Using Media Literacy to Prevent the Dangers of Hoaxes and Intolerance among the Students of Universitas Negeri Semarang

Edi Kurniawana, Tri Marhaeni Pudji Astutib, Cahyo Budi Utomoc, Danang Junior Trimasukmanad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Social Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang,

In terms of diversity, Indonesia is a nation state that prides itself on being an irony. It is said to be proud because of the large variety of differentiations, which are viewed as a wealth as well as portraits of Indonesian multiculturalism. On the other hand, this diversity has become a disaster for the Indonesian people. Sectarian conflicts between ethnic groups, religions, races, groups, and beliefs can hardly be denied. The high number of conflicts and intolerance shows that there is still a low awareness of multiculturalism in Indonesia, as in the world. Importantly, intolerant bursts and frictions are sometimes triggered by mass media coverage. Inevitably, the neutrality of the media's attitude from various social, political and economic interests is increasingly being disputed, especially in the era of digital media, where many news hoaxes seem to immediately become viral. Within this condition, media literacy principles are needed in order to support the media literacy movement. This study aims to determine the level of media literacy abilities among UNNES students, how to develop media literacy principles to prevent the dangers of hoaxes and intolerance among students, and how to implement these principles. Study results showed that 18% of UNNES students had excellent media literacy abilities, 57% had good abilities, and 22% had moderate abilities, with 3% having poor abilities. The principles in media literacy are arranged in a hierarchy that also reflects the level of student ability in media literacy. The strategies that can be applied in implementing the literacy principles include using comprehensive strategies, through a special curriculum, embedding these implicitly in lecture activities, choosing the right media for students, increasing journalistic production for students' consumption, and community-based media literacy. Pages 1 to 13




Towards Societal Engagement: Building Human Resilience by Engaging Communication about Flood Prone Areas

S. Thiruchelvama, Y.J. Ngb*,  Norhayati Bte Mat Husinc, S.T. Chongd, Azrul Ghazalie, Ahmad Kamal Kadirf, a,b,c,d,e,fUniversiti Tenaga Nasional, Selangor, 43000, Malaysia, Email: b*yujin@uniten.edu.my

Societal engagement is defined as the direct and indirect interactions of social organisations and stakeholders-at-large, with government, various institutions and business establishments, with the aim of affecting decision making, or the achievement of a common goal. Economic development projects have brought about innumerable advantages, as well as many unfavourable effects upon vulnerable people, plus harm to natural resources. Human activities have often negatively impacted social and communal harmony, as well as contributed to the loss of human livelihood, the destruction of renewable resources, and have, at times, resulted in the loss of life itself. Engagement is a two-way relationship in which agencies, authorities, and key figures, seek and receive the views of the stakeholders for the betterment of the community. This paper aims to address how this group might assist the society in meeting the challenges of sustainable development, as well as promoting a readiness to face floods in their respective neighbourhoods. It can be concluded that most of the respondents believe that it is necessary for the utility company of Malaysia, “Tenaga Nasional Berhad” (TNB) to continuously improve their assets in order to reduce the risk of a disaster. However, when it comes to respondents’ actions when facing a disaster, there seems to be no standardised course of action. This, therefore, identifies a need to further educate communities on the most effective course of action that can be taken when facing a disaster. The data obtained from the study contributes to the potential preparedness and preventive steps of the target community when facing potential hazards and can perhaps contribute to the development of a mitigation plan for further research and study. Pages 14 to 26




 Communicating the Keywords of Sendai Framework: A corpus-based approach

Sivadass Thiruchelvama, Ng Yu Jinb, Chong Seng Tongc, Norhayati Bte Mat Husind,  Azrul Ghazalie, Ahmad Kamalf, a,b,c,d,e,fUniversiti Tenaga Nasional, Selangor, 43000, Malaysia, Email: aSivadass@uniten.edu.mybYuJin@uniten.edu.mycStchong@uniten.edu.mydHayati@uniten.edu.myeAzrulg@uniten.edu.my

