The Prospect of Demographic Window Growing and Opportunities to Invest the Demographic Dividend in Anbar Governorate

Enas M. Saleha, Ayad Ayid Walib, aUniversity of Anbar/ College of Education for Women- Department of Geography, bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah/ Colloge of Arts - Department of Geography, Email: aenas.mohmmed@uoanbar.edu.iq, bAyad.wali@qu.edu.iq

The demographic window is an opportunity for the broad-populations in the population pyramid upon the demographic transition process to put it in front of the development opportunities that the wise investment of this demographic grace (dividend ) was prepared properly. The population of Iraq community in general and the Anbar Governorate in particular is exposed to multiple demographic changes hit three broad age groups and classes of the uneven rate of growth and therefore differing in size will contribute to inform the intermediate category any trapped working age peak in size compared to the lowest volume dependent categories (young and older) this phase continue for a certain possible identified investment generation if the demographic window opening up and dealing with them properly will achieve big positive effects accrue Al Anbar Governorate is down of the dependency ratio, rising living standards, increased savings and economic growth, and that this is not the investment of the demographic dividend  entail population consequences reflected on the security, political and economic and social aspects. Pages 1 to 20




The Role of the Strategy of Resolving the Paradoxical in the Organizational Equilibrium: A Comparative Study Between Zain Iraq and Asiacell Communications

Noor Khalil Ibrahima, aCollege of Administration and Economics / University of Baghdad, Email: anoorkhalil@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq

This research aims to test inter-relationships between two main variables to reflect the impact of the strategy of resolving the paradox in organizational equilibrium. It as well includes a strategic paradoxical variable to solve the paradox in dimensions in terms of contextual ingenuity, hybrid organizational identity characteristics of paradoxical organization, and the organizational Equilibrium variable (temptations and contributions). The research assumed that there was a correlation and the effect of selection  significance between research variables. In the investigated companies, we have adopted the research to achieve its goals and test its hypotheses with  descriptive analytical approach for a sample from the telecom companies. This sample includes the Asia Cell and Zain telecom companies. The researcher from the first company selected a sample of (88) managers, and (103) managers were selected from Zain Iraq. The research was also adopted a set of statistical tools including Cronbach alpha coefficient, simple correlation coefficient, empirical factor analysis, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and ANOVA comparison analysis. The results have been shown that most research hypotheses are correct, and they have been formulated in light of them. For example, both companies strive to adopt and pay attention to the strategy of resolving the paradoxical issues.They have a relationship and influence in achieving the organizational equilibrium.  That is, the strategy of resolving the paradoxica has an active and influencing role in achieving stability and the organizational equilibrium in the midst of environmental and unstable changes. Pages 21 to 44




Implementation of Attorney’s Authority as Petitioner in Proposing Bankruptcy for Public Interest

Yenny Febriantya, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: ayennyfebrianty74@yahoo.com

Attorney with special power of attorney could act within or outside the court for and on behalf of the country or government. Based on the provision in Article 2 section (2) of Act Number 37 of 2004 jo Government Regulation Number 17 of 2000, it is regulated that Attorney as one of the parties in power to propose bankruptcy, under the requirements that must be fulfilled is that no other parties proposing similar request for public interest. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the implementation of such Attorney’s authority as the petitioner in proposing bankruptcy among Indonesian people so that public’s understanding towards such Attorney’s authority could be applied and useful for the litigant of bankruptcy. The law being studied is iusconstitendum. Data used was primary and secondary data, data collection technique was in the form of interview data and library materials. The implementation of Attorney’s authority as the petitioner in bankruptcy for public interest is regulated in the applied legislation. The provision stating bankruptcy request for public interest can only be performed if there was not parties proposing bankruptcy request should be given exception by legislator, in case the Attorney request for bankruptcy for public interest regarding with Attorney’s state interest should be given authority to act representing or as the power from state’s institutions directly bear debts towards Debtor, that the institutions which directly have debts to the debtor do not consider the Attorney works independently disregarding the interest of such institution. Pages 45 to 62




The Role of Channel Integration in Customer Movement from Offline Channel to Online Channel in a Multichannel Environment

Muhammad Rizwana, Norzieiriani Ahmadb, aPhD Scholar, School of Business Management, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, bSenior Lecturer, School of Business Management, University Utara Malaysia, Email: arizwan.arshad@iub.edu.pkbnorzie@uum.edu.my

The evolution of internet technology, rapid digitalization and introduction of multiple channels strongly influence the managers and researchers alike to discover and update how customers behave in multiple channels and how companies and customers better interact in a multichannel environment. The COVID-19 pandemic crisis around the world significantly affect the performance of national and international firms and the firms with vibrant capabilities of operating in multiple channels survive during this crucial time. More important is the question of how the multiple channels can be handled synergistically to maximize the customer repeat purchase behavior. The current study is an attempt to understand whether the role of channel integration helps in customer movement from firm’s offline channel to firm’s online channel. Data have been collected from a sample of 358 experienced online customers from different cities of Pakistan and analysed through smart PLS. The results of the study confirm that the customer previous interaction with the firm offline channel significantly affect the customer perception about firm’s online channel. Additionally, the results of the study also confirm the moderating role of channel integration in transfer of customer perceptions form offline channel to online channel. Although each channel may offer a unique value proposition, channel integration can drive overall customer satisfaction and repeat purchase behaviour in a relational, multichannel environment. Managerial contributions have been provided for practitioners and firms as well. Pages 63 to 79




Analysis of the Role of Fiscal Policy in Achieving Sustainable Development in Iraq After 2003

Esraa said saleha, Isam Abdul Khudhur Saudb, Ali Mahdi Abbas Albairmanic, a,b,cCollege of Administration and Economics - Al-Mustansiriya University, Email: alsraa_saeed@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqbd_r_assm18@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqcdr_amaal@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Currently, the economic development is the requirement of every country around the globe especially for the developing countries and also attain the attentions of well-reputed researchers. Thus, an ongoing article aims to examine the impact of fiscal policy, foreign direct investment, and government expenditure on economic development of Asian counties. The data has been gathered from World Development Indicator (WDI) of the selected twenty Asian countries from 2008 to 2019. The STATA, a secondary data analysis statistical tool has been used by the present study for analysis. The results indicated that fiscal policy, foreign direct investment, and government expenditure have positive along with significant association with the economic development of Asian counties. These findings provided the guidelines to the regulators that they should formulate and force the management to implement the effective policies that should enhance the economic development of the country.  Pages 80 to 96




Beginner Programmer Predictions with Timss and AQ Assessments

Panyahutia*, Ganefrib, Ambiyarc, a,b,cState University of Padang, Indonesia, Email: a*panyahuti@student.unp.ac.id

For some students of Vocational High School, programming is a difficult subject to master. It is due to the mismatch between the interests and cognitive abilities of students when joining recruitment for the Study Program of Computer & Informatics Engineering. The research is quantitative by correlating the TIMSS and AQ variables with programming skills. The research sample is all vocational high schools, which have a Study Program of Computer & Informatics Engineering in Lahat Regency, Indonesia. The sample started to get TIMSS and AQ assessments at the beginning of the semester of grade X, and the assessment of programming skills was given after they took part in learning for 1 semester. The results prove there is a significant relationship between the TIMSS and AQ variables on the programming skills variable. Both variables can also predict their programming abilities. Pages 97 to 113




The Effects of Working Time on Work-Family Conflict, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study on Female Spa Therapists in Bali

I Gusti Lanang Suta Artatanayaa*, Umar Nimranb, Tri Wulida Afriantyc, Mohammad Iqbald, a,b,c,dBrawijaya University, Faculty of Administrative Science, Indonesia, Email: a*lanangsuta@pnb.ac.id

This study aims to examine the effect of working time on work-family conflict, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The study was conducted in Bali, Indonesia with a total sample of 290 female therapists from 68 spa and wellness companies. The sampling technique used was proportionate random sampling. The analysis technique used inferential analysis with SEM-PLS approach. The results showed that working time had a significant effect on work-family conflict and job satisfaction, work-family conflict had a significant effect on job satisfaction and turnover intention, and job satisfaction had a significant effect on turnover intention. The results of this study are useful for managers of spa and wellness companies in reducing employees’ intention to leave their job by arranging an appropriate working time, reducing work-family conflict, and increasing job satisfaction.  Pages 114 to 130




Competitiveness and Complementarity of Agricultural Trade between China and Belarus

Zhang Fenghea*, Medvid Viktoriiab, Zhang Leic, Lu Xud, a,b,cSumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine, dHenan Institute of Science and Technology, Henan, China, Email: a*1378153296@qq.com

China and Belarus have frequent agricultural trade exchanges. In recent years, high-level leaders of the two governments have exchanged visits, which has further promoted the rapid growth of the scale and total volume of agricultural trade between the two countries. Based on the United Nations International Trade Standard Classification (HS) and the use of the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (UN Comtrade) 2009-2019 world agricultural products and China and Belarus agricultural products trade data, analyze the changes in agricultural products trade and commodity structure of the two countries, and use explicit comparison The dominant index RCA and the explicit complementary index TCI analyze the competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural products between China and Belarus. The results show that: (1) The scale and total volume of agricultural products trade between the two countries are increasing, but the growth of China's imports from Belarus is greater than that of exports, and China is in a trade deficit position. (2) The exports of agricultural products of the two countries are competitive, but the competitiveness is not strong. Among them, Chinese exports are generally not highly competitive, and Belarus is highly competitive in terms of individual agricultural products. (3) The agricultural products trade between the two countries has strong complementarity, but the complementarity of Chinese exports of Belarusian agricultural products has always been less than the complementarity of Chinese imports of Belarusian agricultural products. Recommendation: China and Belarus should make use of the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative to formulate relevant policies and strengthen trade cooperation. Improve infrastructure construction, expand the space for trade exchanges of agricultural products with comparative advantages, and promote the implementation of trade facilitation. Pages 131 to 149




The Economic Effect of Earnings per Share and Cash Flows per Share on Dividend Policy of Firms in Pakistan

Qasim Saleema*, Zeeshan Ahmedb, Abdur Raufc, Hafiz Muhammad Abubakar Siddiqued, aGIFT Business School, GIFT University Gujranwala, Pakistan, bDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Pakistan, cDepartment of Economics, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Pakistan, dDepartment of Business & Commerce, GIFT University Gujranwala, Pakistan, Email: a*qasim.saleem@gift.edu.pk

The study aims to examine the economic effect of earnings per share and cash flow per share on dividend policy of non-financial firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange over the period 2009-2018. For this purpose, static and dynamic panel are used for empirical testing of the hypothesis. Fixed effect model is appropriate for static panel model while difference GMM is used for dynamic panel model. The results are conclusive in those econometric techniques and indicate that earning per share is a significant economic factor for dividend policy of firms. Firms with better earnings per share prefer to announce dividends, which creates the positive signals in the market. Moreover, cash flow per share also significantly positively affects the dividend payments. The results are conclusive across both measures but earnings have more explanatory power in dividend payment decisions. Overall, the result supports the signalling hypothesis and provides a great insight about dividend policy of firms. Firms can better go for dividend announcement decisions based upon their earnings and cash flows. In this way, they can create better signals in the market and consequently can increase the shareholders wealth. Pages 150 to 169




The Application of Mobile Assisted Language Learning in Pakistani ESL classrooms: An Analysis of Teachers' Voices

Muhammad Mooneeb Alia, Shagufta Moghalb, Moafia Naderc, Zarmina Usmand, aDepartment of English Government College of Science, Wahdat Road, Lahore, Pakistan, bDepartment of Professional Studies, Institute of Education Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, cDepartment of Professional Studies, Lahore College for Women University, dPhD Scholar, Research and Evaluation Department Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan,

