-19 creates serious distress for the world economy due to an increasing economic, financial and health related response to the pandemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reaction of the energy sector in the USA toward the outbreak of COVID-19, which reportedly began on 20th January, 2020 (event day). This study uses a sample of 33 listed firms from the energy sector of USA during the period of January 2019 to March 2020, with daily observations. The reaction of the stock return is observed through event study methodology while calculating the cumulative average abnormal return (CAAR). The study findings show that out of 33 sampled firms, only five significantly reacted against the outbreak of COVID-19 on the event day, whereas for the first event window (-3,3) the stock return (CAAR) for the ten energy firms is found to be statistically significant (in normality assumption), providing that only 30.30% sample firms are reacting against this pandemic. The results of this research would be of reasonable support to industry experts, investors and other stakeholders while making some strategic decisions on the basis of disease outbreaks and trends in stocks return, specifically in the energy sector. As an extension to this research, expanding the regional boundaries, sample period, and adding those firm-related variables which may serve as risk mitigating factors against disease epidemics and stock return relationship would provide a good output. Pages 1157 to 1174

Public Attitudes towards News Processing of Events and Events of Basra Governorate in Iraqi Satellite Channels

Mohsen Glob Alkanania, Alaa Jasab Ajeel Al-Abd Alaalib, a University of Baghdad, bMiddle Technical University / College of Applied Arts,

The crisis of the demonstrations in the province of Basra, which began on 8/7/2018, was one of the most prominent events that preoccupied the Iraqi media in general, and satellite channels in particular, as this event was the focus of media attention, despite the divergence of views on it. As part of their efforts to interact with this event, satellite channels worked to provide a variety of press treatments that dealt with its various aspects. The follow-up of news by satellite channels processing this event noted that it was represented in three levels: the first level of adoption, promotion and amplification of the event; the second with the event, impartially, and; the third level is ignored and passed by. This research attempts to find out the public's attitudes toward this news processing provided by Iraqi satellite channels for this event and crisis. The importance of this research is attached to the increasing attention to this crisis. The research aims to monitor and analyse the exposure of the sample to the media messages in all its forms and contents, which were broadcast by the Iraqi satellite channels concerning the crisis, and to monitor and analyse the direction of sample count. We look for the news processing of the Iraqi satellite channels for the Basra demonstrations. This research is based on correlational research and uses the analytical survey method. The researchers designed a three-dimensional measure consisting of gradients. The researchers used the statistical methods of repetitions, simple percentages, relative weight, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The relationship between the educational level of the researchers and the sample towards the treatment of Iraqi satellite channels for this crisis was reached.  Findings reveal the existence of a weak positive relationship between the intensity of the subject's exposure to the news processing channels (the cognitive effect) and (emotional impact) and a very strong positive relationship between the intensity of exposure of the subject to the treatment of the news of demonstrations and events of Basra by Iraqi satellite channels and between the sample trends towards this crisis (the behavioural impact). Pages 1175 to 1190

Analysis of Regulations Gap Related to Village Funds in Indonesia

Mailinda Eka Yunizaa, Muhammad Jibrilb, Fajar Muhammad Nashihc, a,b,cFaculty of Law Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisia No. 1, Bulaksumur, Kab. Sleman, D.I. Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia, Email: amailinda@ugm.ac.id,  bmuhjibril.law@gmail.com,  cfajarnashih@gmail.com

The Jokowi Government launched the Village Fund program in 2014. The village fund aims to equalise village development and improve the welfare of village communities. Although in terms of the amount of funds distributed the fund increases every year, research shows that the use of village funds has not been effective. This paper analyses regulatory gaps on village funds, believed to be one of the sources causing ineffectiveness in the implementation of village funds. The type of research used is evaluative research. This paper found that there are several problems faced by existing regulations, namely: contradictory provisions among regulations regarding the village fund, regulations are scattered and easy to change, and the shift of paradigm toward the expected use of the village fund. At the end of this paper, several recommendations are given to improve the existing village fund regulations. Pages 1191 to 1207

Assertion and Negation: Restrictions on the occurrence of the post-verbal Enclitic –š in Jordanian Arabic