The Sendai Framework provides insights in terms of multiple levels of governance and recommendations on reduction of disaster risks. It is crucial that the essence of the framework is fully comprehended especially in communicating the priorities to various parties and stakeholders. The interpretation of the framework by various professional organisations, academia and stakeholders, for the purpose of planning and implementation, can be a challenging and laborious task. This paper will present an alternative perspective that simplifies the interpretation of knowledge dissemination (content analysis), especially when connecting the Sendai Framework key essence using a corpus-based approach. ‘Keywords’ will be used as a lens for community and stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction planning or execution. This is achieved by a corpus-based investigation of the Sendai Framework Blueprint (official document). A keyword analysis was performed to identify words associated with the Sendai Framework core and of the potential pedagogic values therein. This paper suggests appropriate and continuous interpretation of the analysed content, in order to achieve improved disaster risk reduction communication within the community of stakeholders. Pages 27 to 45




Holistic Review of a Performance Management System: Relevance, Literature Synthesising, Gaps, and Methodology Approach

Yong Yoke Toonga*, Joel Tham Kar Munb, Chong Aik Leec, a,bFaculty of Business and Law, International University of Malaya-Wales, cVP, Academic Affairs & Director of OBU, UCSI College,

This paper sets out to identify a comprehensive or holistic review of an organisation’s performance management system (PMS) in light of advancements in performance evaluations. Even with plenty of research that touches on PMS, there is no comprehensiveness in literature synthesising, identification of the critical success factors (CSF) that affect PMS effectiveness, exhaustion of gaps identification, applicability to transformed multi-national corporations as moderated by organisational culture (OC), mediated by appraiser/appraisee factor, nor extended research methodology towards PMS advocating a mixed method sequential design of Quantitative-qualitative methods, and assessing the influence of both appraiser and appraisee through a dyadic approach for accurate real life assessment. The outcome of this review will contribute to and extend knowledge to existing PMS literature, as well as provide practical implications to the HRM practices who can then deliver such findings to the management, rather than vice-versa of management pushing more traditional thinking about PMS to them. This research has originality and value and will contribute to the current body of knowledge by building further theory and future research efforts. It will allow HRM practitioners to identify PMS to their management, rather than the management identifying what they think PMS is for HRM practitioners. Pages 46 to 65




Strategic Human Resource Practices and Organisational Culture in SMEs and Large Manufacturing Companies in Bahrain

Hashem Ali Issa Almuslamania, Salina Daudb, aCollege of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, bUniversiti Tenaga Nasional, Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Campus, 26700 Muadzam Shah, Pahang, Malaysia, Email: absalina@uniten.edu.my">hashem10@yahoo.com,bsalina@uniten.edu.my.

Strategic HR practices have faced several challenges in the manufacturing sector in Bahrain, such as a shortage of both quality employment and appropriate national skills, as well as many weaknesses existing in the organisational culture. Therefore, this study was motivated by the desire to examine the effects of strategic human resource (HR) practices on four types of organisational culture (clan culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, and hierarchy culture), in small, medium, and large manufacturing companies in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was utilised in this study using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data.  The total number of usable questionnaires was 159, with a response rate of 75.4%. The findings indicated that strategic HR practices have significant and positive effects on the four types of organisational culture in small, medium and large companies in the manufacturing sector. The study resulted in several implications for researchers and decision makers to strengthen the relationship between strategic HR practices in a way that supports the organisational goals. Pages 66 to 80




Using Interactive Media to Support Reading Skills among Underachieving Children

Noor Aini Ahmada, Khoo Yin YINb, a,bUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris,