Mobile assisted language learning (MALL) is alternative method for the replacement of conventional methods in English language classrooms. The integration of this new learning path has made English language learning attractive and comfortable for the learners in western educational institutions. Here in Pakistan it is a new phenomenon. This research therefore, intends to reflect the voices of the Pakistani ESL teachers regarding MALL integration in their respective classrooms. Qualitative research design has been used in which interviews were recorded from the teachers. Open-ended questionnaire was utilized as a tool to conduct interviews. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed by picking up important themes from transcriptions. These themes were extracted using conventional content analysis framework. The findings revealed that Pakistani ESL teachers are aware of this technology and they found it interesting, captivating and attractive for their own use and for the better learning of the ESL learners. This study will have practical implications as it can serve as lead-ins to conduct experimental studies on MALL. It can further provide awareness to researchers that MALL is already known concept so it can be utilized to attain benefit for learners. This study is novel as it MALL is rarely used aspect for local learners. Pages 170 to 197




A Study of Work-Family Conflict among Elementary School Teachers

Asif Iqbala*, Muhammad Shabbir Alib, Furrakh Abbasc, M. Anees-ul-Husnain Shahd, Shahid Anjume, a,bAssistant Professor of Education, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad campus, Pakistan, cSchool of Languages, Civilization and Philosophy, University Utara Malaysia, dAssistant Professor of Education, University of Education Lahore, D.G. Khan campus, Punjab Pakistan, eUniversity of Education Lahore, Email: a*Asif.iqbal@ue.edu.pk

One of the fascinating subjects in research field is the work family conflict. Both work and family are important for everyone. Spending more time in family can be a challenge for work life. Every human has to attend his family and also to do some work for the fulfillment of his needs. Some time it is difficult to maintain balance between them, which is a cause of conflict. Cause the conflict may be different in each institute such as the nature of job, the working duration, the place of work, and relations with others etc. In the same way there are many demographic variables which effects on WFC such as gender, location, marital status, age, qualification, and experience etc. This study studies the exciting level of work-family clash and effects of demographic variables on work-family conflict in elementary school teachers, 300 Elementary school teachers helped as subjects. Data were analysis with Mean, t-test and ANOVA. Conflict was found in Elementary school teachers. Gender, location, and qualification were observed to be the source of variation but marital status, experience, and age had no effect on WFC in Elementary school teachers. Pages 198 to 209




Marvelous Challenges for Academia in Using ICT: Lessons from Public Sector Universities

Asif Iqbala, M. Anees-ul-Husnain Shahb, Muhammad Usmanc, Shumaila Shahzadd*, aAssistant Professor of Education, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad campus, bAssistant Professor of Education, University of Education Lahore, D.G. Khan campus, Punjab, cAssistant Professor of Business Administration, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad campus, dAssistant Professor (Edu), GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: aasif.iqbal@ue.edu.pkbdraneesulhusnain@ue.edu.pkcm.usman@ue.edu.pkd*shumaila608@gmail.com

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has universal impact on equity of education and the delivery of learning and instructions. Teachers’ professional development is a dream without applying modern trends in education. It is most efficient and speedy way to improve the performance of learners. We are living in a constantly evolving digital world. ICT has an impact on nearly every aspect of our lives. The digital age has renovated the way young people communicate, network, seek help, access information and learn. The current paper is designed to explore the miracles and challenges faced by academia in using the ICT at higher educational level. The study is delimited to all the disciplines currently running and equipped with ICT at GC University Faisalabad and University of Sargodha, Pakistan. Eight departments were selected randomly where the applications of ICT were in progress. One hundred and sixty teachers were selected randomly. The teachers’ engagement and motivation was assessed with self-developed instrument, ICT Engagement and Motivation Survey (ICT-EMS). T-test and ANOVA were applied. The results revealed that there exists a strong significant and positive impact of ICT on teachers’ engagement and motivation. Female students were more curious in using ICT than that of males. Science teachers had more expertise in using ICT when compared with arts teachers. It is suggested that accepting the challenges of digital world, ICT must be applied at all levels of education and teachers should be trained for exploring the miracles of ICT. Pages 210 to 222




Impact of Using Newspapers Reading in Improving English Reading Proficiency: A Study of Pakistani University Students

Furrakh Abbasa, Muhammad Faisal Faridb, Asif Iqbalc, Sabahat Parveend, aSchool of Languages, Civilization and Philosophy, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, b,c,dAssistant Professor of Education, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad campus, Pakistan, Email: afurrakh.abbas@gmail.comcasif.iqbal@ue.edu.pkdsabahatmushtaq@hotmail.com

The current study was planned to investigate the impact of reading newspapers on English reading proficiency of university students. It was an experimental study that used pretest posttest experimental design. The population was all the students enrolled at University of Education Faisalabad in the department of English. Forty students were selected randomly and divided in two groups on the basis of their previous achievement score. One group was taught through the traditional book reading method. The other group was taught through reading the passages from the selected newspaper. The reading proficiency test was developed and administered by the researchers. The comparison was made using the t-test on control and experimental as well as regular and irregular newspaper readers. The results revealed that the students who used newspapers to improve the reading ability performed better in reading proficiency as compared to non-readers of newspaper. The experimental group had higher performance than that of control group. The use of newspaper helped them to improve their performance in reading proficiency. The mean achievement score showed that the regular newspaper readers showed better achievement than that of irregular news readers. It is thus recommended that there should be allocated extra time in reading newspapers so that the reading ability of the students may be improved. Pages 223 to 232




Determinants of Dealing with Islamic Banks Operating in Palestine from the Viewpoint of Traditional Bank Clients

Mohammad W. Haninia, aBirzeit University- Palestine,

The study aimed to identify the factors affecting the choice of dealing with Islamic banks operating in Palestine by traditional bank clients. For this purpose, the study predicted many standard variables that could provide an explanation for these clients’ decision to deal with Islamic banks. The study expected those costs, prices, and the Religious dimension and the extent of awareness and knowledge of Islamic banking products and the extent of the quality of their services or the availability of them influencing the decision of these clients. Therefore, the study relied on the qualitative and quantitative approaches at the same time, as previous studies were reviewed and the network of variables was extracted. In addition, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to 844 traditional bank clients, and by using statistical analysis methods such as frequencies, means, correlation and regression analysis, the study concluded that there is a positive association between All study variables and the decision to deal with Islamic banks, and that 70% of the sample support that the commitment of Islamic banks to the provisions of Islamic Sharia was not convincing, 66% reported that the costs and prices of Islamic banks are high, and there are 66% of them have a positive impression about the quality of services except They affirm that it positively affects the decision to deal with Islamic banks, and 62% of them support that they do not have sufficient awareness and knowledge of the nature of Islamic banking products. The most important result was that 79% of the clients of conventional banks are ready to deal with Islamic banks if their impression improves on all the variables mentioned in the study or Islamic banks work on that. Therefore, the study recommended Islamic banking administrative authorities to work to improve their legal image, to better comply with the provisions of Islamic Sharia, reduce their financing costs, enhance the quality of services, and increase their marketing efforts to increase the culture and awareness of Islamic banking. The study concluded that these results have an important and inevitable impact on the high market share of Islamic banks operating in Palestine. Pages 233 to 255




Number of Trends Managed in Instagram Account Used by Library Association

Prasetyo Adi Nugrohoa, Purnawan Basundorob, a,bLibrary of Universitas Airlangga (60286), Indonesia, Email: a*prasetyo.adi@staf.unair.ac.id

This study has purpose to observe if the library association in modern country is more formal and manage more trends than developing country. This study uses qualitative method of social media mapping in collecting the data. The sample is Instagram account used by library association of 4 countries, USA, UK, Australia, and Malaysia. The data is analyzed using aalisa.io web tool using free version. The result of this study shows that hash tags and caption words in Instagram used by association of modern country tend to be more formal and related to library, while Malaysia as developing country prefer more casual. Thus, the hash tags mostly used by alianational are far fewer than any other associations’ account. PPMK Sabah is the association that can manage the greatest number of trends in its account, shown by number of hash tags and caption words mostly used. This study also finds out that PPMK Sabah in Malaysia can manage more flourish discussion than alianational in Australia shown by the number of hash tags, even though Malaysia is developing country. Pages 256 to 268




A Systematic Review of Literature on Intellectual Capital in the Gulf Cooperation Countries

Rafea Ibrahim Al-Hamadanya, Insaf Mahmood Rasheeb, Mohammed Dhannoon Mohammedc, a,b,cDepartment Finance and Banking, College of Administration and Economics, University of Mosul, Iraq, Email: arafea_ibrahem@uomosul.edu.iqbinsaf_mahmood@uomosul.edu.iqcmohamed_thanon@uomosul.edu.iq

One of the current topical issues in the Gulf countries is the diversification of the economy and transformation to a knowledge-based economy. Therefore, this study investigates the current state of academic research on intellectual capital (IC). The articles reviewed are mainly those that have used a sample of companies in the Gulf countries. Based on the review, it is found that most of the topics discussed are on the relationships between IC and company performance and company value. However, scant attention has been devoted to factors affecting IC efficiency. In addition, several studies on IC, company performance and company value have used the static model to examine these relationships, thereby neglecting the dynamic relationship that may exist. Hence, this study suggests that in future, researchers should investigate these relationships using the aid of the dynamic model. Further, a longitudinal study may provide a clearer picture on how IC affects company performance and company value over time and the factors that contribute to IC efficiency. This is needed because presently, most of the studies have used a repetitive sample. In addition, the inclusion of members of the royal family on the board of directors may play an influential role in IC efficiency and as a moderator in the relationships between IC and company performance and company value. Such future studies can highlight more information on the state of IC in the Gulf region. Pages 269 to 283




On Robust Predictive Analytics for Advertisement Management Framework in Local Governments

Mokhtar Abdullaha*, Tun Mohd Izlizam Bahardinb, Zuraini Aliasc, aTime Brain Sdn Bhd, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, b,cUniversiti Selangor, Selangor Business School, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Email: a*profmokh@gmail.com

This paper presents a study on advertisement management in local governments, which are entrusted with establishment of advertisement standards and regulations that would ensure industry’s compliance with the advertisement regulations. However, the lack of clear and detailed standards by the local governments has resulted in illegal and unlawful advertisement activities. Bahardin et al. (2019) developed a predictive model and performed a predictive analytics using Partial Least Squares (PLS) method for the relationship between advertisement standardization and industry’s compliance with advertisement regulations using a data set from Petaling Jaya City Council, a local government in Malaysia. In this paper, a robust version of PLS, i.e., (PLSc), that is resilient to undesired effects of outliers was proposed.  From the empirical analysis on the predictive model, it was shown that the robust method was able to reduce the influence of the outliers and produced more reliable results compared to its traditional counterpart, PLS. Pages 284 to 297




Deviations from Buying and Selling Principles indeed Binding Agreement - Land Buy and Sell Law No. 5 Year 1960 Concerning Basic Regulations of Agrarian Fundamentals

Sri Mulyati Chalila, Daeng Muhammadb,

The types of agreements named in the book III Civil Code are open principles, meaning that can be done mixed agreement, for example buy and sell agreement mixed with lease agreement then become a purchase agreement, provided that one does not violate the principle of compliance (Article 1339 Civil Code) but if perverts, then this agreement should not be implemented, for example in the agreement borrowed loan is converted into a purchase agreement through the binding deed of temporary sale and purchase. Pages 298 to 308




Infrastructure Development and Economic Growth in Indonesia: A Province Panel Data Analysis

