Volume 5, Issue 2, August, 2019

Special Edition: Emerging Issues, Challenges, and Solutions in Business Management and Social Sciences: A Way Forward

Guest Editor: Dr Muhammad Haseeb

Senior Lecturer, Taylor's Business School. Taylor University, Malaysia

ISSN 2201-1323

Sponsored by Intellectual Edge Consultancy

IEC logo



The Texture of Indonesian Story Texts in Teen Literature

*Agus Hari Wibowoa, Djatmikab, Mohd Nor Shahizan Alic, Neesa Ameera Mohamed Salimd, Bahtiar Mohamade, a,bFaculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, cFaculty of Social Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, dFaculty of Art and Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, eSchool of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.

*Corresponding email: aAgushari67@staff.uns.ac.id bdjatmika@staff.uns.ac.id,

cshahizan@ukm.edu.my, d neesa@kedah.uitm.edu.my, embahtiar@uum.edu.my

Exploring the quality of language use is interesting as it reflects how the young writers compose their stories. In Indonesia, there have been publications of such literary works as novel or short stories written by young writers from different backgrounds, which might result in different styles of writing. This article discusses the quality of the Indonesian language text stories employed by Indonesian young writers that are popularly referred to as teen literature. Teen literature in the form of short stories and novels were collected and analyzed from a linguistics point of view. The focus of analysis was more on the text texture. The analysis of text texture involves the lexicogrammar and the diction or the illocution of the words. In addition, the expression of the speech act of the utterances in the stories was also analysed. The result shows that the young writers have the ability to perform effective grammatical structure related to the complex construction of sentences and also the choice of speech adjectives to be used in the dialogue in the story texts. However, some weaknesses in grammatical structure and speech act also still occur in some parts of the story texts analyzed. Pages 1021 to 1040


Impact of Financial Decisions on Suppliers Relationships with the Business: A study From Kuwait 

Ahmed Nahar Al Hussainia, a The Public Authority for Applied Education & Training. The College of Business Studies, State of Kuwait (Pages 1042 to 1067)

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of financial decisions on supplier’s relationship with business. For financial decisions factors like dividend decisions, leverage and business growth are selected as major explanatory variables. To measure the supplier’s relationship with the business, accounts payable is selected as the main outcome factor of the study as it measures the supplier’s account using the balance sheet. A sample of 100 manufacturing firms is observed, covering the time of 2011 to 2016 on annual basis. Panel data models under the title of pooled regression, fixed effect, and random effect are applied to check the empirical relationship between the variables. Based on the findings, it is suggested that fixed effect findings under all regression models can be generalized. While under multiple regression models, market leverage, dividend payments, and dividend yield have their significant association with supplier’s accounts. For the panel fixed effect estimator, book leverage, market leverage, and debt to assets are significant determinants of a supplier’s account. For the whole sample of variables, book leverage, market leverage, debt to asset, dividend yield and business growth were identified as significant determinants. However, under the combination of debt to equity, leverage and business growth, debt to equity, dividend yield, and assets growth are significant determinants of a supplier’s account. The originality of this study addresses an identified gap in the empirical literature for financial decisions and supplier relationships with business. This study is further based on several limitations such as advance panel models and robust checks for the data are not observed. 


The Presence of Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: Navigating Employees to Avoid Mental Illness for Outstanding Work Performance

Aris, A. Z. Z.a, Aman, N. A.b, Salleh, S.S.M.M.c, Zahari, M.K.N.d, Saraih, U. N.e, a,b,c,d,eSchool of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Malaysia (Pages 1068 to 1081)

This study delves into the causes of the symptoms of bipolar disorder among teachers and examined how it was related to meeting standards of work performance. Participants were 81 male and 119 female secondary school teachers in North Malaysia. Participants were given the surveys based on three independent variables which are stress, mood and emotions and work environment that were empirically evident to become the source of bipolar disorder symptoms. Results suggested that all of the independent variables are correlated with work performance; with the highest result being for work environment (.48**), then mood and emotions (.47**) and finally stress (.38**). Results are discussed in terms of implications for teachers to excel in their work performance.