This article presents a literature review on improving reading skills, and recommendations for reading skills that prepare children for the world of tomorrow. Remediation should begin as soon as a child is diagnosed as having problems with reading. As the demand for digital know-how has dramatically increased in recent years, interactive media has become a basic tool in today’s classroom. Children with weak working memory, and with difficulties in the rapid processing of information, need to be assisted to use digital literacy skills. Underachievers usually show a gap between their functional knowledge and performance potential. In order to prevent this gap from widening, underachievers are advised to work at their own functional level to overcome their deficits. Recommendations are made which are related to interventions that use interactive media as instructional material, and which may underscore an ability or desire to perform independently and more effectively. Three canvases for improving reading skills are suggested, namely, (1) creative canvas, (2) learning tools canvas and (3) reading skills service canvas. We conclude that there is a need for educators to move towards using interactive multimedia as an instructional tool in teaching and learning. Educators need to modify and re-design their educational curricula into an interactive learning environment that might reinforce and strengthen reading skills among underachievers. Pages 81 to 88




The Dynamic Relationship between Unemployment, Inflation, Interest Rate and Economic Growth

Asmawi Hashima*, Norimah Rambeli @ Ramlib, Norasibah Abdul jalilc, Emilda Hashimd, a,b,c,dDepartment Of Economic, Faculty Of Management And Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*asmawi@fpe.upsi.edu.my

The focal point of this study is the investigation of the dynamic relationship between selected macroeconomic variables, including unemployment, inflation, interest rate and economic growth, in Malaysia. In order to achieve the aims of this study, quarterly time series data from the first quarter of 2001 until the fourth quarter of 2017 was utilised. The Johansen Juselius Co-integration test was used to investigate long run equilibrium in the equation system, and the Granger Causality test in Vector Error Correction framework was used to evaluate the long-term and short-term relationships between the study variables. The findings suggest that a relationship exists between the variables in the long term, including unemployment interest rate, inflation and economic growth across the system equations. The results further suggest that, in the short run, a two-way causality exists between unemployment and economic growth. Moreover, the results show that unemployment affects economic growth, both in the short and the long- term. By implication, this suggests the government should pay particular attention, in both the short and long term, to the unemployment rate, in order to bring this to a desirable level. In this respect unemployment can be reduced by enhancing employment opportunities throughout both governmental and private sectors of the country. Pages 89 to 94




The Spending Pattern on Green Products Among Lower Income Group Households in Malaysia

Norimah Binti Rambeli Ramlia*, Emilda Binti Hashimb, Norasibah Binti Abdul Jalilc,  Maryam Mehdenezhadd, Fauziah Che Lehe, Asmawi Hashimf, a,b,c,d,e,fEconomics Department, Faculty of Management and Economics, Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI), Malaysia, Email: a*norimah@fpe.upsi.edu.my

This study is conducted to examine the relationship between green lifestyle among lower income group households and their spending pattern on green products. Compared to previous studies, the novelty of this study is important due to the increase in households’ cost of living that is related to a spending pattern on non-green products. The rising cost of living among these households’ groups may have its influence on green products in three aspects, namely consumer perception, practice level and willingness level. Therefore, this study focuses on monthly expenditure pattern of the lowest income group (B40) on green products. This study uses the quantitative approach through questionnaires distribution and employs a method of multiple linear regression models, in estimating the augmented consumer behaviour model. In general, the findings show a positive relationship between income and expenditure on green products. In other words, increase in income will lead consumers to buy more green products from the market. Moreover, the result demonstrates that the total monthly expenditure on green products is significantly affected by consumer perceptions and level of practice. On the other hand, level of willingness does not seem to be important with regard to green products’ spending pattern. This study indirectly implies that users of green products will save on the cost of monthly spending in the long run. The study further suggests that long term use of green products among low-income groups (B40) will curtail overall households’ expenses. Pages 95 to 104




Twenty-first Century Education: Are Malaysian Educators Ready for Implementation?