Perak Samosira, Wilson Rajagukgukb, aStudy Program on Mechanical Engineering Institut Teknologi Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Email: asamosirperak@gmail.combwilson.rajagukguk@uki.ac.id">wrajagukguk@yahoo.com,wilson.rajagukguk@uki.ac.id

Infrastructure development is considered as a factor that promotes development. On the other side, inequality in infrastructure development can cause economic growth disparity. This study aims to investigate the impacts of infrastructure development on economic growth disparity across provinces in Indonesia that today consists of 34 provinces. The data used came from the Indonesia Database for Policy and Economic Research (INDO-DAPOER) of the World Bank. The analysis employed the random effects regression model for panel data. The dependent variable was GDP per capita without oil and gas (constant price, million rupiah), while the independent variables were household access to electricity (total in % of total household), literacy rate for population age 15 and over (in % of total population), and birth attended by skilled health worker (in % of total birth). The results of the study show that higher economic growth is associated with better infrastructure development, that is higher household access to electricity, higher literacy rate for population age 15 and over, and higher birth attended by skilled health worker. Disparity in economic growth across provinces was also indicated by the difference in constant for each province in the model. Pages 309 to 318




The Effect of Self-Reading Contracts Strategy on Academic Achievement and Goal Orientation among Primary Stage Pupils in Saudi Arabia

Wadha H. Alotaibia, Eman M. ALRwaythib, aProfessor of Science Education, College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia, bAssociate Professor of Science Education, Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia, Email: awhalotaibi@pnu.edu.sabemrowatw@imamu.edu.sa

The present research aims to identify the effect of self-reading contracts strategy on academic achievement in Science and goal orientation among primary stage pupils in Saudi Arabia. The research sample included (44) sixth grade female pupils selected by the simple random method and was divided into two groups: an experimental group of (23) female pupils who studied using self-reading contracts strategy and a control group of (21) female pupils taught by the traditional teaching method. Academic Achievement Test and Goal Orientation Scale; pre and post-tests were applied to both groups of the research. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences favoring the experimental group in both academic achievement and goal orientation. Pages 319 to 338




Investigating Pension Choice Diversity within a Dynamic Institutional Environment of Public Sector Universities in Pakistan

Muhammad Wahaba, Muhammad Aamir Khanb, Anwar Hussainc, Owais Muftid, aPhD Student, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Economics, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan, cAssociate Professor, University of Swat, Department of Economics & Development Studies, Swat Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: amuhammad.wahab@imsciences.edu.pkbm.aamir.khan@comsats.edu.pkcanwar@uswat.edu.pkdowais.mufti@imsciences.edu.pk

In literature, the mixed empirical results about employees’ retirement choices for different pension systems make it difficult to conclude lucidly. This is because the pension benefits represent a diverse pool of preferences and expectations based on complex socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors. In Pakistan, a multitude of factors in addition to the aforementioned diversity severely threaten the sustainability of the current defined benefit pension system. This is particularly important in the public-sector institutions where the major root for the pension is pay-as-you-go. The current study addresses this issue by developing an important framework with the help of previous literature and interviews conducted with faculty members working in public universities of Pakistan. The study suggests a framework for harmonizing pensioners’ preferences and government policies towards a shift from defined benefit to a more sustainable pension plan. Using line-by-line analysis of interviews, this study also analyses the positive and negative dimensions of selecting different pension systems. For the themes identified, the study proposes a causal map to signal the relationship between concepts and result in a revised framework. The empirical findings are then synthesized with the previous literature and comprehensive policy suggestions are offered. Pages 339 to 361




Thai Business Organization Employee English Language Communication Competency

Parinya Srisarakhama, Chantana Viriyavejakulb, Paitoon Pimdeec, a,b,cFaculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand, Email: aparinyasr197@gmail.combchantana.vi@kmitl.ac.thcpaitoon.pi@kmitl.ac.th

The study intended to evaluate English language communications competency within Thai business organizations. Therefore, from the use of simple random sampling techniques, 400 questionnaires were obtained from individuals employed in a company listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) in 2016. The research instrument was a questionnaire whose items were judged to have a reliability of 0.72. Data were analysed by use of mean statistics, standard deviation (S.D.), and use of a rank order of deference scores, which prioritized the study's aspects' importance by using the adjusted Priority Need Index (PNI) (modified). Results determined that employee English language communications competency was at a moderate level. This contrasted sharply with expectations for listening skills to be at a high level and the requirement for speaking skills to also be at a very high level. Therefore, the authors concluded that there is a need to develop English language communication competencies. Speaking needs special attention and requires more effort than listening. Moreover, when considering each aspect, it was determined that attitude had the highest level of need for improving English communication ability, over knowledge, and skills, respectively. Pages 362 to 378




Systematic Specialty Principles within the Criminal Acts of Corruption in Indonesian Capital Markets

H. Supardia, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta, Email: asupardi@upnvj.ac.id

The criminal acts of corruption in Indonesia continuously evolve in line with the rapid development of technology, industrialization and mankind civilization that enters various fields, including the global capital markets. The rules of administration, operations and criminal acts within capital markets are regulated by a special Law No. 8 Year 1995 on Capital Market (hereinafter, UUPM), but the law has not been able to reach out the practice of trading within the capital markets which hurts the state finances. What is the position of UUPM within the systematic principles (systematiche specialiteit)? How is the implementation of systematic specialty principles in corruption cases in the Indonesian Capital Markets? This study uses the approach of juridical normative, i.e. a research that is based on secondary data while the specification research used is descriptive analytical. The sources of data consist of material law as primary data and material laws as secondary data. The results show that UUPM has a strong position within the concept of systematische specialiteit as an administrative law, but it is reduced by Law No. 19 Year2019 on Corruption Eradication Commission. The implementation of criminal act of corruption within cases regulated by administrative penal law, such as those in Capital Market sectors must meet at least two requirements, namely: the illegal acts against UUPM as a means (modus) to benefit oneself or other people or corporations and there is a significant loss to the state finances. Pages 379 to 396




Characterized Islamic Art in the Framework of Calligraphy

Oday Abdulhameed Majeeda, aMiddle Technical University Institute of Applied Arts, Email: aOday_majeed@mtu.edu.iq

The current research (the Characterized Islamic art in the framework of Arabic calligraphy) is an attempt to study the aesthetic qualities of the Arabic calligraphy inspired by Islamic art with its structural conceptual references and the use of the character of the aesthetic characters according to formations that have a relationship centered on the linear structure of the text, And its transmission from its functionality (blogging) to aesthetic privacy (the decoration) inspired by the rules of the Arabic letters and their origins. The Arabic calligraphy was associated with Quranic texts and the prophetic Hadiths and stages of their functional and aesthetic improvement, And the variety of forms, especially the line of the third, which is proof of mastery of the calligrapher, which is the most beautiful and complete in the qualities of the letters aesthetic, varied and multi-faceted bodies of the calligrapher to another, and lack of study to show the aesthetic side of the lines of the third line, which was the real entrance to understand its technical characteristics And to clarify its aesthetic dimensions as formal systems that highlight the more intellectual and expressive aspects of the Arabic letters carried through the texts (subject) and output them in a form of linear configurations with aesthetic dimensions. Pages 397 to 414




The Temporal Variation of the Change of Green Areas in Baghdad City for the Period (2011-2016)

Israa Talal Dawooda, aUniversity of Baghdad/College of Arts/Geography Department, Email: aisraadawood.iq@gmail.com

The research explained the time sequence of green zones which give a reality of the special situation of these areas and the shrinking extent of their areas for the interest of built areas. The field study of the research revealed two types of spaces: the built space which represents all the spaces of concrete, iron, or asphalt nature penetrating the city environment that exist in the city, and the green space represented by the areas of individual characteristics and need a sustainable care for representing a living organism with requirements that should be provided so that they take their space in the city. The research revealed a decline in the area of green zones which is caused by the annual increase of population size, the increase of demand over the residential supply and also the increase in the size of middle and small industries on the account of green lands. Also, the field study of the research showed that there are two functions controlling the use of green zones, one of them of closed nature that is only used by the concerned one, especially sports stadiums of all kinds and swimming pools, and the other of open nature distributed hierarchically according to the importance of the city and its population size, representing entertainment and recreational areas for all people. Pages 415 to 437




Change Management and Capacity Utilisation: A Critical Requirement for Business Sustainability among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria

Daniel E. Ufuaa*, Romanus, A. Osabohienb, David Imhonopic, Olusola J. Olujobid, Mercy.E. Ogbarie, a,b,c,d,eCovenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, Email: a*daniufua@gmail.com

This study focuses on the practice of change management and operational resilience among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. The research adopts an empirical approach, relying on secondary data sourced from the 2014 enterprise survey of the World Bank and applied the logit regression analysis. Results showed that product development and experience are statistically significant and positively related to capacity utilisation. While political instability, spoilage (loss of product in transit, due to theft, breakage or spoilage) and financial constraint are negatively related to capacity utilisation.  This implies that the increased level of product development is capable of increasing capacity utilisation by approximately 0.4, 0.5 and 0.7 units, respectively.  In the same way, the manager's experience increase capacity utilisation by 0.44units, which conforms to the ‘a priori’ expectation, for managers to be resilient, the experience is highly required. Similarly, the results show that political instability is statistically significant and has negative (0.61, 0.69, 0.50, 0.80 and 0.65) impacts on capacity utilisation. Based on findings, the study recommends the need for further research to consider other approaches such as longitudinal research, comparative research to unearth learning about the factors that affect change management practice.  It is also suggested for further research to consider critical change management effects such as resistance and ethical balance in practice, especially in developing economy like Nigeria. Pages 438 to 458




The Dual Nationality  in the Iraqi Constitution and its Impact on the Increasing of the Tax Evasion (A Case Study)

Saleh Mahdi Humadia, Nazar maan  Abdul kareemb, Ammar Ghazi Ibrahimc, aDiyala University  /college  of  Education   for  Humanities, b,cDiyala University / faculty of  Administration  and  Economics, Email: aSalih.hum@uodiyala.edu.iqbDr.Nazar.M@ecomang.uodiyala.edu.iqcammarghazi@ecomang.uodiyala.edu.iq

The  citizenship/nationality is the  legal  framework that  regulates  individuals'  relationship  with the  state. individuals who have a nationality of a country are allowed to  get  and  obtain   the rights  granted  by   this  country , and  accept  the commitments   imposed on  them  . from  these commitments  , it is  the   the payment  of   tax  due on them   which  are  imposed   according to  the   legislations   and the  applicable  tax  laws .this tax differs from someone to  another and depends on a  basis , that   one of most   important   of it  is the  nationality  which individuals enjoys .the research has reached a set of  conclusions  as  the dual  nationality (multiple nationalities)  is the  most  important  of  it  and which  arouse  many problems like political , social , and  economic problems . also , it  raises  other problems  such as the increasing  of   the  tax evasion  .this  dual  citizenship was after  the adoption  and  approving   the  new Iraqi  constitution in (2005 ) , and the  most  important  recommendations were :  the  necessary of  updating  the  Iraqi laws  and instructions  and  make them   compatible  with  the  Iraqi  constitution. Pages 459 to 472




The Crime of Capturing or Transmitting a Picture of a Person in A Private Place without His Consent (A Comparative Study)

Lama Amer Mahmouda, aFaculty of Law - University of Babylon – Iraq,

One of the most important rights that are related to a person is indivisible, and the consequent safeguarding of his dignity and freedom is the right in the picture. This is because he has authority over his body, and therefore his picture, and he has the right to allow others to take or transfer his picture and publish it, and to say otherwise is a violation of this right. Therefore, criminal legislation has sought to protect him from any aggression that may happen to him, by criminalizing acts that are the subject of capturing, or transmitting a picture of a person by any means, or a device of modern technological devices, or by traditional means, and without his consent if he is in a place that is used as a framework to practice his life Own. Including the legislation that is the subject of comparison, and the appropriate penalties decided for it to provide the elements and elements that it stipulated in the criminal texts, with the aim of protecting this right on the widest scale. Pages 473 to 486