History and Development of Islamic Education in Brunei Darussalam, 1600–1983: from Home Instruction to the Religious Primary School

Awg Haji Asbol bin Haji Maila, Ampuan Haji Brahim bin Ampuan Hj Tengahb, Haji Tassim bin Hj Abu Bakarc, (Pages 1082 to 1101)

Religious education played an important role in the spread of Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago. In the Nation of Brunei, Islam has been practiced since the 10th or 16th century according to local and Western historians, respectively. This paper discusses the development of Islamic education in Brunei from 1600 to 1983. Early Islamic education was informal, being carried out mainly by family members and Muslim clerics. The standardisation of Islamic education began in the 1930s, as Malay schools gradually incorporated religious elements in the curriculum to foster a more comprehensive understanding of Islamic principles and practices among youth. The establishment of the Department of Religious Affairs in 1954 and religious primary schools in 1956 under Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddein III further entrenched the influence of Islamic education. Thus, the progress of Islamic education in Brunei occurred in stages, corresponding with socioeconomic and political developments affecting the Bruneian Muslim community.


Anthropocentric Religious Communication of National Amil Zakat Agency for the Empowerment of Marginal Communities in Padang Indonesia

Bukhari Bukharia, Ismail Suardi Wekkeb, Thaheransyah Thaheransyahc, Ahmad Sabrid, a,c,d Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol Padang, Indonesia, bSekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Sorong, Indonesia (Pages 1102 to 1115)

Anthropocentric religious communication of empowerment has raised the quality of life, knowledge, work skill, and mindset of marginal communities in Padang by means of enlightening, supplying, and using capital resources in independent communities. The purpose of this article is to reveal the place of anthropocentric dakwah of National Amil Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) in the empowerment of marginal communities as independent communities in welfare improvement. This study used a descriptive phenomenological approach through observation and in-depth interviews with the executive board of BAZNAS of Padang City, da’is, and marginal communities as the aid recipients and further the university component was explored. Group discussion was focused on field data findings, then analysis and comparison with relevant articles and literature. Observation was carried out to study the socio-cultural aspects of marginal communities related to empowerment dakwah and communities independence. This study found that realizing independent marginal communities of Padang City was not achieved by granting revolving fund resources as capital to run their business or by giving them work skill training, but also by changing their mindset and their understandings through cooperation with da’is in the form of religious talk/recitation wirid and with the university as field consultant. That BAZNAS which has performed in cooperation with da’is and the university in empowering marginal communities of Padang City Indonesia is a new finding in this study.


Digital Financial Reporting Practices among Public Listed Mining Companies in Indonesia

Citra Sukmadilagaa, Hamzah Ritchib, Handiani Suciatic, Tri Utami Lestarid, Erlane K Ghanie, a,b,c,dDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, eFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknology MARA, Malaysia (Pages 1116 to 1133)

The Internet is one technology that plays an important role currently. Most companies that have gone public have an existing company website containing important information about the company. The availability of the internet can facilitate a company’s presentation of latest information. The Internet can also be used by corporate information users to detremine a company's current financial condition. The use of the Internet to deliver corporate financial statements is called Internet Financial Reporting (IFR). Internet financial reporting (IFR) is a recent but fast-growing phenomenon. Many companies worldwide publish their corporate financial information on the Internet. Companies can store financial information via the Internet to reach a wider worldwide audience more quickly and economically. The study objective is to examine the relationship between firm size, leverage, liquidity, profitability and Internet Financial Reporting (IFR) in Indonesian mining companies. This study is categorized as descriptive research and uses multiple regression models for data analysis. The study findings are that (1) the combined firm size, leverage, liquidity and profitability have no significant effect on the disclosure of IFR, (2) firm size has non-significant positive effect, on the disclosure of IFR, (3) leverage has non-significant positive effect on the disclosure of IFR, (4) liquidity has non-significant positive effect on the disclosure of IF and (5) profitability has a significant positive effect on the disclosure of IFR. This study adds to existing available information for policymakers, company management, governments, the Financial Services Authority and the Indonesia Stock Exchange, that enables informed decision making about IFR as a transparent medium for corporate governance.