Soo Kum Yokea,  Syahrul Ahmar Ahmadb*,  Rahimah Mohamed Yunosc,  Juyati Mohd Amind, Normala Sulaimane and  Faizah Abdul Majidf, a,eAcademy of Language, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, b,c,d, Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, fFaculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia

It has been argued that today’s Malaysian graduates are lacking in possessing the very much needed 21st century workplace skills - critical thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and communication skills. Reports indicate that this could be due to the current education system that has not facilitated the educators’ preparatory abilities to engage in 21st century teaching systems. Although most educators are equipped with pedagogical knowledge and have some professional training in teaching, the 21st century education demands, however, are more than merely teaching through chalk and talk. In the Malaysian Education Blueprint for Higher Education 2015 to 2025, ten shifts to transform conventional teaching were highlighted. While the blueprint provides a holistic overview of the Malaysian government’s aspiration for the future workforce of this nation, questions such as whether old school educators are able to grip with the fast pace of technological advancement and whether institutions of learning are well-equipped to embrace the technology by means of the physical classroom environment and the virtual platform that is available for use today, is still evasive. This paper, therefore, intends to address the issues underlining the Malaysian educators’ readiness for 21st century education bearing in mind the national education agenda and the students' techno-savvy abilities compared to their educators. Suggestions and recommendations are also discussed to provide for Malaysian educators who are better equipped to handle the changing scene of education in this 21st century. Pages 105 to 115




 Application of Simulation of Queue Relationships that Occur and the Timing of Traffic Lights on Road Crossings using fuzzy logic method

Amir Hamzah Pohana, L.A.Latiff Razakb, Rudzidatul Akmam Dziyauddinc, aTeknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik, UniversitasTama Jagakarsa, Jakarta Indonesia, bEngineering Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cRazak school of Engineering Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: aamirhamzahpohan@gmail.combliza.kl@utm.mycrudzidatul.kl@utm.my

The behaviour of motorists at intersections is determined by the road and vehicle density studies. Changes in behaviour are also determined by the time for the green light to be crossed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to see the behaviour of motorists and be able to control traffic by controlling traffic lights at an intersection. This project will also get the right width of the road to reduce congestion, with software applications that are capable of engineering wide roads at every intersection. To determine the time of the green light, the number of vehicles must be determined in advance. The fuzzy logic method and the standard green time value (NWHS) will determine the green light time on the road. The development method is divided into four settings namely vehicle counting, line counting, the calculation process and road signals. This vehicle calculation method is further strengthened by determining the width of the road that will be available to reduce congestion. However, in producing high accuracy in the green time interval (MH), the Fuzzy Logic method is included as an additional parameter based on the solid ratio of the vehicle from each side of the road and the width of the road. Overall results show that vehicle drivers are based on vehicle density and road width, the denser the vehicle, the longer the green light is turned on, the more positive the driver's behaviour. Pages 116 to 134




Principals’ Instructional Supervision and Teachers’ Efficacy in Public Elementary Schools: the Basis for an Instructional Supervisory Plan

Cheryl P. Barredoa, aWestern Mindanao State College University, Baliwasan, Zamboanga City, Philippines, Email: acherylbarredo@yahoo.com,

This study attempted to determine the correlation between school principals' instructional supervision and teachers' efficacy in public elementary schools in Baliwasan District, Zamboanga City, Philippines. The survey questionnaires were used to gather data on school principals' instructional supervision and teachers' efficacy. Weighted Mean, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance were used in the analysis of data. The findings indicated that the elementary school teachers in Baliwasan District are bachelor's degree holders with a Master's units and a few of them are holders of Master's degree, Master's degree with doctorate units and are Doctor degree holders. The teachers manifested a great extent of their teaching efficacy in student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. The instructional supervision of the principal is related to the teaching efficacy of the teachers regarding student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. The teachers, regardless of educational attainment, length of service and grade level assignment, have a similar level of teaching efficacy regarding instructional strategies and classroom management.  In the same way, teachers' teaching efficacy in terms/ of classroom management is similar when they are grouped according to the length of service and grade level assignment. However, teachers' teaching efficacy regarding student engagement differs when they are categorised according to educational attainment. Pages 135 to 146