The Effectiveness of Using Mnemonic Strategy on University Students' Retaining of Important Expressions in William Golding's 'Lord of Flies'

Afrah Adil Mahmooda, Jameela Razooq khalafb, aMinistry of Higher Education /Iraq, University of Samarra /College of Education/English Department, bMinistry of Education /Iraq, The General Directorate of Education of Salah Al- Din / Samarra Education Department,

This study aims to analyze the university students' ability to remember the most important expressions in novel material 'Lord of Flies' that is written in 1954 by William Golding. The problem of this study is the university students’ disability to remember some expressions that presented in a novel . In this study the students are partitioned into two gatherings: the Experimental group(20 students) and the control group (20 students).Students are chosen randomly. The researcher applies the strategy of 'Mnemonic' on the experimental group specifically the material of novel that has been taught in the fourth year/English department by using a questionnaire test. This study is limited to the fourth year students/English language department /College of Education/Samarra University. This study is conducted specifically in the first semester of the academic year 2019/2020. The hypothesis of this study is most of fourth year EFL students have no ability to retain many of expressions in a novel. Most of the data are analyzed by using a comparative approach between these two groups. In addition, some of the data from the questionnaire test and writing samples produce the descriptive statistics. The researcher spends one month in applying the 'Mnemonic' strategy to the experimental group , while the control group has been taught traditionally . The researcher presents a questionnaire test for two groups (the experimental and control). According to data statistics ,the researcher finds that the experimental group has the ability to remember the information in the novel material ,while the control group has no ability to retain or remember the important  information through a written test. The researcher presents a questionnaire test which includes ten items  that has been taken from the novel material that is taught in the fourth year /English Department at Samarra University. Five marks have been allotted to each point and the total mark for this test is fifty. Validity is achieved by following the observation of statistics data through a comparison of questionnaire responses in a selection randomly for two samples that may provide a basis for estimating validity(Best and Kahn,2006:329).By this way , the validity of this study is achieved. Reliability ,also, is achieved in this study  by making a comparison between the two group responses (the experimental and control)of  the fourth year students/ English Department / Samarra university. Pages 487 to 499




The Effect of Applying Spiritual Leadership on the Behavior of Organizational Citizenship

Adel A Keshka, a Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Commerce, Port Said University, Egypt,

Here the research aims to identify the extent of the relationship or impact between the three dimensions of spiritual leadership from (vision, hope, altruism) and the extent of its impact on the behaviour of organizational citizenship and the extent of commitment to organizational behaviour at Ain Shams Specialist Hospital (Cairo) based on the premise that (there is an association relationship) Here and the effect between those dimensions of spiritual leadership and the extent of commitment in the organizational behaviour of the institution (and the questionnaire has been distributed to (154) between a nurse and a worker with the aim of forming and identifying hospital employees and after analysing these data, through the answers to the sample by research and testing these hypotheses With the help of With a number of means and these statistical tools represented here by the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient, and the regression, then starting to verify the validity of that hypothesis from which that research originated, and a set of recommendations has been developed that focus here on the core and focus on the need to pay attention to those values Ethics is embedded here as the main pillar of the organization's survival and success. Pages 500 to 516




Implementation of Road Safety Audits Case Study: Sana’a, Yemen

Ali Y. Sewara*, Mohamed A. Elsayedb, Akram S. Kotbc, a,b,cConstruction and building engineering department, arab academy for science, technology and maritime transport, Email: a*ali_sewar@hotmail.com

Road Safety Audit (RSA) is important concepts that has been used around the world, but seemingly unimportant and may be are not implemented in Yemen. The aim of this article is to show How the RSA implementation will has a positive effect provide reduce risk safety road, cost and improve environment situation in Yemen,  compared to roads designed and constructed doesn't guarantee safety of traffic. This study using RSA tools techniques in the Seventy Square Road (Sana’a City, Yemen).Data collection research with cooperation Ministry of Transportation and Traffic Department (supported by Yemeni Experts). A result of this study, the accident rate has been reduced approximately to 50% (24) of the total number of accidents for the year 2019, were 48 accidents. Also, reduced cost about 7,742,043 Riyal which equal 12,000USA. Pages 517 to 527




Impact of the Contemporary Roles of Human Resource in Achieving Strategic Success: An Exploratory Study in the Leather Industry

Mahmood Hasan Jumaaha, Rahman Mahmood Shehathab, Hamza Hameed Yasseenc, a,b,cDiyala University - College of Administration & Economics, Iraq, Email: a*mah_ha72@yahoo.com

The goal here is the current research to test the results of contemporary roles of human resources management in achieving that strategic success, the research problem is: How much influence the contemporary roles of human resources in achieving strategic success in the leather industries company? A questionnaire was used to collect data according to the distribution of (65) questionnaires on the research sample. The data was analyzed using the SPSS program, using a number of statistical tools to test the hypothesis of the research. The research reached the group of conclusions, the most important of which was the belief that there is an impact on the contemporary roles of human resources in achieving strategic success in the Leather Industries Company and its variables (strategic partner, management expert, change). Employee champion agent) The research has come out with several suitable recommendations. Pages 528 to 537




The Problematic Mapping in Designing and Implementing Warehouse Receipt System: An Empirical Lesson from Indonesia

Siti Zulaekhaha*, Sutekib, Paramita Prananingtyasc, aLPDP Awardee, A Law Student of The Doctoral Program at Faculty of Law Diponegoro University and Lecturer of Law Faculty Pekalongan University, b,cLaw Faculty of Diponegoro University, Indonesia, Email: a*she_tea9875@yahoo.co.id

The warehouse receipt system policy is intended to fulfill the constitutional  rights of citizens (especially those based on agriculture in their livelihoods) for equal access to credit. The existence of this system provides an opportunity for residents who have limitations in providing collateral in the form of fixed assets that have been the basis of banking business confidence. This paper aims to identify and map problems, both at the design level and the implementation of the warehouse receipt system policy in Indonesia. This research uses the Socio-Legal Research method by critically analyzing all relevant regulations. The results showed, at the policy design stage, the pilot project that demonstrated its success was very different from the design at the statutory stage. The difference occurs both for commodity owners, commodity types, banks as creditors and warehouse managers involved in the project. Some obstacles were found at the policy implementation stage and the main obstacle was in warehouse management. This problem has a chain effect because the running of the WRS is largely determined by the management of the warehouse which directly influences the process of issuing warehouse receipts. Pages 538 to 548




Respect for Voters' Traditional Voters: Reflections on Legal Recognition of the Ways of Voice Adaptation of Society through Consultation

Ariyantoa, aLPDP Awardee, A Law Student of The Doctoral Program at the Faculty of Law, Diponegoro University Semarang and Lecturer at Faculty of Law, Universitas Yapis Papua, Email: aariyanto_tosepu@gmail.com

The main problem in implementing state democracy is when dealing with the traditional democratic system of voters of indigenous peoples using deliberations based on the principle of collectivism. At the present, The state has only used a democratic system that prioritizes individual freedom in expressing voting rights in politics. Meanwhile, the traditional voter democratic system seems neglected in the country's democratic system. The emergence of problems in understanding the democratic way of traditional voters is caused by the state's lack of respect and recognition of the democratic system that was born from the nation's culture into state law. Whereas the state as a stakeholder must ensure that there is no obstacle for traditional voters to implement a democratic system based on their cultural reality. Democracy through traditional culture is more ideal if it is empowered into the national legal system rather than using the Western democratic order, it can actually trigger the disappearance of a democratic system of cultural order that has existed for a long time in the life of the nation's communal society. At least, to respect the citizens of the country's traditional voters, they can provide legal recognition in order to save the indigenous democratic system, amid a shift in a more modern democratic system. This is done in order to provide access for traditional voters to express their political voice according to social realities that they understand using consensus. Already, it is an important part of the state's responsibility to put the democratic system ahead of the nation's reality compared to establishing a democratic system that adopts from a Western country. Therefore, the state is obliged to respect the culture of the traditional electoral democratic system of indigenous peoples by recognizing it in state law in order to avoid conditions where an increasingly globalized nation degrades the democratic system from traditional voters. Pages 549 to 559




The Role of the Customary Criminal Law of Panglima Laot against Illegal Fishing Countermeasures in Indonesia

Riska Andi Fitrionoa, Barda Nawawi Ariefb, FX Adji Samektoc, aLPDP Awardee, A Law Student of Doctoral Program at Diponegoro University and Lecturer of the Faculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, b,cProfessor of Law at Faculty of Law, Diponegoro University, Email: a*rizka.andi86@gmail.com

Customary / local legal communities have a strategic role in managing coastal and marine resources. Customary / local legal communities are identical with high dependence on natural resources in their areas so that they tend to endeavor to manage natural resources sustainably and sustainably. Sustainable management of natural resources is reflected in the philosophy of their lives that always maintains a balance of human relations with nature. The practice of customary community-based coastal resource management or local wisdom has grown from generation to generation, including the commander in chief of Aceh Province. This research is a study using the socio legal research approach. Socio legal research approach means that there are two aspects of research. First, legal research aspects, and second, socio research. The results of this study indicate that the role of Panglima Laot customary criminal law against illegal fishing is the first to be resolved in the village by giving a warning to the perpetrators of Illegal Fishing. Furthermore, if the same thing happens again, the Panglima Laot institution will hold a discussion between the Panglima Laot institution and the village officials in setting sanctions for the perpetrators. However, from the results of deliberations in resolving the Illegal Fishing case, the perpetrators were imposed sanctions in the form of confiscation of fishing equipment, catches, and pay fines to the gampog according to the catch. Pages 560 to 570




The Impact of the Shock of Public Revenues on the Components of the Monetary Basis in Iraq for the Period /2004-2018

Abdul Rahman Obaid Juma'aa, aAdministration and Economics - Anbar University, Email: aabdulrahmanjumaah@gmail.com

The research aims to analyze and measure the impact of the government revenue shock in Iraq on the components of the monetary basis for the Central Bank of Iraq for the period 2004-2019.                                                    These revenues are linked to international variables, such as global    demand, political and security conditions, and competition between producing countries. The Iraqi economy depends on oil revenues to finance what may reach 90% of budget spending. The results of the joint integration model showed that there is a relationship between government revenues and the monetary basis, which confirms that there is an impact of government revenues on the monetary basis in Iraq. The government should work to increase its types of income because this will reduce the dependency of the monetary basis on public revenues and increase  the ability of the central bank to control the money supply. Pages 571 to 586




Building a Standardized Achievement Test for Educational Psychology According to Classical Theory and Modern Theory

Abdullah Majeed Hamid Al-Atabia, Baidaa Nathir Tawffikb, a,bWasit University / College of Education for Humanities / Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences,

The aim of the present research is to build a standardized achievement test in the subject of educational psychology among the students of the second stage of the faculties of education in Iraq for the Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences according to the classic measurement theory and modern theory (Rush model).To achieve the objectives of this research, the researcher prepared test items that reached (80) items according to Bloom's cognitive levels (knowledge, understanding, application) as a tool for her research, and resorted to the method of multiple choice with four alternatives in building test paragraphs.  The researcher chose to represent the sample size (50%) of the size of the adult population (1899) and thus the size of the sample (950) students distributed by university, college and sex, and all the necessary conditions have been applied with regard to the construction of the test as mentioned in the research procedures in Chapter III. Pages 587 to 606