Examining the Trend of the Research on eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL): A Bibliometric Review

* Aidi Ahmi a, Mohd Herry, Mohd Nasir b

a, b Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: aidi@uum.edu.my

XBRL or eXtensible Business Reporting Language is a digital version of business reports that has been widely used in order to replace the traditional paper-based reports, such as PDF and HTML. Reports in XBRL format opens up various capabilities where the users of the reports can use, share, analyse or add meaningful value to the data. Based on the usefulness and benefits of XBRL, there are many kinds of research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse, and reports published documents related to XBRL based on the data obtained from the Scopus database. As of 15th July 2019, a total of 370 documents are retrieved and analysed. Using standard bibliometric indicators, this article reports the research productivity, documents and source types, language of publications, subject area, most active source title, distribution of publications by countries, most active institutions, authorship, keywords, title and abstract analysis and citation analysis. The results show that there is an increased growth rate of literature on XBRL from 2001 until 2011. However, the number is slightly lower from 2011 till 2019. There are various studies that have been conducted on XBRL involving the collaboration of multi-authors, published in various languages, by a total of 160 authors from 43 different countries and 160 institutions.


A Comparative Study of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions of the Effective English Teacher at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University

Farooq Al-Tameemya, Fahad AlSahlib, a,bPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University (Pages 1168 to 1194)

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of English language teachers/faculty members and students about effective English language teaching. In addition, it aims to find whether there are statistical significant differences between English teacher and student perceptions about effective English language teaching and how the dimensions: Professional, English teaching, personal, and interpersonal qualities are order-ranked according to importance. Proposed qualities of effective teaching were organized under four sections: Professional, English teaching, personal and interpersonal qualities. In addition, participants were asked to note other qualities that did not already exist in the questionnaire. The study targeted male and female faculty members and EFL students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University. The study found that both faculty members and students have highly positive perceptions of the teaching qualities proposed in the study. The study also found statistically significant differences between faculty members and students in their perceptions about effective English language teaching in favour of faculty members. There was no statistically significant difference that can be ascribed to gender (i.e. in general for all participants, faculty members and students).  Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference that can be ascribed to experience.


The Impact of Tax Incentives and IFRS Adoption on Foreign Direct Investment in ASEAN Countries

Galu Bernie Apriana, Ferry Irawanb, aSchool of Accounting, Polytechnic of State Finance, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, bSchool of Tax, Polytechnic of State Finance, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia (Pages 1195 to 1212)

This study analyzes the effect of the tax incentive (proxied by tax rate and tax holiday) and IFRS adoption on the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in ASEAN countries by using panel data regression. This study is conducted in 9 ASEAN countries, with the timeframe of study being from 2006 to 2015. To produce a more reliable result, the study also utilised several control variables: market size, openness to trade, construction, unemployment rate, and public debt. Based on a random effect model, there are three important results. First, tax rate makes a negative impact on FDI inflows. Second, tax holiday has no statistically significant impact on FDI inflows. Third, IFRS adoption has a positive impact on the FDI inflows. The government’s policy in determining the tax incentive and the decision in IFRS adoption provide an institutional advantage, which have added value to support an investor’s decision to transfer FDI to the country.