 Development and Validation of a Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) for High School Students in Southern Philippines

Elmark B. Facultada, Starr Clyde L. Sebialb, aAlicia National High School Poblacion, Alicia, Zamboanga Sibugay, bJH Cerilles State College Mati, San Miguel, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines, Email: afacultadelmark93@gmail.com,  bclyde21g@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that measures the attitude of the Filipino high school students towards mathematics with reliable predictors and factors. Using the responses of 300 high school students from Zamboanga Sibugay, the validity and reliability of the Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) was tested using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and reliability analyses. The factor analysis showed that four factor-structures of the instrument of the mathematics attitude for high school students explained 27.48% of the variance in the pattern of relationships among the items. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Composite Reliability, and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients were reported and proved that the extracted constructs have obtained and satisfied convergent validity. Thirty-three items remained in the final questionnaire after deleting the twenty-seven items which had factor loadings of less than 0.4. The four-factor structure of the Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) has been confirmed through this study. Pages 147 to 162




Dimensions of Learning Organisations and the Predictors to Organisational Performance among Universities in Zamboanga City

Grace Ann Lim-Laguraa, aAteneo de Zamboanga University La Purisima Street, Zamboanga City,7000, Philippines, Email: alaguragral@adzu.edu.ph

Universities as learning organisations work to embed learning into their culture to adapt to changes and gain the competitive advantage over others. This descriptive study described the extent to which the seven dimensions of a learning organisation by Watkins and Marsick is practiced among the Universities in Zamboanga City. This study also established the statistically significant difference among the universities of Zamboanga City, Philippines based on the dimensions of a learning organisation. Data were obtained through a survey among 194 faculty members, interview of key informants such as deans and middle managers and focus group discussions among faculty and student leaders of the three Universities. Results of the study showed that the Universities in Zamboanga City were very satisfactory Learning Organisations and there is a statistically significant difference among the Universities in all dimensions except Team Learning and Collaboration as established by the Kruskal Wallis Test. Likewise, the organisational performance of each University is described to be very satisfactory. This study further determined through regression analysis and stepwise method that the dimensions System to Capture and Share Learning as well as Team Learning and Collaboration as the predictors of an organisational performance. This study proposed a Learning Organisation Framework as a guide for the Universities to help improve organisational performance. Through qualitative data, three elements were identified to contribute to the practice of the dimensions of learning organisation: (a) Organisational Characteristics which cover the type of University, leadership and leadership structures, financial resources, population and size; (b) Organisational Thrusts which include vision and mission, quality education, community service and values; and (c) the Organisational Learning Process which takes into account accreditation, research and faculty expertise. The three elements along with the practice of the dimensions and maximising the predictors were recommended to improve organisational structure. Pages 163 to 191




A Decision Support System for Academic Ranking, Classification and Promotion for the Faculty of Universidad de Zamboanga

Neil Mark Z. Bacasonga, Dante D. Dinawanaob, aUniversidad De Zamboanga, bMindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Email: aneilmark.bacasong@uz.edu.phbdante.dinawanao@g.msuiit.edu.ph

This study focuses on the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for Universidad de Zamboanga in faculty ranking in its aim of promoting quality educators. Since faculty ranking appointment is a position based on hierarchy, there were four phases that were considered in the development of the project: first is modelling of the academic problem, the second is translating the modelled academic problem to prologue notations for generating facts, rules and queries for the ranking process; third is developing a system through prototyping and fourth is the testing and evaluation of the DSS. The DSS uses the technique of First Order Predicate Logic (FOPL) which is translated to prologue rules, facts and queries as a knowledge base in generating academic rank of a specific faculty based on the academic minimum requirements or points acquired. These rules, facts and queries are created through web-based interface by user inputs that is stored in a database using MySQL. Prologue was used as an inference engine to give the actual result wherein a set of data fields is asked by the system to be filled by the user. The DSS handles in the creation of academic ranks and points that makes it dynamic. The DSS generates reports as the actual rank of a faculty member based on minimum requirements or points as accumulated from the score sheet which has ranking criteria and percentage weights. Pages 192 to 216