Stylistic the Curriculum and Its Importance in the Educational System and the Foundations for Its Development. An Analytical Study

Raad Hassoon Aqool Rhadi Al Jammalia, aMissan Directorate of Education  Office / Specialist  Supervision /Iraq,

The processes of education and the means of communication are all based on three main pillars without one of them that cannot work and be productive within the educational path loops in general, and these pillars are ((the sender and the consignee and the message is a constructive image of the teacher, the learner and the curriculum, and we will stand in this research on one of these The three pillars, which is the curriculum)). When we talk about the curriculum, we talk about the future of nations and peoples when one of the politicians was asked his opinion about the future of his mother, and he said ((Put in front of me her curricula in the study, tell you about her future. We aspire to him)). The curriculum has paid great attention to educators and researchers because of its prominent role in the events of change in the lives of individuals and peoples, and this importance has been demonstrated through the many changes and development that have occurred in the curricula in various countries of the world and throughout times and ages. As I address this topic, I stand on the most important stations in the concept of the curriculum and its importance in the educational system, and these stations were represented by the curriculum language and terminology, continued the word curriculum and its concept, and the definition of the traditional curriculum and the modern curriculum and the difference between them as well as the directions of defining the curriculum, and also highlighting the formal curriculum And the hidden curriculum, and this according to the requirements of the study and appropriate to the topic and the need for it. Pages 607 to 624




Psychological Capital and Its Impact on Decision-Making Patterns an Analytical Study at the General Establishment for Electric Energy Production, Central District

Alaa Dham Al-Hamada, Saif Ali Kamelb, Mohsin Rashid Musehibc, a,cUniversity of Baghdad, College of Administration and Economics, bCollege of Administration and Economics - Fallujah University / Department of Public Administration,

The current research aims to explore psychological capital with its dimensions (self-efficacy, optimism, hope, flexibility) and its effect on patterns used by managers, the research adopted the descriptive analytical approach, and the questionnaire was used as a basic tool for data collection and analysis, and the research sample consisted of (60) in the public establishment To produce electric energy in the central region, many statistical methods were used (arithmetic circles, standard deviations, coefficient of variation, and multiple regression analysis) using the program (spss) and then presented a set of conclusions and proposals that are a path to motivate our leaders and organizations to take care of it. A subject and its variables, and several part of their culture. Pages 625 to 655




The Impact of Advertising on the Consumer and the Standards That Help Increase the Purchasing Power of the Public

Abd Almuhsin Salman Khudhera, aCollege of Media - University of Baghdad,

What encourages consumer behaviors is the widespread use of advertising and its strong presence in societies that depend on consumption as a civilized face, as well as the use of various promotional methods, such as repetition and focus in advertising, continuous research, widespread spread and continuous product development, so the current research aims to identify the impact of advertising on the consumer and the standards that help increase the purchasing power of the Iraqi public through conducting a field research on a sample of 327 Iraqi audiences in the city of Baghdad, Karrada district, who are exposed to advertisements of electrical and electronic devices The results of the research showed that there is a correlational relationship with statistical significance between the components of the advertisement and its nature and its impact on the consumer’s purchasing decision, as there is a correlation between the demographic variables of the respondents and the components of the advertisement and its nature and an impact on the purchase decision of the Iraqi consumer. Pages 656 to 678




Is it Time to start Trusting Robots for better Supply Chain Performance of Thailand’s Automobile Industry? Mediating Role of Human-Robotic Interaction Dimensions

Wissawa Aunyawonga*, Terut Kanokthonb, Tommanee Sooksaic, Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoomd, a,c,dSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand, bSripatum University Chonburi Campus, Thailand, Email: a*wissawa.au@ssru.ac.th

The use of robots has become common in the automobile industry as automation is very necessary for automobiles. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of robotic trustworthiness on the Supply Chain Performance of the automobile industry of Thailand. Besides, it also studies the mediating role of human-robotic likeness, robotic intelligence, perfect automation scheme, and positive robotic effect in this regard. The data for the research was gathered by conducting a survey questionnaire in which questions related to robotic trustworthiness were asked. The survey included about 448 employees belonging to the automotive industry of Thailand, out of which 55.8 percent were males, and 44.2 percent were females. The techniques like KMO, confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and structural equation modeling were applied to analyze the collected data and test the validity of the hypotheses. The outcomes of the study showed that all the hypotheses were accepted, except for the last one. The research suggested that robotic trustworthiness plays a significant role in enhancing the Supply Chain Performance of the automobile industry. Besides, human-robotic likeness, robotic intelligence, and perfect automation techniques also play an important mediating role in this case. Thus, it is recommended that future researchers should broaden the variables of the study and use different techniques to test the hypotheses. Pages 679 to 697




The Factors Impact on Lean Accounting and Performance of Thai’s Small and Medium Enterprises

Lamida Kongkadvanicha*, Titaporn Sincharoonsakb, a,bSchool of Accounting, Sripatum University, Thailand, Email: a*Lamida.ko@spu.ac.th

The objectives of this research are to study the factors affecting lean accounting and performance of small and medium enterprises in Thailand and the development of lean accounting models for Thai’s small and medium enterprises. The data was collected from the questionnaires on 260 samples to be used in developing the strategic plan of lean accounting for small and medium enterprises in Thailand. The structural equation model analysis techniques were used with the in-depth interviews. From employing the semi-structured interview with stakeholders regarding lean accounting, the accounting information system characteristics and the transparency of accounting information were found to have positive direct influence on lean accounting of small and medium enterprises in Thailand. In addition, the lean accounting had positive direct influence on the financial performance of Thai’s small and medium enterprises. Pages 698 to 710




Deficiencies in Forensic Evidences Affecting Judicial Trial

Vachiravitch Itthithanasuphavita, Veenunkarn Rujipakb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: avachiravitch.koh@gmail.combveenunkarn.ruj@gmail.com

The objectives of this research are to study the causes of deficiencies in the forensic evidences affecting the judicial trial and to study the approaches in the development to correct such deficiencies. This is the qualitative research using the in-depth interviews and focus group of 37 persons. The research tools are in-depth interview and focus group forms. The data was analyzed using content analysis methods contributed to the research questions. The research results revealed that the reasons for the deficiencies of forensic evidence affecting judicial trial included the lack of crime scene protection, evidence collection process, packing or unpacking, contamination of evidences, verification to correct the type of evidences, quality and standards, falsification of evidence, and improper arrest/raid. The development approach to correct the deficiencies of forensic evidences affecting the trial must be corrected according to the causes of the deficiencies of forensic evidences to be deficient. The most important thing is that the operators and regulating organizations must have an awareness, morality, ethics, and good governance in the performance. Pages 711 to 730




The Analysis of the Influence Ownership Structure of Value Relevance of Accounting Information by Intellectual Capital

Jaruwan Aeksapanga*, Phichet Sopapongb, a,bSchool of Accounting, Sripatum University, Email: a*jaru_suwan@hotmail.com

This study analyzed the influence of shareholder structure on the accounting information value of companies that generate intellectual capital. This is for checking the efficiency of the shareholders’ management effectively leading to guide the planning of the company’s management to improve the accounting information that affects investors’ decisions on the added value of the companies. The researchers synthesized to obtain the required factors by selecting from the frequency of study, the impact of shareholder structure, intellectual capital, accounting information value. From the review of relevant documents, textbooks, and researches, the data was collected from listed companies on the Stock Exchange of Thailand from Form 56-1, annual reports of 240 companies during the period of 2013-2017 for five years, a total of 8 industry groups, totaling 1,200 samples. The structural equation model analysis technique was used and found that the shareholder structure influences both directly and indirectly in a positive direction on intellectual capital. Intellectual capital also has positive direct influence on the value of accounting information. Moreover, the shareholder structure directly and indirectly influences the accounting information value. Pages 745 to 763




The Search for Local Government Consolidation Areas: A Case Study of Singhanakhon, Songkhla, Thailand

Yossathorn Taweephona*, Nopraenue Sajjarax Dhirathitib, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: a*yossathorn2531@gmail.com

This research aimed to search for local government consolidation areas in order to understand the phenomenon of accepting or rejecting this form of consolidation. Qualitative research was employed and the data were collected from 82 stakeholders through several methods consisting of in-depth interviews, and small and large group discussions. An unstructured interview and content analysis were used. The findings of the search for local government consolidation areas showed that there were only 2 areas accepting the consolidation and suitable for consolidation. It was influenced by the locations, interaction between areas, and culture. In addition, the areas were influenced by a lack of potential local leaders, which resulted in having fewer public services than neighbouring areas. Both areas agreed that consolidation would enable their areas to receive appropriate public services due to the larger size of the local government. Pages 764 to 773




The Impact of Innovation Related Organizational Climate and Organizational Performance: Mediating Role of Innovative Work Behavior in Thailand

Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapooma*, Pimploi Tiratittamb, Wissawa Aunyawongc, Vasu Keerativutisestd, a,b,cSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand, dKing Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand, Email: a*phutthiwat.wa@ssru.ac.thbpimploi.ti@ssru.ac.thcwissawa.au@ssru.ac.thdvasu.ke@kmitl.ac.th

The aim associated with this research is to investigate the impact of innovation-related organizational climate and innovative work behavior on organizational performance. The goals of the study also include the mediating impact of innovative work behavior among the nexus of innovation-related organizational climate and organizational performance. The data were gathered by employing the questionnaire method from the managers of public companies that are currently operating in Thailand. Data were analyzed by employing the Smart PLS by using the PLS-SEM technique. The results indicated a positive linkage among the innovation-related organizational climate and organizational performance. The findings also uncovered that innovative work behavior also has a positive link with organizational performance. The outcomes also show that innovative work behavior mediates positively among the nexus of innovation-related organizational climate and organizational performance. These results give the guideline to the policymakers that they should be developed as well as implement the policies that enhance not only the innovation-related organizational climate but also the innovative work behavior that improved the organizational performance. Pages 774 to 794




The Mediating Impact of Understood Information Division among the links of Innovation Class, Innovation Rate, Clear Information Division, and Economic Presentation

Pimploi Tiratittama*, Patsara Sirikamonsinb, Ratchaneewan Sujaritc, Aongart Aun-a-nand, a,b,c,eSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand, dChulalongkorn University, Thailand, Email: a*patsara.si@ssru.ac.thbpimploi.ti@ssru.ac.th,  cratchaneewan.su@ssru.ac.thdaongart.au@ssru.ac.th

The purpose related to the present study is to examine the role of innovation class, innovation rate and clear information division on the economic presentation of the public limited organization in Thailand. The aim also includes the investigation of the mediating role of understood information division among the links of innovation class and economic presentation, innovation rate, and economic presentation and clear information division and economic presentation. Data were gathered form the innovation and research department of the public organization in Thailand and PLS-SEM was utilized for the analysis of the study. The results show that positive nexus among the innovation class, innovation rate, clear information division and economic presentation. The findings also indicated that understood information division positively mediates among the links of innovation class and economic presentation, innovation rate, and economic presentation and clear information division and economic presentation. These results provide the guidelines to the prospective researchers while the study in this area and policymakers for the implementation and development of the policies regarding the innovation to enhance the economic presentation in the organization. Pages 795 to 813




Morphology of Residential Housing of Al Fallujah City

Alaa Ashraf Abed Al Ania, Amjad Raheem Mohammed Al Kubaisib, a,bUniversity of Anbar- college of education for humanities, Email: alaaashraf9997@gmail.com, Amjadraheem79@gmail.com