Shariah is Immaterial in the Eyes of Civil Courts: Critical Analysis on the Cases Decided in Malaysia, Brunei and England

*Hakimah Yaacoba, Dayana Sunadib, Selamah Maamorc, aFaculty of Islamic Economics and Finance, Universiti Islam Sultan Sharif Ali, Simpang 347, Jalan Pasar Baharu, Gadong BE 1310, Negara Brunei Darussalam, bFaculty of Shariah and Laws, University of Sultan Sharif Ali UNISSA, Brunei Darussalam, cIslamic Business School, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

*Corresponding Email: hakimahunissa@gmail.com

The problem in Islamic finance is that all disputes are decided in Civil courts that apply the Common law principles. Applying the common law principles which override the conventional banking system, are the primary reason Shariah values are being disregarded by the court of law. The objective of this paper is to analyse cases of Islamic finance decided in three (3) countries which are Malaysia, Brunei and England. These three countries were selected due to ease of access to information and cases. The research findings led to the conclusion that Shariah is not the main issue discussed in the courts of law. In some cases, the judges even refused to uphold Shariah principles under the ‘harmonisation’ concept and restricted covenants under the conventional law regime. These findings presented in this paper are that Islamic finance cases decided in court do not put emphasise on the importance of Shariah compliance. A further finding is that never in the history of cases decided in court in these jurisdictions has an attempt been made to define what ‘Shariah compliance’ and ‘Shariah’ are. Additionally, this paper argues that cases where judges have wrongly interpreted contracts exist. This is research based on literature, cases have been collected from the available reported and non-reported literary collections. The findings may lead to future research and strengthening of Shariah in policy making. Pages 1213 to 1225


The General Insurance Agents’ Communication Tools and Its Relationship with Self-Efficacy and Training Effectiveness 

*Shahrizal Badlishaha, Juha Alib, Muhammad  Fareedc, a,b,cSchool of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Malaysia.

*Corresponding Email: bshahrizal@uum.edu.my

Accomplishing training effectiveness will be beneficial for General Insurance Agents in performing their daily activities. The training expenditure for General Insurance Agents, which is accounted for in the Agency Related Expenses (ARE) in the company’s books, applies to all the agency force practitioners of general insurance with effect from 1st January 2005 wherein all related compliance requirements are stipulated including training hours in the guidelines set by the Central Bank of Malaysia (BNM).  The Financial Mediation Bureau (FMB), now known as Ombudsman for Financial Services (OFS), a unit under the Central Bank of Malaysia, had recorded 609 customer complaints in 2015, 660 in 2014 and 742 in 2013 for General Insurance products. This report shows that the people who introduce the insurance products to the public are not well versed with the products thus the knowledge imparted is not consistent with the product. In the insurance industry, the people  who play the role as link between insurance companies and customers are widely known as agents. This research was conducted in two training sessions where agents were evaluated on how to improve their understanding on basic product knowledge and thus transferring this to sales. Results indicate that agents feel easy, more comfortable and open-minded while learning from their peers as compared to the  instructors. An approach using self-efficacy was developed and resulted in a more relaxed learning atmosphere that improved agent performance through improved training effectiveness. Pages 1227 to 1238


Spirit of Maritime in Rida K Liamsi’s Poems

Junaidi Junaidia, aUniversitas Lancang Kuning Pekanbaru-Indonesia (Pages 1240 to 1254)

The notion of maritime seems to be a prevalent poetic theme. The energetic enthusiasm of maritime life in facing life challenges is the inspiration for this. This research aims at analyzing the maritime concept, included as represented in four poems written by Rida K. Liamsi, namely Laut (Sea), Tempuling (Spear), Pancang Nibung I (Palm Tree Pole I), and Kemejan (Shark). Descriptive method is used to explain maritime concept in the poetry. While the research result will show the discussions of rigorous life obstacles inside life in maritime territory.  These poems are a response to Malay eagerness to live in a maritime zone. The poems teach the struggle in life requires persistence. Malay culture is to never surrender to fate, even though every fight will result in both victory and failure. This destiny does not impair their exertion in handling life. The most interesting part is that they recognize the importance of theessesnce of life for struggle is the true heart of life.