Impact of the Zamboanga Siege on Women Survivors: A Post-Conflict Analysis

Roel F. Marciala, a Department of Political Science Western Mindanao State University Normal Road, Baliwasan, Zamboanga City, Email: aroelmarcial0501@gmail.com

Double enactment of roles, divorce, and separation were the dramatic findings in the study, Impact of the Siege on Women Survivors in Zamboanga City. It aimed to determine reproductive roles and socioeconomic effects utilising descriptive quantitative and qualitative-phenomenological design via FGDs among twenty (20) women survivors. There were in-depth interviews for five (5) key informants and community observation analysis on the two transitory sites. The study revealed that the poverty situation has increased recently due to loss of homes and socio-economic opportunities; continuous, increase of dropouts in elementary and secondary levels; and problems on public transport, expensive fare, and financial and economic setbacks. However, free water and electricity government supply obtained satisfactory impressions. Hence, the study recommends: first, massive and longitudinal livelihood programs and training may be conducted strengthening women’s expansive and extensive development of skills, crafts, and sustainability in financial and socioeconomic demands; second, periodic monitoring-recording of students’ drop-out are conducted, localized or redirected on nearest affected schools is an option; third, women serve as neutralisers-negotiators in any conflicts or peace deliberations; fourth, educate everyone on the symbiotic spouses roles of equity and equality to avoid “double enactment of roles” among women; lastly, an immense need for marital counselling services from psychologists or counsellors, lawyers, social workers, community developers, religious sectors, and NGOs is deemed for holistic healing and reconciliation process. Pages 217 to 231




Science Teacher’s Qualities: The Basis for a Faculty Sustainability Program

Rommel P. Laguatana*, Bren D. Abadb, a,bPresident Ramon Magsaysay State University – San Marcelino San Marcelino, Zambales 2207, Philippines, Email: a*laguatanrommel@gmail.com

Science education is a vital element of a country’s progress. Hence, teachers of Science should be equipped with the indispensable skills to be able to effectively contribute to the development of functionally-literate and scientifically-minded citizens. This descriptive survey research determines the Science teachers’ qualities which served as baseline information in the crafting of a faculty sustainability program. A total of 22 junior high school Science teachers purposively chosen from various public secondary schools of Southern Zambales, Philippines served as respondents of the study. The results of the inquiry indicate that the teachers’ professional knowledge, professional practice and professional attributes are very evident. The study found out that Science teachers are less active in conducting action research and sharing the results with their colleagues. The study recommends that teachers could be encouraged to conduct action research at least annually in order to solve science pedagogy problems which would improve the quality of Science teaching in the country. Moreover, research outputs may be disseminated via fora, research colloquia and/or learning action cell (LAC). The developed faculty sustainability program is hereby recommended for implementation and further validation. Pages 232 to 249




Awareness and Relevance of Pre-Employment Medical Examinations of Seafarers among Maritime Students at the University of Antique: The Basis for a Health Intervention Program

Peter Ralph B. Galiciaa, aMaritime Faculty, University of Antique, Sibalom, Antique, Philippines, Email: aantique_1985@yahoo.com.ph