The residential Houses are one of the main important jobs in the City of Fallujah, as housing represents a basic need from its instinctive and life needs. that represents the circle of necessities even in the narrowest extent of it. since a person spends most of his time in home and next times their will be a strong relationship between families and their housing. Therefore, the family strives to make the housing unit suitable for its frequently needs, so Fallujah city is one of Al Anbar province and later on it developed with The changes of morphological stages that the city went through.as there are a huge of variety of maps and designs and building materials and also rooms number and height of houses in addition to their front. And opening inside and outside the house according to technical and civilized development for society. therefore, we had characterized three main morphological stages and every stage represent the city in a period and differ from followed period, but it will be completed. Pages 814 to 840




Harmonize the Pillars of Corporate Governance to Achieve Sustainability through Earning Quality in Iraqi Banks Listed in the Iraq Stock Exchange

Fayhaa Abdulla Yaqooba, Iman Shakir Mohammedb, Wafaa Abdameer Hassanc, a, cHigher Institute for Accounting and Financial Studies, University of Baghdad, IRAQ, bCollege of Administration and Economics, Al-Iraqia University, IRAQ, Email: afayhaa@pgiafs.uobaghdad.edu.iqbiman.alridha@aliraqia.edu.iqcwafaaabdameer@pgiafs.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The research aims to build and apply standard models, to measure the harmony of the staff responsible for monitoring and auditing the company's business and results and to give confidence in financial reports by reducing the manipulation of profits and achieve sustainability and to achieve the quality of financial reporting of the company through the quality of its profits. Assume that the linkage between the pillars of governance would indicate fewer opportunities to manage the management of profits in light of the activation and coordination of work between the pillars of governance, to reach the goal by testing the research hypotheses on a sample of banks Listed in the Iraq Stock Exchange for the period from 2008 to 2018 and the adoption of statistical method SPSS. The most important results of the research that the proposed standard models have demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the pillars of corporate governance through harmony with the sustainability of profits and achieve the earnings quality. Pages 874 to 898




Legal Status of Foreign Artist Comparative Analytical Study

Ali Abdulrazzaq Muslima, Hussein Riyadh Khudurb, Wassam adil kadheimc, aUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah \ College of Fine Art, b,cUniversity of Thi-Qar \ College of Law, Email: aali1983ali66@gmail.combhussein.altahan@gmail.comcwisam1983@gmail.com

The Iraqi constitution in force in 2005 does not permit any provisions related to the foreigner's status in terms of rights, but it can be inferred by analogy with the concept of violation. The foreign artist does not enjoy any political rights as the right to nominate, elect and vote. Restricting the right to work to Iraqis only - constitutionally - observing the rules of social justice, even though he can exercise this right in accordance with the new and effective labor law for the year 2015. The state guarantees social and health security for Iraqis in the event of old age, disease, disability etc. However, this guarantee can be covered by the foreign artist if there is an international agreement guaranteeing that. Also, free education and sports exercise are a right for every Iraqi. A foreign artist is obligated to respect the social system, to respect the legal, political, and economic system and to pay taxes and fees to the state. The foreign artist should adhere to the conditions of valid and lawful residence, otherwise his marriage will be considered invalid and no party may conclude this contract if the foreigner violates this restriction. Pages 899 to 910




The Bases of Using a Novel as the Subject in the English Reading

Sumaya Nadhir Ali AlShareefa, aAl Imam Al a'adham University Methods of teaching English as a second language, Email: asmyalshareef@yahoo.com

Study of ours submitted  a novel as main topic in a English reading subject  in the university. The focus is on the influence made by ideas of learner in objective way. Thus , groups o foreign learners were introduced lectures on a briefed novel in one course. Two form and questions submitted  and attitudes prior to and after the novel class. Results shows that in course noel view course, students makes grew in, trust , attention, possess ability of knowing. They are important subject introducing by the show the goodness the subjects in lectures room the benefits it offered as well as the difficulties it entailed to the reading process. Keywords: novel, main subject, novel-reading, college subject reading. Pages 911 to 921




The Effect of a Proposed Program Based on the Theory of an Innovative Solution to Problems in Achievement   in Mathematics among Middle School Students

Oday Hashim Alwana, aMisan  University  College of Basic Education-teacher first grade department, Email: aOdayhashim74@gmail.com

The current research aims to know: The effect of a proposed program based on the theory of an innovative solution to problems in the achievement of middle school students in mathematics. The effect of a proposed program based on the theory of an innovative solution to problems in the direction towards mathematics. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the researcher formulated the following two hypotheses: There is no statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average levels of achievement of students of the experimental group who are studying using the proposed program and the degrees of students of the control group who are studying using the usual method in mathematics. There is no statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of students of the experimental group who are studying using the proposed program and the scores of students of the control group who are studying using the regular method in the measure of the trend towards mathematics. The middle class was chosen for the boys, in which there are three divisions for the first intermediate grade, and two divisions were chosen randomly, distributed into two groups, one is experimental and the other is a control. 2019 - 2020, The researcher prepared two types of teaching plans, the first for the control group, according to the usual method, and the second for the experimental group that was studied according to the proposed program. The results of the research showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the achievement test and in the measure of the trend towards mathematics in favor of the experimental group. Pages 922 to 934




Civil Liability of the Aircraft Towers Controller (A comparative study)

Zinah Qudrat Lateefa, aCollege of Law Iraqia University, Email: azeena.qudrat@gmail.com

The air traffic control profession is one of the most dangerous jobs to its responsibilities and obligations. There are numerous legislations that seek to determine the responsibilities of the towers observer. Aviation control requires obtaining a lot of information that helps the air controller to make quick and critical decisions. Although international control operations are of the utmost importance at the present time, the legislation varied in determining the jurisdiction of the court that examines issues that may arise from working in this field. The legislator's keenness in determining the responsibility of the air controller for faults that cause harm to others, and those types of cases were dealt with in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Code. Show us the shrinking number of studies that study the responsibilities of the air controller and determine the tasks that fall to him. There is a legislative vacuum in the subject of determining the terms of reference for the responsibilities of the air controller.  Pages 935 to 945




Educational Learning Design Based on the Stem Approach Entrance and Its Impact on the Scientific Development of the First Grade Mediterranean Students

M. M. Ali Laftah Madhia, M. M. Hashim Hamzah Jasimb, aThe General Directorate of Education for the Second Karkh, bThe General Directorate of Education in Karbala, Email: a*alimadhi6565@gmail.com

The aim of the urging is to build a proposed educational design based on the STEM Approach on the scientific enlightenment of middle first grade students, and it included all students in the Great Prophet’s Medium for Boys, numbering (70) students divided into two divisions, one is experimental and the other is controlling. The researcher built the proposed design with the STEM Approach entrance, and the researcher built a 40-paragraph scientific literacy scale that has been conducted with the specifications of honesty and reliability. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed design in the scientific literacy. The study made a number of recommendations and proposals. Pages 946 to 958




Lexical Phonological Rules of Annexation in Arabic

Kareem Ashoush Mahdia, aDepartment of English, College of   Education, University of Al-Qadissiya, Iraq, Email: akareem.mehdi@qu.edu.iq

The study has discussed one of the most productive types of Arabic compounds that are composed of the annexed and the annexee’s constituents as a continuum ranging from non to a highly productive one. It deals with the morphological annexation as a word-formation process and designs rules for unintentional deriving of those compounds to reach at the multiple rhetorical images drawn by using them. Whether it is real or metaphorical, attributive or subordinate, the annexation is studied as an endocentric and exocentric compounds each of which is of coining noun plus noun or adjective plus noun morphemes. Data gathered are analyzed by means of Lexical Phonology in which the two constituents pass through morphological and phonological processes to coin the compound word. In order to be reliable, annexation study must satisfy the main criteria of compound ship. Pages 959 to 973




Impact of Geographical Circle strategy and Learning Triangle on the Generative Thinking and Geographic Drawing of College Level Students

Rana Ghanim Hamid Al-Taeea, aDepartment of Geography, College of Education for Humanities, University of Mosul, Iraq,

The aim of the research is to find out the impact of the strategy of the geographical circle ((7Es) Learning Cycle Strategy) and the learning triangle (express-planning-evaluate) in the development of generative thinking and geographical drawing in a sample of fourth-grade students in the department of geography in the College of Education for Humanities at Mosul University. The  null hypotheses were developed and the sample was selected intentionally and consisted of (54 students) divided into three equal groups (each group 18 students), a first experimental group taught according to the strategy of the geographical circle and a second taught according to the strategy of learning triangle and a control group taught according to the usual method, the research has used the experimental method and semi-experimental design involving three groups, the research tools were the test of generative thinking and the test of geographical drawing, the research tools stability and validity were confirmed by appropriate means, as was the preparation of a teacher's guide and a booklet for activities in the teaching of the subject of geographical thought according to the two strategies mentioned, and after the application of the posttests the data was collected and analyzed and the use of statistical methods to identify differences of statistical significance. Pages 974 to 1006




The Formation of Armenian Communities of Syria, Lebanon and Jerusalem: From Ancient Times until 19th Century

Ibrahim Yahya Al-Busaidia, Mohammad Salem Al-Tarawnehb, Davit Sahakyanc, a,bSultan Qaboos University, cMutah University,

Diasporas and their constituent communities are not created suddenly. Before their formation, certain processes take place that prepare the creation of these communities. The processes preceding to the formation of communities and Diasporas have their own causes, which can be of a different nature: ethnic, political, religious or economic. This article is a historical analysis aimed at finding out under what circumstances the formation of Armenian communities particularly within the territories of modern Syria, Lebanon and in the Holy City of Jerusalem took place. The nature of formation of Armenian communities differs in each of these three territories and ranges from economic to religious reasons. Hence, we examine each of these territories separately trying to point out the main differentiating factors of its Armenian communities throughout the history. Pages 1007 to 1021




The Role of Mass Customization Product in Enhancing Consumer’s Intention towards Loyalty through Perceived Product Design Efforts

Mahmood Fahad Abd Alia, Kadhim Ahmed Jawad Abbasb, Mohamed Turkic, a,cCollege of Administration and Economics Karbala University, Iraq, bCollege of Administration and Economics Mustansiriyah University, Email: amahmod.fahad@uokerbala.edu.iqbUadh-jsheme@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqcmohammed.t@uokerbala.edu.iq

Mass customization (MC) majorly emphasizes on effective customized product from the manufacturers. Researchers examined the relation between operational performance and customization such as quality, cost and delivery times. Though, efficient customization to evaluate the value of mass customization is not sufficient. This study focuses on the balancing mechanisms to create value as well as the benefits supposed by the consumers. There are identified two global mechanisms of perceived value (PV) about the MC: Mass customization product (MCP) has three dimensions as well as Mass-customization Experience (MCE) has two dimensions. This study examines the dimensions of customers' perceived value obtained and to measure the associations between Consumer value (CV) and loyalty intention. Through online 129 questionnaire distributed to the customers in Iraq. PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings exposed the hedonic, creative achievement, utilitarian, and social value influenced on the effort of perceived product design with the customization, by increasing loyalty intention. The relationships between consumer customized value and the effort of perceived product design enhance the consumer's intention towards loyalty. These outcomes have empirical suggestions to develop efficient customization programs for brand in the industry. Pages 1022 to 1034




The Role of Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Attracting the Domestic and Foreign Direct Investment in Iraq

Fadhil Abbas Kadhima, Thamer Abdul _Aaly Kadhumb, aEconomics Department College  of Management and Economics, University of Al-Qadisiyah,Alqadisyah, Iraq, bAl_ Qasim Green University College of Agriculture, Department Soil and Water Resources, Email: aFadhil.Kadhim74@yahoo.combThamerabd63@agre.uoqasim.edu.iq