Imran Alrashdana, Essa Salemb, Mohd Nour Al Salemc, a,b,cThe University of Jordan, Email: ai.alrashdan@ju.edu.jo,  bes.salem@ju.edu.jo,  cmo.alsalem@ju.edu.jo

This paper accounts for the complementary distribution found in Jordanian Arabic between the post-verbal negative enclitic –š and elements from two categories: (i) expressions used, prima facie, in oaths such as wħyaatabooy 'by my father' and (ii) Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs), particularly when they occur in a preverbal position. The study shows that these elements from the two categories have one characteristic in common, i.e. assertivity. The use of either category asserts the positive or negative value of the accompanying proposition. We argue that such assertive operators are similar in function to the post-verbal negative enclitic–š which is also assumed to have an assertive function. The account of the complementary distribution of either category with –š is that both compete for the same position (at LF), namely Assertive Projection (AssP). Pages 1208 to 1235

Pire Teu in the Native Society of Dai Mau Enga Nanga Aewora Ende Regency

Zainur Wulaa, aFaculty of Social Science and Political Science, University of Muhammadiyah Kupang, Email: awulazainur@gmail.com,  zainur_wula@yahoo.com

This study aimed to understand the pire teu culture in the native society of dai mau enga nanga in Aewora, Ende Regency. The study was qualitative and data were collected through observation and in-depth interviews with snowball sampling to obtain appropriate informants. Pire teu (abstinence/taboo from rats) is one of the cultures in native society of mau enga nanga which becomes one of the rituals prior to the growing season and started with the jengi soko ceremony (burning green weeds) and pire teu. Pire teu is conducted in 3 consecutive days, the first day is called pire teu (abstinence from the whole body of rat), the second day is called pire ngii teu (abstinence from rat teeth), and the third day is called pire tai teu (abstinence from rat droppings). The customary sanctions imposed to those who violate the rules of the first day pire teu are adjusted to the religions and beliefs, for Catholics, the fine for the first day violation is two (2) pigs weighing two people who carried it (bei rua), while for Muslims, it is goats weighing two people who carried it (bei rua). The second and third penalties for the offender, who is catholic, is one pig weighing one person who carried it (sabei) and for a muslim one goat weighing one person who carried it (sabei). The bill of pire teu is not only about restraint, prohibition, and sanctions imposed by violators, but it also has religious-magical value and spirituality in maintaining close relationships between humans, their environment and Almighty God, and the fear of the community that they will get the damage if violating the rules, either failure in harvesting crops, crops damaged by rats, or even death. Pages 1236 to 1248

Top Management Positions in the Airline Industry: The Role of Gender Differences

Sanhakot Vithayaporna, aFaculty of Business and Technology,

Stamford International University, Thailand,

E-mail: aSanhakot.vithayaporn@stamford.edu

The objective of this study is to determine the role of gender and to examine the impact of gender on leadership roles in top management positions in the airline industry. This article focuses on airline industry management concepts in order to discuss the role of gender diversity. In the methodology, a qualitative research method with case studies and a documentation analysis technique was used, which involved collecting and analysing data obtained from more than 50 articles discussed in the literature review. Furthermore, two informal interviews with human resources managers were conducted for an examination of the recruitment of women’s representation in the leadership roles of top management positions. Gender role theory was applied to examine the role of gender in predicting top management positions. As a result, the article reveals important empirical data on gender and managerial perspectives regarding the hiring of females for top management positions to run companies, the broader culture of gender equality, and the elimination of gendered job promotion inequality. The implications of this study are related with the investigation of airline business management literature, through the lens of those in top management positions, and the role of gender in the relationship between the airline industry and leadership. The academic perspective is also discussed using gender role theory through academic literature. Conclusions are then summarised, and suggestions for further research are also provided. Pages 1249 to 1263

Spiritual Education of Syekh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari's: Implications for Religious Character Education

Jarkawia, Edris Zamronib*, Akhmad Rizki Ridhanic, a,cUniversitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari, bUniversitas Muria Kudus, Email: ajarkawi.uniska@gmail.comb*edris.zamroni@umk.ac.id

Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari is a scholar who has extensive and in-depth knowledge, he gives a lot of thoughts and views in educating the people; until now his thoughts remain in the local, regional, national and even international community. The view of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari: Education is a learning process to educate the community, so that people avoid ignorance. This article aims to describe the perspective of spiritual and religious education of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari. The method used is descriptive qualitative with the hermenuetic method. The results found that the focus of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari's education was to overcome the weakness of faith, and to make a prosperous society physically and mentally, save the world and the hereafter with a group and assembly learning system, observance of worship, building self-awareness through strategy and education bil hal, bil lisan and bil kitab. Pages 1264 to 1281

Regulatory Focus and Employee Creativity: The Role of Individual Participation and Intellectual Stimulation

Jovi Sulistiawana*, Dian Ekowatib, Poppy Sagita Putric, a,b,cDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Email: a*jovisulistiawan@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine how regulatory focus, which consists of promotion and prevention, affects individual creativity and how the interaction effect between two contextual factors, intellectual stimulation and individual participation, will strengthen the effect of promotion focus to individual creativity. Employees in a radio station were used as our respondents with total 142 respondents. The authors tested the hypothesis by using hierarchical regression analysis and moderated regression analysis in order to test the moderating effect of intellectual stimulation and individual participation. The results of this study showed that promotion focus is positively related to creativity, whilst prevention focus is negatively related to creativity. Our interesting findings was only intellectual stimulation has a moderate effect on promotion focus and creativity. Pages 1282 to 1298

The Effects of Organisational Support on SMEs’ Perceived Performance: The Role of Human Resource Development, Innovation, and Information Technology

Chanongkorn Kuntonbutra, Natnarong Jaturusb, Manfred Kulkenc, a,bRajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thanyaburi, Pathumtani, Thailand, cWestfalische Hochschule Gelsenkirchen Bocholt Recklinghausen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, Email: achanongkorn_k@rmutt.ac.th, bnatnarong@rmutt.ac.th

This quantitative study clarifies how organisational support and the adoption of information technology (IT) can impact a firm’s performance. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) operating in industries were investigated. This paper focuses on human resources development and information technology, each of which mediate. Structural Equation Modelling explains multivariable effects. Our findings reveal that both organisational support and IT do influence firms’ performance, through human resources development in SMEs. The crucial measurement of the impacts is innovation arising from human resources development within these firms. Pages 1299 to 1314

A Supervision Model for Enhancing Private School Teacher Competency in English Language Learning Management

Patchanee Daensenaa, Tharinthorn Namwanb, a,bFaculty of Education, Maha Sarakham University, Email: apook1975_@hotmail.com,  btharinthorn.n@gmail.com

This research has two purposes. They are 1) to develop a Supervision Model for enhancing English language learning management, of private school teachers; and 2) to study the results of applying that model. The findings revealed the supervision model which consists of six elements: (1) principles; (2) objectives; (3) content; (4) a process consisting of planning, conducting supervision, reflecting self-learning management, and supervision evaluation; (5) an evaluation of the model; and (6) conditions for success. The results of the supervision model comprise appropriateness, possibility, and usefulness at the highest level. Applying the model gave the following five results: (1) the knowledge and understanding of teachers in English language learning management of private school teachers tested higher than before the supervision was provided; (2) the design of lesson plans by the supervising teachers was higher than before the supervision; also, teachers gained more knowledge; (3) the teachers' satisfaction towards supervision, when enhancing English was of the highest level, overall; (4) overall, assessment of students' opinions on English language learning was at the highest level; and (5) the results of suitability, possibility, and usefulness evaluation of the supervision model were at the highest level, overall. Pages 1315 to 1336

Intrapreneurial Behaviour of Employees in the Era of Transformative Marketing: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Nagina Kanwala, Muhammad Farooqb, Valliappan Rajuc, Temoor Anjumd, Aneeqa Zreene, a,b,c,d,eLimkokwing University of Creative Technology, Malaysia, Email: anks_qureshi@hotmail.com,  bfarooq.buzdar2@gmail.com,  cvalliappan.raju@limkokwing.edu.my,  dtamooranjum@yahoo.com,  eZreen.aniqa@gmail.com