This descriptive-survey study aims to ascertain the level of awareness and perceived relevance of pre-employment medical examinations of seafarers among maritime students in the University of Antique as a basis for a health intervention program. The data gathering instrument utilised for this study was a researcher-constructed survey questionnaire on pre-employment medical examinations of seafarers. The computer-processed statistics included means, frequency and rank for descriptive analysis, and the t-test for independent samples and for inferential analysis. The Alpha level for these samples was set at .05. The study found that maritime students had a generally high level of awareness on pre-employment medical examinations of seafarers and perceived that these examinations were relevant to seafaring duties. No significant difference existed between the students’ level of awareness and their perceived relevance on pre-employment medical examinations of seafarers when classified according to maritime programs. Pages 250 to 260




Examining the Criminology Review Program of Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College

Rosario P. Noderamaa, aNorthern Iloilo Polytechnic State College Victorino Salcedo Campus, Philippines, Email: arosenoderama@yahoo.com

Higher learning institutions are implementing specialised review programs for students in order to improve licensure examination performance. This study examines the relevance of the Criminology Review Program of the Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College at the Victorino Salcedo Campus in Sara, Iloilo, Philippines. Specifically, this descriptive survey-correlational study focuses on the influence of the respondents' profile to the relevance of the review program and the difficulty they have encountered in the examination. Research findings reveal no significant difference between the relevance of the review program and the respondents' profile. However, a significant difference is noted between the level of difficulty in the area of Law Enforcement Administration and the number of respondents taking the examination. Results also show a significant correlation between the relevance of the review program and the difficulty encountered in the actual board examination. It is concluded that the Criminology review program conducted by the NIPSC-VSC is a relevant tool in preparing students for the licensure examination. Pages 261 to 273




An Exploratory Analysis of the Development of Philippine Regions

Starr Clyde L. Sebiala, aJH Cerilles State College Mati, San Miguel, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines, Email: aclyde21g@gmail.com

The Philippines is one of the fastest growing economies in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. This study aims to explore and analyse the development of 17 Philippine regions according to eight key economic and social factors, including HEI PRC rate; crime rate; education; employment; health; poverty; income, and basic family amenities. Data is taken from the 2012 databases of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) and Open Data Philippines. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method was used to generate the indexes of six factors and Cluster Analysis (CA) was used to group the similarities of the regions. The clustering process revealed that ARMM and MIMAROPA regions have clustered independently in two individual clusters while the rest of the 15 regions have clustered in two groups of 5 and 10. The study reveals that crime, poverty and health mortality rates have generally inverse relationships with HEI PRC percentage performance, employment, education, income and basic housing amenities. Pages 274 to 291




 The Enduring Silence of Violence in the Nursing Workforce: An Emerging Phenomenon

Ma. Nelia P. Silloriqueza, aWest Visayas State University – College of Nursing, Iloilo City, Philippines Email: mnpsilloriquez@icloud.com

This phenomenological study aims to understand the lived experiences of nurses dealing with workplace violence in two tertiary hospital settings. Participants include nurses who had personally experienced two or more instances of bullying behaviour within the workplace and whose job statuses were classed as regular, casual, or job hired. Transcribed data collected form interviews with these participants revealed five common themes, including (a) “Workplace violence happens to anyone”: workplace violence is becoming rampant in the health care industry; (b) “Damaging circumstances surround the nursing profession”: impacts of the workplace for nurses; (c) “Unpleasant experiences are better forgotten”: how nurses survive workplace violence; (d) “I am a Nurse and I stand by my profession”: why nurses opted to stay despite their workplace violence experiences, and (e) “I long for a better workplace”: striving for better working environments for nurses. These interviews reveal that informants experienced unforgotten disruptive behaviours like fear, frustration, verbal abuse, humiliation, threats and abuse of power, resulting in helplessness and demoralisation that directly affected nurses’ feelings of dignity and self-respect. These legitimate occupational issues within the nursing workplace require attention and subsequent intervention to discontinue the silence surrounding healthcare workplace violence. Pages 292 to 309




EIC Students’ Views on Factors Affecting their English Speaking in the ES1 course

Sawitri Suwanaroaa, aFaculty of Business administration and Liberal Arts, Rajamagala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Thailand, Email: asawitri_75@yahoo.com