The purpose of this study is to find out the role of monetary policy and fiscal policy on foreign direct investment and domestic investment in Iraq from (2004-2018), in this study two models were used, the first one is to measure the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on the investment domestically. This research explained that there is relation between outstanding balance of certificates & domestic investment, the study explained that relationship between domestic investment and re-discount rate is positive and a positive relationship between domestic investment and certificate of deposits. While the relationship between domestic investment and taxes showed negative and also negative relation between domestic investment and government capital spending which means the political efficiency of the fiscal effect is better as compared with the monetary policy on the domestic investment whereas the second  model elaborates the effect of monetary and fiscal policy on the foreign direct investment. In this study, it was explained that the relation between outstanding balance certificate of deposits, rediscount rate and the obligatory cash reserve on foreign direct investment is positive whereas the relationship of taxes and government capital expenditures is negative because of the uncertainty of the government in Iraq. Pages 1035 to 1050




The Role of Green Financial Institutions in Achieving Sustainable Development: A Vision in the Possibility of Its Application in Iraq

Hussein Ali Abeda, Sultan Jasem Sultanb, Ali aid Naserc, aCollege of Imam Kadhim (AS) Departments of Najaf, b,cCollege of Administration and Economics, University of Karbala, Email: ahussein84ali@alkadhum-col.edu.iqbSultan.alnasrawi@yahoo.comcAlanzirose@gmial.com

Since the second half of the 1980s, after the publication of the ICRC's report on environment and development (1987), the issue of sustainable development has occupied a prominent place in economic literature. Over the past few decades, the shifts in the global economy from the liberalisation, opening up and accelerating the pace of globalisation. Globalisation has increased competition among countries without considering the adverse effects and serious consequences on the environment and the depletion of resources, which deprives the right of future generations. The international financial institutions have tried to address this imbalance by seeking sources of financing and investment in economic activities that preserve the environment. Additionally, it works to achieve a balance between the interests of present and future generations, thus making development and sustainable growth. The research seeks to show the role played by green financial institutions to achieve sustainable development through the provision of financial resources with the Iraqi perspective. Pages 1051 to 1068




The Effectiveness of the (TEACCH) Program in Developing the Visual Perception Skills of Autistic Child

Nadira Jameel Hamada, Yassmin Badea Ahmedb, aDepartment of Education and Psychological Sciences, College of Education, bIbn Rushed for Humanities Sciences, University of Baghdad, Centre of Research and Psychological Studies, Ministry of Education, Email: aNadiraJameel24@gmail.combHivi2015farah@gmail.com

The aim of the current research is identifying the effectiveness of TEACCH program for Autism children (5-6) age, the sample of the research is divided into 8 children for the experimental group and 8 children for the control group. The matching of the two groups is made according two variables the age and scores of visual perception test. The TEACCH program has prepared with organization education elements for its suitability of the sample of the research. The number of the sessions are (16) , 2 sessions peer a  week for 30 minutes . After the TEACCH program has applied on the experimental group, the results have showed the following: 1.       There are statistically significant differences between the pre and post -tests priority to the post test in visual perception skills test.  2.   There are statistically significant differences in post- test between the experimental group and control group priority for the experimental group in visual perception skills test. 3.           There are no statistically significant differences between the experimental group in post and continuing tests of the visual perception skills test. According the results of the research, there are many recommendations and suggestions have made. Pages 1069 to 1086




The Range of Taxes and Fees Imposed on the Organization of the Public Sector in Situations in Iraq (Ministry of Education Forms)

Nawar Kadhim Jaber Hussein Al-Awadia, Haider Mohammed Hussein Alib, Mohammed AbdlAmir Abbasc, a,b,cLegal Counseling in the Directorate of Education in Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq, Email: anawaralawadi448@gmail.combhayder.mha80@gmail.comcalardym15@gmail.com

Taxation is an integral part of the important fiscal policy instruments of any developed and developing country, as one of the means of public revenue, as well as the role of fees in it. Iraq is one of countries seeking to develop its public revenue structure except oil revenues which account for more than (%95) of the total public revenues. The Iraqi government has enacted various laws for this purpose and was different in the process of imposing them, The research came to focus on the taxes and fees imposed on the members of the Iraqi ministry of the legitimacy such as in come tax, stamp, duties, support the popular crowd and displaced until 2018 and cancel of them retroactively according to the General Budget Law The Federal of the Republic of Iraq for Same year said that the research reach the range of result that was one of the most important that was all that downsized has been accustomed to the principle of tax laws where the imposition was under the law, without except for the support of the popular crowd body and the good reaction of the project, when the poor of this drug and retroactively in the federal General Budget of the Republic of Iraq 2018 and starting from the date 1/1/2018. Pages 1087 to 1102




The problem of the Rohingya Refugees during 1991-1994 and the International Situation

Maher Chasib Hatem Al-Fahada, aCollege of Imam Kadhum, Misan, Iraq, Email: amaherhatem1982@alkadhum-col.edu.iq

This study focuses on the issue of the problem of Rohingya refugees during 1991-1994 and the UN position on it, in this era the displacement of approximately (250,000 - 268,000) Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh, because of the burmese policy of injustice and arbitrariness towards this minority, and this problem was divided into two phases, the first of which began during (1991) - 1992), which was in the form of human waves fleeing from Arakan Burmese to Bangladesh, and was welcomed by the Bangladeshi government with a spacious, but because of their increasing numbers with the weakness of Bangladesh's potential, the problem began to appear on the horizon, and suffered by Burma, Bangladesh and the Rohingya themselves, Burma did not welcome them, and Bangladesh After the Bangladeshi appeal, the United Nations moved through unhcr, mediated between the two governments, and succeeded in reaching an agreement (safety and voluntary return agreement) on April 28, 1992, in which Burma agreed to receive The refugees, while ensuring their safety, while Bangladesh stressed that the refugees are not forced to return to their homeland, until the necessary guarantees are provided to them, and agreed on a time limit for their return estimated in the whole year, and as the first batch approached, there was a misunderstanding between the Burmese government and UNHCR, because Burma refused to return Unhcr has withdrawn itself from the convention, and this delay increased pressure on the Bangladeshi government, which had to force some refugees to return in secret, and after denouncing it, the latter stopped their returns, thus ending the first phase of the return of the refugees. After negotiations between Burma, Bangladesh and UNHCR, the safety agreement was renewed and the second phase began on February 1, 1993. New, to get rid of the government's arbitrariness against them. Pages 1103 to 1118




The Effect of Multiple Representations in Teaching Mathematical Concepts in Mathematics Literacy among Intermediate Level Students

Meeaad Jasim Salman Al-Sarrya, aCollege of Education Al-Mustansiriyah University,

The aim of the research is to know the effect of using multiple representation in the Mathematics Literacy of female students in the first intermediate class, and to achieve the goal of the research, the experimental approach was adopted and the design of equivalence groups with dimensional testing of the two groups (experimental and control) was chosen. A random sample was chosen consisting of (57) female students from the first intermediate class, by (32) students for the experimental group that studied mathematics according to multiple representation, and (25) students for the control group that studied mathematics according to the usual way, parity was conducted between two groups in the variables (intelligence, chronological age, previous achievement in mathematics, Mathematics Literacy). In addition, Mathematics Literacy test was constructed of (27) items divided into three axes (concepts, principles and basic skills- mathematical thinking- the nature of mathematics and the history of its development).The test was applied at the end of the experiment to the two groups of the study sample and after statistically processing the results; it was found that there was a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental group in the Mathematics Literacy as a whole and in each of its axes. Pages 1119 to 1139




The Psychological Distress Caused by the Quarantine of COVID- 19 & Its Relationship to Suicide Preparedness

Anwer Jabbar Alia, Ahmed Sadaam Sheenb, Muntasser Shallal Farhanc, a,b,cDepartment of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Mustansiriyah, BaghdadIraq, Email: anw_j888@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqbdr.ahmed.s.s@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqcmuntessr.sh@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

COVID-19 coronavirus has become a serious public health threat worldwide. It also manifested itself in the social and economic spheres, doubts and rumors spread, the movement was restricted and quarantined. The negative effects of the epidemic on adolescents and their feeling of frustration, despair, pessimism, and psychological distress led many adolescents to think to end their lives as a result of this tragic reality. The study aimed to Identify the psychological distress among adolescents in light of the Covid-19 pandemic and think suicide. the differences in psychological distress and Suicide Preparedness. According to some demographic variables. the sample of adolescents, amounting to (181) Their ages ranged 15-17 years, in Baghdad City, Al-Rusafa Province. by (86) males and (95) females, to achieve the goals of the research, a Ronald C. Kessler scale was adopted to measure Psychological distress and building a measure to find suicide preparedness, the results of the research found that the individuals of the sample do not have psychological distress and are not ready to commit suicide, the results did not reach that individuals are willing to commit suicide or even think about it due to the imposed quarantine and that there are differences in psychological distress and willingness to commit suicide according to the gender variable for the benefit of the male sample, and that there are differences in psychological distress according to the number of brothers and in favour of those who have (4-more) brothers, while the results did not show the existence of differences according to the number of brothers in preparation for suicide, there are differences in psychological distress depending on the social status of the parents and in favour of the sample that separated The parents are separated from each other, while the results have found that there are no differences according to the social status of the parents (living together - separated) in preparing for suicide and that there are differences in psychological distress and willingness to commit suicide depending on the presence of the parents alive or the death of one or both of them and in favour of those who lost both parents or One of them, and There is a correlation between psychological distress and preparation for suicide. Pages 1140 to 1155




Zora Neale Hurston's Lost Individuality and Independence in Their Eyes were Watching God

Hameed Mana Daikha, Dijla Gattan Shannanb, a,bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, College of Education, Dept. of English, Email: ahmddaikh@gmail.com">Hameed.mana@qu.edu.iq,hmddaikh@gmail.combdijla.shannan@qu.edu.iq

Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) recounts the events of Janie Crawford’s enslaved life that depends on a frame- tale as a technique. The onset of the novel is the same as its coda, where the same two characters appear in the same setting but two hours passed. This paper is a portrayal of desperation, inequality, abuse, and humiliation of the black people especially women in which some of the information is part of Hurston’s biography. Hurston skillfully introduces the issues of race and gender without turning to fury and resentment. Janie fights to discover her individuality and entity. All her life, Janie has been ordered and told to do what others want rather than been asked what she wants or feel. She left no stone unturned to find peace and tranquility, which make her sense her real humanity as an individual who is independent and not a replica of others. In the time of writing the novel, the proper way to treat women or show control especially on the black women was to assume responsibility or take the patriarchal role to those who are inferior. The relationship between women and men at that time was built on submission and obedience. There were two distinct ranks, the men who are superiors and women who are inferior, and the inferior has to serve the superior. The novel seems dedicated to Janie with her unintentional mistakes especially marriages attempting to explore her place in this vast world or identity to gain respect, recognition, and entity. Pages 1156 to 1164




Alignment Level of Science Textbooks with the National Standards for Earth and Space Science Curriculum in Saudi Arabia

Eman M. Al-Rwaythia, Nawal A. Al-RubaianbaAssociate Professor of Science Education, Dep. of Curricula and Instruction, College of Education, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University.Saudi Arabia,  bAssociate Professor of Science Education, Dep. of Curricula and Instruction, College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia.