Improving company performance is the top priority of every executive. Before digitalisation and globalisation, the increase in assets and financial performance were counted as top indicators of  company performance. However, innovation as well as understanding and meeting customer performance are considered top priority for companies today. This era has been named as the period of transformative marketing. In transformative marketing, companies are required to transform themselves with changes in the business landscape. These changes are dependent on employees. Only  highly motivated and entrepreneurial  employees can help  companies in this transformation. The transformation is not routine  and  employees cannot be formally pushed to participate. Transformation needs the highest level of employee involvement  . Therefore, this study uses a multidisciplinary approach suggesting a framework for improvement of company performance in the era of transformative marketing. The study concludes that  transformative marketing and entrepreneurial behaviour of employees can result in better company performance. Future researchers are recommended to use this framework and validate it across various cultures.  Pages 1337 to 1353

Creativity in the Performance of University Professors and its Relationship towards the Profession

Ali Jarad Yousefa, aCollege of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq, Email: aalij.yusuf@uokufa.edu.iq

This research aims to identify the level of creativity in the scientific performance of University professors and its relationship towards the profession according to the variables of specialisation (medicine- engineering - agriculture - pure - social - human) and gender (male-female), while  the researcher has prepared a measure of creativity in scientific performance and inclination towards the profession.  By using appropriate statistics, the research obtained the following results: (University professors have a satisfactory level of creativity in scientific performance, and there is no statistically significant difference according to the variable of type, specialisation and bilateral interactions, as the University professors feel positive tendencies towards their professions. There is no difference based on  the variable of type  and bilateral interactions except for a  difference in favour of specialisation and specialisation (engineering),  also showing a significant positive statistical correlation  between creativity and tendencies. Pages 1354 to 1370

Using Modern Cost Techniques in Achieving Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Study in Iraqi Industrial Companies

Aqeel Shamkhi Jebur Al Bdairia, Hayder Oudah Kadhimb, Mayida Hasan Madhi Mnaa AL -Graitic, aMinistry of education the general directorate of dewaniya education Iraq, bDepartment of Accounting College of Management and Economics, cAl-Furat Al- Awsat Technical University Babylon Technical Institute, Iraq, Email: aaqeel.shmke39@gmail.com,  bhadier.saidy@gu.edg.ig,  cmayda@atu.edu.iq

In light of the rapid changes and successive developments that have accompanied the modern era, the business environment has faced many challenges, including growing intensity of competition.  Iraqi industrial economic units suffer from numerous  problems, the most important of which are high costs and low quality of  products as well as increase in the duration  of design, manufacturing, assembly and marketing in addition to  lack of adequate flexibility  in response to the needs and desires of customers. Despite these problems, there are several administrative and cost techniques that will help solve these challenges. The most important of these techniques is value analysis and concurrent engineering. Value analysis focuses on improving project or product performance and analysing the start of its components down to its functions in order to exclude jobs that do not add value from the customer's perspective. Competitive advantage either refers to characterising the economic unit to any item unique to competitors in the market, and it can be achieved if you follow this unit to any strategy aimed at achieving a competitive advantage. Concurrent engineering technique focuses on conducting simultaneous product design in addition to synchronisation in the manufacturing and assembly operations in order to achieve savings in design, manufacturing and associated costs. Competitive advantage refers to characterising the company to any item unique to competitors. Pages 1371 to 1388

The Pragmatics of Truth and Fact: Mind Realisations and Knowledge   Manifestations

Wasan Abdali Ateeiy Al Khafijya, Nuha Hussein Kndooh Alismaelb, Khalid Hwaer Shamsc, a,bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, College of Education, Dept. of Arabic Language, cUniversity of Thiqar, College of Arts, Dept. of Arabic Language, Email: aWasan.abdali@qu.edu.iq,  bnuhaa.hussin@qu.edu.iq,  cKhaled.Hewair@uta.edu.iq

The paper discusses a dichotomy that some scholars consider as a concept, and they lay the limitations for it, while others consider it as a problem that should be solved through setting up certain differences between truth and fact, and how they will be understood in texts. The paper aims to tackle these two concepts by analysing them pragmatically, since it will refer to the context of semantic meanings relating to the conditions of use in the text, the psychological dimension of the author, and the effect of the text on the receiver, which makes the poetic text the field of application. This paper is an attempt to discuss the stages of realising these concepts in an Arabic mind and how the cognitive awareness develops. The research includes three readings: the first is the concept of truth and fact and the differences between them. The second reading is the cognitive realisation of an Arabic mind, and the third one is the poetic gift and the effect of culture on it. Pages 1389 to 1396