The Impact of Learning Facilities on Students’ Academic Performance in Professional an Accountancy Qualification Program: Empirical Evidence 

Kalsom Salleha, Nurain Johanb, Syatila Che Sarujic, a,b,cCollege University Poly-Tech Mara Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Pages 1255 to 1271)

Learning facilities both academic and non-academic facilities have a great impact on students’ academic performances in an externally examined professional accountancy program i.e. Association of Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA) Qualification and therefore, inadequacy of such facilities may translate to students’ poor performances.  This study examined the availability and convenience of the learning facilities that were provided by the selected Gold Status Approved Learning Provider (ALP) in Malaysia to local students who have enrolled in an ACCA Qualification program.  The research objective of this study is to determine the significant relationship between the availability of academic and non-academic facilities and the academic performance of ACCA students in their professional and fundamental exam papers. A survey questionnaire was employed as the main instrument to collect data for statistical analysis from the ACCA students who had enrolled and registered for their June 2017 examination. The empirical findings of this study may provide an initial step forward in recognizing the role of essential learning facilities that would help to overcome the problem of ACCA students’ poor academic performances in the selected Gold Status ALP. 


Determinants of Social Media Usage (Face-book) to Create Brand Awareness among Indonesian Consumers

Kittisak Jermsittiparserta,b, Jutamat Sutdueanc, Thanaporn Sriyakuld, aDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, cCollege of Innovative Business and Accountancy, Dhurakij Pundit University, Bangkok, Thailand, dFaculty of Business Administration, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand,

Purpose: The current study intends to determine the usage of social media (face-book) as found to be compatible, cost effective and interactive for users. The effect of social media usage (specifically face-book) on brand image is under discussion in the present study.

Design and Methodology approach: A quantitative approach has been taken in this study for a statistical analysis on collected data through a survey questionnaire administered to 265 social media users in Jakarta Indonesia. SEM (structural equation modelling) has been used for the testing of the hypothesis in the present study.

Findings: The current study found 1) impact of compatibility has insignificant impact with face-book usage, 2) strong positive impact of cost effectiveness, 3) interactivity was a strong and positive impact on face-book usage, 4) usage of face-book has a strong positive impact on brand awareness.

Limitations of Research: Limited sample examination for proposed constructs is a limitation of study; the sample covers only Jakarta and young online users in Indonesia which limits the generalized findings. Practical implication: Innovative and better quality is expected by face-book services which is being used widely for online services. Online users consider various factors for online selection of media especially face-book. The right selection of media is necessary as it impacts brand image. Pages 1272 to 1289



Community Satisfaction Survey in Government of Kuningan Regency West Java Province

Lia Muliawatya, R. Taqwaty Firdansijahb, Kamal Alamsyahc, a,b,cFaculty Social Sciences and Politics, Pasundan University, Indonesia (Pages 1290 to 1317)

Regional autonomy is the implementation of Law Number 32 (2004) and Act Number 23 (2014) on Regional Government. The main objective is to improve the welfare of the community. One of the main tasks of local government is to provide public services based on Law Number 25 (2009) of Public Service. Kuningan Regency, West Java Province, is trying to improve public services in all fields. In connection with the increasingly complex needs of the community, the government of Kuningan Regency is required to optimize public services. Public service conducted by Kuningan Regency government needs to be evaluated periodically to assess service quality and community satisfaction by using a Customer Satisfaction Survey (CSS). In this study this survey was conducted on several basic services, such as identity card (KTP), birth certificate, building permits (IMB), business license, and infrastructure. The objectives of the research are: 1) to know and assess the level of public satisfaction of the service of the apparatus; 2) to know and examine public obstacles to various services provided by the apparatus; 3) to know and examine whether the efforts made by the apparatus solve community dissatisfaction about the service. The research presents findings about the level of public satisfaction with the service of apparatus in the supply of clean water, waste and waste management and whether it has decreased or whether there is dissatisfaction.