The current research aimed to investigate the alignment level of the content of science textbooks in Saudi public education with the national standards for earth and space science for (1-12) grades, and to determine the proposed aspects for treatment and development; a descriptive analytical method was utilized. Ten (10) analysis cards were designed for (1-12) grades, where each card included a list of learning outcomes covering the standards of earth and space science in each grade of the four levels (foundation, reinforcement, expansion, and concentration). The findings showed that the alignment level of science textbooks with the national standards for earth and space science curriculum in knowledge and understanding for (1-12) grades was moderate. While foundation was ranked first and rated high, reinforcement was ranked second and rated high, and expansion was ranked third and rated moderate. Concentration was ranked last and rated moderate. Accordingly, the study defined the proposed aspects of treatment and development. A set of recommendations was made to bridge the gap between the present science textbooks and the national standards for earth and space science in Saudi Arabia. Pages 1165 to 1193



The Motif of Vorstenlanden Batik:  An Esthetic Perspective and Authentic Study

Bedjo Riyantoa, Sarwonob, aCommunication Visual Design Program, Facult y of Visual Art and Design, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, bTextile Craft Program, Faculty of Visual Art and Design, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, 1ndonesia, Email: abedjoriyanto@staff.uns.ac.id,  bsarwono59@staff.uns.ac.id

The acculturation process greatly influences the development of Indonesian cultural heritage. The mixture of Indonesian origin culture  was  set  from varied resources coming from different countries such as; Japan. Netherlands. China and India, including a religion of Moslem. Through  expansion  and trade, western cultures, especially from Netherland, play a significant role in influencing the development of Indonesia' s batik motif. To collect the data, an interview with "open-ended" characteristics is conducted. and to increase the validity to the data in this  study.  lt  is  used  the  " triangulation  data."  The analysis is done by using an interaction model ( Model of Analysis). The result of the research discussion includes the varieties of in Vorstenlanden Batik, which are categorized into three broad groups, name I y; Figurative, Non Geometric, and Geometric adornments. ln the figurative adornment, it covers decorative forms that use human objects that ure drawn by obtaining styling. The Non Geometric has basic from motif s like ordinary geometry, such as rectangles. rectangles. circles and kites as appeared in Sulur- Suluran motif. The Geometric pattern is complex shape that have high aesthetic value are formed fmm simple patterns that can make  with simple  tools such  as bows und rulers coming fmm Yogyakarta and Surukarta. lt can be found  in. Sidomukti, Kawuug , Lar-Laran , Truntum motif. The essential part of Vorstenlanden  batik  is  ultimately  affected  by  the  mixture cultures between Indonesian Javanese and the Netherlands. Pages 1194 to 1209

Delphi Method in Emerging Technologies

Jhon Wilder Zartha Sossaa, Jorge Alonso Manrique Henaob, Juan Manuel Montes Hincapiec, Juan Carlos Palacio Piedrahitad, Gina Lia Orozco Mendozae, aSchool of Engineering, Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, bSchool of Engineering, Faculty of Textile engineering. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, cFaculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences. Universidad de Medellín, dSchool of Engineering, Director Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, eSchool of Engineering, Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering,   Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Email: Jhon.zartha@upb.edu.co,  jorge.manrique@upb.edu.co,  jmontes@udem.edu.co,   juan.palacio@upb.edu.co,  gina.orozco@upb.edu.co

The purpose of this article is to identify new techniques and tools related to the application of the Delphi method, as well as to show which of these techniques and tools have been applied in future studies for emerging technologies, the methodology used was carried out through the in-depth review of 50 articles directly related and obtained from the Scopus database, which had as criteria the focus on emerging technologies, sector of application, time horizon and methods used,  an analysis on two axes of discussion was carried out techniques and methods used in future studies compared with the proposals by authors such as  Popper and Smith and  Saritas,  and applications in emerging technologies,  at the end  26 new methods and 153 emerging technologies were found prioritized. Pages 1210 to 1230

US Withdrawal from Afghanistan and the Future of Peace in Afghanistan

Dr. Muhammad Tariqa, Majid Ullahb, Kawsar Khanc, Altaf Hussaind, Shehryar Farrukhe, Irshan Ariff, Asif Ali Shahg, Hameed Ullahh, Sami Ullahi, aLecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, b,c,e,f,g,iM. Phil Scholar, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, dLecturer in Political Science, Government Degree College Buner, Khyber Pakhutnkhwa, h,M. Phil Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, Email: amuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, bmajidullah837@gmail.com, ckpk.khan0095@gmail.com, daltafhussain3631@mail.com, ekhansherry321@gmail.com, firshanarif@gmail.com, gasifkhan25927@gmail.com, hhamidsrhk123@gmail.comiusami54354@gmail.com

This paper focuses on the withdrawal of the US forces from Afghanistan, current situation in Afghanistan, expected advent of Taliban and the prospects of future peace in Afghanistan. Though the withdrawal of the US forces has not been complete yet there has been increase in the deteriorating law and order situation on the country. The main focus of the study is to dilate upon the alarming security situation in Afghanistan, the issue of COVID-19 putting hindrance in the way of peace process, need for political unity, wakening position of the ANDSF, aftermath of the Doha peace process, role of regional powers coupled with the significance of the Afghan civil society and the way forward. The article uses qualitative approach based on the analysis of secondary sources. The study is very significant for dealing with the very important and burning issue with regard to Afghanistan, passing through transition since the US forces are going to withdraw their forces and leave the political and security scenario of the country in the hands of the Afghan government. The study is quite original for focusing on a very important issues confronted by the Afghan government as well as the United States. It applies different techniques that could help in bringing peace in the war-stricken Afghanistan. Novelty of the research lies in applying latest books, articles, reports and newspapers providing latest developments on daily basis taking place in the Afghan stalemate. Pages 1231 to 1245

Mediating Role Working Capital Management in Corporate Governance and Firm’s Performance

Kiran Farooqa, Amir Manzoorb, Ume sumayyyac, Adnan Anward, Ubaid Amjad Sheikhe, a,bBahria university, cIqra University, d,eKarachi Institute of Economics and Technology

Effective management of working capital is a key of success of any business, it includes cash, receivables, payables and inventories.  It’s essential for a business organization to maintain a tradeoff between profitability and liquidity (Baños, García & Martínez 2014). This research examines the mediating role Working Capital Management in Corporate Governance and firm’s accounting performance. We focus on the structure equity holder in corporate governance and decompose the ownership into percentage of equity hold by foreigner and directors. This study identified three commonly used measures of financial performance of firm, namely, return on equity, return on asset, and Tobin’s Q ratio. The statistical techniques used in the research are correlation, multiple regression analysis with considering homogeneity of the data and panel data regression model. These statistical test have been done on Eviews The empirical finding showed that financial performance positively caused by ownership structure and the existence of foreign owners significantly  improve efficiency of working capital policy but the study did not found any impact of director equity on the efficiency of working capital management. The efficiency of working capital management also affects the accounting performance of the firm in case of foreign ownership, but no impact was found in case of director equity. However  in relation to ownership type and firm’s financial performance, the working capital management has no significant mediating rolein case of companies listed in Pakistan stock exchange. Pages 1246 to 1270

Nexus of Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Faculty of Public Sector Universities: Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment

1Dr. Muhammad Anees Ul Husnain Shah, 2Aamir Nadeem, 3Muhammad Imran Shah, 4Dr. Jawad Hussain, 5Dr. Nazim Ali, 6Dr. Zahid Ali, 1Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Education Lahore, D.G Khan Campus, 2Associate Professor, Faculty of Management Sciences, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Institute of Business Administration, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, 4,5Associate Professor, Department of Commerce and Management Sciences, University of Malakand, 6Lecturer, Department of Commerce and Management Sciences, University of Malakand, Email: 1draneesulhusnain@ue.edu.pk

The objective of this study was not only to investigate the impact of organizational justice (Org. Jus.) on organizational citizenship behavior (Org. Citizen. Beh.) but also to test the mediating effect of organizational commitment (Org. Com.) between Org. Jus. and Org. Citizen. Beh.. For this purpose data were collected from 422 faculty members of public sector universities working in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and Sindh. SPSS and Amos were used for data operation. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results of correlation showed a significant positive relationship between Org. Jus. and Org. Citizen. Beh.. Org. Jus. was also found to have a positive relationship with Org. Com.. Org. Citizen. Beh. also has a positive correlation with Org. Com.. Structure equation modeling confirmed that Org. Com. partially mediated the relationship of Org. Jus. and Org. Citizen. Beh. Pages 1271 to 1282

Transgender Act 2018: Islamic Perspective to Interpret Statute for the Protection of Rights and Socio-Psychological Impacts on Pakistani Society

Saad Jaffar1, Dr. Asiya Bibi2, Hajra Arzoo Siddiqui3, Muhammad Waseem Mukhtar4, Waqar Ahmad5, Dr.Zeenat Haroon6, Badshah Khan7, 1Lecturer Islamic Studies, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad. (Corresponding author), 2Assistant Professor, Department of History and Politics, University of Haripur, Haripur, 3Lecturer, Department of psychology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad, 4PhD Scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, 5Mphil Scholar, Institute of Islamic Studies, Mirpur University of Science & Technology (MUST), Mirpur AJK, 6Associate Professor, Department of Quran and Sunnah, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, 7PhD scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, The University of Lahore, Lahore. Email:Saadjaffar@aust.edu.pk

If all groups within a community are not treated equally and given the opportunity to strive for their own growth, no civilization can attain its highest point of wealth and progress. The possibilities in politics are the same. Equal political participation is an attractive feature of every civilized democracy. It has long been recognized that a polity is respected and even raised in status if the general people is actively involved in politics, dating back to the time of the Greek political thinkers. In the twenty-first century, a country is considered developed if it has sound political institutions, democracy, and the highest levels of political equality. The political rights and roles of minorities, such as women, transgender persons, and religious minorities, are particularly crucial to the political development of a community. Unfortunately, Pakistan has very little minority political participation. True equality for its residents has often not been offered by the State of Pakistan. By examining Pakistan's legislative and policy landscape, this essay seeks to examine the right to equality from the viewpoint of the transgender population. This paper comes to the conclusion that Pakistan still lacks a framework for substantive equality and that affirmative action by the State is necessary to bring the transgender community on par with the rest of the population by looking at the Transgender Persons Act of 2018 and the jurisprudence promulgated by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Until all forms of social, economic, and political discrimination against transgender people are eliminated, they won't be properly recognized as equals. It is an effort to research the act and comprehend its need and effects. Pages 1283 to 1299

Maxims and Exi(s)ting Locations: A Pragma-critical Analysis of the Selected English and Urdu Short Stories

Mussarat Jabeen1, Asma Sharif2, Sohaib Muhammad3, Fazal Ghani4, Muhammad Yousaf5, 1MPhil English Scholar, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan-Pakistan and Associate Professor, Government Degree College for Girls, Rustam, Mardan-Pakistan. 2MPhil English Scholar, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan-Pakistan 3English Instructor, Aziz Bhatti Shaheed Army School and College Mardan-Pakistan, 4MPhil English, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology Dera Ismail Khan-Pakistan, 5BS English, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan Pakistan. 1mussaratjabeen14301@gmail.com, 2asmas821@gmail.com, 3sohaibromimdn@gmail.com, 4fghanikhan55@gmail.com, 5muhammadyousafparacha@yahoo.com

Short stories usually consist of simple plots and mostly describe a single issue/theme. Many of them are analyzed in different domains of the same language. The present study is conducted to analyze maxims and the conversational intentions of the characters of short stories of two different languages i.e., English and Urdu. The study is intended to comparatively analyze an English short story Clay by James Joyce (1914) and Urdu short story Saza by Humaira Waheed (2020). The study is qualitative which is intended to explore Herbert Grice’s (1975) maxims and George Yule’s (1996) speech acts. The findings of the study show that there is existence of maxims but flouting in Urdu short stories is greater as compared to English short stories. Though the characters change their locations but at the end, they have to return back to their basic position. It is concluded that the knowledge of setting is utmost necessary to understand the maxims, locations and speech acts of the participants. Pages 1300 to 1310
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