Expiry of the Interim Bank - An Analytical Study

Ahmed Hamid Abdul Hassana, Huda Sadoon Laftab, Hussein Obai Shawatc*, aImam Jaafar Sadiq University, Iraq, b,cAl-Qadissiya University College of Law, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, Email: c*Hussein.ali@qu.edu

This summary looks at the interim bank which, according to the provisions of the Iraqi bank 94 for the year 2004, was the most important means of rehabilitating the faltering private banks. This kind of reserve now has its own medicine, which differs from the other banks stipulated by the Iraqi banks in terms of the establishment and in terms of Sunset. What concerns us in our study of the subject is the expiry of the bank in progress, as the bank in question ends normally by either carrying out its tasks, which is rehabilitating the troubled private bank and returning it to normal, or finalising the expiry of the specified period under the law. It is set to be three years in any case. The other way to finish the bank is to close the progress bank, based on the impossibility of implementation, where in some cases the administrators of the interim bank consider that it is impossible for them to carry out the duty assigned to them, which is to rehabilitate the troubled private bank, as well as to end it by a decision of the Minister of Finance at any stage of rehabilitation. We will therefore address this research on the expiry of the interim bank and reach several conclusions and proposals. Pages 1397 to 1406

The Validity of Technical Work in the Legal Protection Prescribed to an Artist

Aqeel Sarhan Mohammeda, aLaw College, Al-Qadisiyah University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq,

The legal protection order for this work depends not only on the validity of the physical characteristics of the work, but is also related to the integrity of the physical integration of the work of art, which is intended to bring the art work in the same position produced by the artist without change, restoration or amputation in the physical construction of this work, considering the integrity of the work. A fundamental element in the validity of that work, and in this context, the Court of Versailles ruled in its decision summarising its summary that someone had bought a painting signed by the artist entitled "Popular Celebration" and after the painting was examined during the exhibition and with the beginning of the auction. Pages 1407 to 1418

The Interests Considered from the Placement Decision

Hayder Hasan Shatawia, aAl-Muthanna University College of Law 2020, Email: adr.hayder1985@gmail.com

The research of the Iraqi legislator in the laws of the civil service, as the specific legal provisions of the decision of placement, are scattered between laws and regulations. The competent authority to amend the laws, which is undoubtedly the legislative authority, represented by the House of Representatives in Iraq, must draw up legal texts. In the Civil Service Act, placement, and the mechanism of doing so, are specified for fear of abuse of the administration with its discretion in placement, considering that the basic law for the functional service. Pages 1419 to 1430

Differences in Religious Understanding and Social Integration

Ahmad Sarbinia, aUniversitas Islam Negeri, Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung, Indonesia, Email: aahmadsarbini@uinsgd.ac.id

The complexity of different religious understanding in society, especially among the Islamic community, is considered as an undeniable reality. This complexity has influenced their social relationship, including their social integration. This research is intended to describe and formulate empirical evidence about the dynamic reality of social relationships in one society which is various in religious ideology espoused. This study utilised the explorative-comparative method because the primary goal of this study is to get an objective and actual description of the research variables. Then, the variables were compared and contrasted with clear differences and similarities as well as the characteristics of religious understanding, response to different religious understanding, and social integration reflected in types of interactions of each group of participants. This integration is reflected in their forms of social relationship, especially in communication, humanitarian cooperation and social solidarity, love and affection, and tolerance in social life. Functionally, the phenomenon of different religious understanding in society had a positive relationship with social integration. The study contributes to providing a model of social integration that can be used as a guideline for social life where society has a different religious understanding background to develop harmony in society. Pages 1431 to 1448