Energy Management Practice: A Case Study of University Utara Malaysia Main Administrative Building

M.N.M., Nawia, M.Z. Tahirb, S.H., Ibrahimc, F., Baharumd, Federica Agnesee, aSchool of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, bSchool of Business and Management, University College of Technology Sarawak,  96000 Sibu, Sarawak, cFaculty of Built Environment, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia, dSchool of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia,(Pages 1318 to 1327)

Over the past few years, the cost of operations and maintenance of buildings on public university campuses have increased and among the issues that need to be promptly addressed are those related to energy efficiency within the campus. Although the university management is aware of this issue, there are challenges that have never been taken into account in energy management activities within the university campus. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the energy efficiency program as well as identify the challenges that the energy committee is currently facing. The approach is a case study from which data was collected through observations, interviews, and documentation research about the overall program and all the challenges faced during the energy management program carried out at the campus of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). The findings of the study show that top management commitment, budget allocation, employee involvement, and awareness are key issues that challenge the sustainability and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs at UUM campus. The implementation of energy efficiency programs on campus at public universities in the future should take into account the challenges and difficulties faced by the energy management committee.


Equality of Learning for Children with Special Needs: Case Studies at the Elementary School Level

Minsih Minsiha, Slamet PHb, Suparnoc, Imam Mujahidd, aUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta & Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, dInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta,(Pages 1328 to 1354)

This article aimed to: (1) describe the development of inclusive education in an Elementary School, Lazuardi Kamila Global Islamic School Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia and (2) describe the conditions of inclusive learning for children with special needs. Data was collected through interviews, observation, and documentation. The data was analyzed using inductive-interactive-qualitative techniques. The results show that (1) during the last six years the development of inclusive education at Elementary School of Lazuardi Kamila Global Islamic School Surakarta has run smoothly, and there have never been cases of students who withdrew before basic education was completed. (2) students with special needs learn together with normal students in a mutual-common classroom. All school members support and try to maximize inclusive education, although there are still many shortcomings in the implementation of inclusivity. The implementation of inclusive learning has been going well through implementation of a system focused on equality in learning and in interacting and communicating in daily life where the methodology, media, and teaching materials are tailored to the development and needs of students.


Job Performance Management:  The Burnout Inventory Model and Intention to Quit their Job among Hospitality Employees

Mohammad B. Al-Badarneha, Hakam S. Shatnawib, Omar Abedalla Alananzehc, Ahmad A. Al-Mkhadmehd, aDepartment of Travel and Tourism, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yarmouk University, Jordan, b,c,dDepartment of Hotel Management, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yarmouk University, Jordan, (Pages 1355 to 1375)

This study investigates the impact of burnout on the employees' intention to quit and the latter’s impact on job performance. A developed model was constructed to determine the factors of burnout and their effects as well as the effect of the intention to quit a job on employees' performance. As the study is conducted in a conservative community, the model took into consideration cultural and religious factors. The study used a self-administered questionnaire adapted from previous pioneering studies of burnout to examine the various intertwined relationships in the proposed model, which was achieved using an SEM technique. The findings show that burnout dimensions significantly affect the intentions to quit a job which in turn had a significant impact on job performance. Theoretical and managerial implications were suggested accordingly.


Indonesian National Work Competency Certificate (SKKNI): Ending Discrimination to Persons with Disabilities in Formal Sectors Employment

Abdorrakhman Gintingsa, aSpecial Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Science, Universitas Islam Nusantara, (Pages 1376 to 1395)

This article aims to reveal how the provision of SKKNI addresses the discrimination against people with disabilities in obtaining employment opportunities in formal sectors. This study employs an in-depth literature review which includes academic literature, regulations, news, interviews, and focused group discussion. As a result, this study found that the provision of SKKNI was an appropriate means and had formal legal power to ensure that people with disabilities had the same opportunities as their colleagues who were not disabled to fill the same employment opportunities. Certified competencies will be protected by law and will stop defamation of people with disabilities who are both the same as per the creation of God. Technically, the application of this idea can be accomplished by establishing a national task force that will identify the KKNI (Indonesian Qualification Framework) referring to SKKNI to be incorporated as SKL (Graduate Competence Standard) in the curriculum for SLB or Special Education School. This step was strengthened by establishing an LSP or Professional Certification Unit in a number of SLBs which were designated as pilot schools. To avoid obstacles from some stakeholders, public education for persons with disabilities needs to be done intensively and extensively.

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