The Impact of Virtual Enterprise on Sustaining an Agile Manufacturing System

Mahmood Fahad  Abd Alia, Emad Wahabb, Amjed Hameed Majeedc, a,bCollege of Administration and Economics Karbalah University, Iraq, cAl Mustaqbal University College/  Al hilla, Email: amahmod.fahad@Uokerbala.edu.iq,  bEmadwahab54@yahoo.com,  cAmjed_hasoon@yahoo.com, Amjed_hameed@mustaqbal-college.edu.iq    

The main objective of this study is to identify the nature of the relationship between Virtual enterprise and agile manufacturing systems. It proposes modelling the dimensions of virtual enterprise which could impact sustaining an agile manufacturing system. The research targets elaborate  the field of virtual enterprise by encompassing a wide range of virtual dimensions to find  the best variable which  has a significant impact on AGs. study  uses  an investigative approach through  a questionnaire approach, including 100 respondents. The data is processed using  statistical analysis, including descriptions of analysing processes, and copies of scientific  articles. The research offers experimental visions into how the dimension of virtual enterprise influences the sustaining of an agile manufacturing system. It highlights that there is a positive and  significant relationship amongst variables. In addition, there are  production capabilities such as information sharing which has a higher correlation with AGS. Due to  the chosen study approach,  the results cannot be popularised. Hence, researchers are encouraged to further test the proposed propositions. The article contains implications for the choice of virtual enterprise dimensions that could sustain an agile manufacturing system. This article  determines the need to examine how virtual enterprise can contribute to the sustainment of an agile manufacturing system. Pages 1449 to 1469

The Diasporic Home of the Displaced Youth in Susan Abulhawa’s ‘Mornings in Jenin’

Riham Alhadhouda, Deema Ammarib*, a,bUniversity of Jordan, Email: b*deemaammari@yahoo.co.uk

This paper explores the question of a diasporic home as pertaining to the younger members of diaspora; why the displaced youth’s perception of home diverges from that of the older generation, and what understandings of various home experiences in the diaspora lead the displaced youth to. To address these questions the experiences of different generations projected in Susan Abulhawa’s ‘Mornings in Jenin’, with specific focus on Amal the protagonist’s journey, will bring to light a new scope for post-colonial studies. The paper investigates the main dimensions that play vital roles in deciding the younger displaced subject’s degree of attachment to or detachment from both people and places. It concludes that one’s belonging depends solely on the circumstantial journey within the wider frame of diaspora, which leads the young diasporic family member to question the projected image of home and construct their own subjective one. A feminist dimension will be added, thus fixating the study particularly on dislocated women, and how their resilience becomes their urgency to create, from within their bodies, authentic perceptions that transcend the geographic allocation of a home. Pages 1470 to 1486

Effect of Training and Development on the Turnover Intentions of Faculty Members in Universities of Pakistan

Altaf Hussain*1, Nazim Ali2, Asghar Ali3, Itbar Khan4, Mohib Ullah5, Mohammad Hanif Khan6, 1,2Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce and Management Sciences, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 3,4Assistant professor, Department of Education, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 5Assistant Professor, IBL, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pabbi, Campus, 6Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Email: 1altafhussain@uom.edu.pk, 2nazimali100@yahoo.com, 3asghar5290100@yahoo.com, 4itbarkhan@uom.edu.pk, 5muhib@awkum.edu.pk, 6hanifyousafzai@uom.edu.pk

The study investigated the effect of training and development (T&D) on the turnover intention of faculty members in public sector universities in Pakistan. A questionnaire was administered for collecting data from 306 from university teachers. Confirmatory factor analysis, using structural equation modeling (SEM), was applied to validate the relationships among the variables.The findings showed that T&D are vital for improving the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the academic staff, and equally reducing staff turnover intentions. Moreover, the research highlighted that all the three dimensions of T&D- professed availability of training, motivation to learn from training, and professed benefits of training were statistically significant with turnover intention, hence confirming the findings of the earlier studies on the topic.  Moreover, the findings confirm social exchange theory. The implications of the study for stakeholders have been given. Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan has provided T&D programs to the faculty at universities for improving the KSAs of faculty members; however, the amount of research available to know the views of faculty members regarding T&D programs is equal to naught. Therefore, little is known about the nature of T&D programs directly from the viewpoint of the faculty members. Pages 1487 to 1510
Cron Job Starts