In Thailand, English is the number one foreign language and is regarded as an essential communicative tool in terms of education, career advancement, international trade, medicine and entertainment.  Although extensive attempts have been made to reform the English language curriculum, many Thai learners’ English abilities are below required standards, particularly in terms of communicative competence. This study therefore aims to investigate English for International Communication students’ (EIC) views on the factors affecting their learning in the English Speaking 1 course at Rajamagala University of Technology Lanna Tak campus (RMUTL). Data collection instruments consisted of two parts: 1) questionnaire surveys to elicit 25 EIC students’ views on the internal and external factors which were analysed by adapting the SPTES model (speaking model), and 2) a student focus group interview.  Following the mixed-methods design, the the Friedman test was used to analyse quantitative data and determine the mean rating while qualitative data was examined through content analysis.  Findings show that EIC students’ views on factors effect of their learning in ES1 were to a large extent shaped by their beliefs in practice on language-based exercises. They focused on difficulty in language knowledge, such as English vocabulary and pronunciation, and a lack of other internal factors like topical knowledge, strategic competence, affective factors and personal characteristics. Pages 310 to 332




English Native Lecturers’ Perspectives and Concerns in Teaching the English Speaking 1 Course at RMUTL Tak Campus

Sawitri Suwanaroaa, aFaculty of Business administration and Liberal Arts, Rajamagala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Thailand, Email: asawitri_75@yahoo.com

English is a compulsory course in Thailand’s education system and is considered a vital skill worthy of continued investigation. English language speaking is a particularly important communication skill in Thailand and is widely used in many essential areas. Despite this, many Thai students are incapable of accurately and appropriately using English in daily life. This study therefore aims to investigate the teaching approach adopted for the English Speaking 1 course (ES1) at the Rajamagala University of Technology Lanna Tak campus (RMUTL). The lecturers’ perceptions of the English for International Communication students’ (EIC) performances in ES1 will also be examined through two data-collection instruments: a questionnaire survey to identify lecturers’ perceptions and concerns, and in-depth interviews conducted with lecturers of the ES1 course. The study features a mixed-method research design, with quantitative data analysis conducted through factor analysis and qualitative data through content analysis. Findings have shown that lecturers’ views on EIC students in the ES1 course were divided into three factors: mediation provided in ES1, insufficient provisions in ES1 and students’ self-efficacy in ES1. Regarding mediation provided in ES1, lecturers were more concerned about finding appropriate activities than about creating effective classroom environments.  For insufficient provisions in ES1, lecturers reported aversions to traditional grammar-focused teaching approaches, although they did try to cater for students’ needs to practice English pronunciation. Students’ self-efficacy levels were also confirmed by lecturers, with reports of shyness and fear of making mistakes in the ES1 course. Pages 333 to 351




Retrospective Evaluation of the Science Education Program in a Philippine State University

Danilo V. Rogayana, aFaculty, College of Education, Arts & Sciences, President Ramon Magsaysay State University - San Marcelino Campus, Philippines, Email: adanrogayan@prmsu.edu.ph

Graduates’ retrospective program evaluations can provide relevant and reliable feedback on an institutions’ performance in delivering quality instruction and services to its students. This descriptive survey research ascertains graduates’ evaluations of science education program areas, including curriculum adequacy and relevance. Study participants comprised of 49 science education graduates of academic years between 2008 and 2018 who were comprehensively sampled from a state university in Central Luzon in the Philippines. A modified online survey questionnaire and an interview guide served as the main data gathering tools. Descriptive and inferential statistics and thematic analysis were used to treat quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results revealed that the graduate respondents evaluated 10 areas of the science education program as good, indicating that the program outcomes were adequate and relevant. Moreover, the respondents provided varied suggestions for improvement of the science education curriculum. These suggestions include enhancements in instructional resources; pedagogical practice and capability; curriculum content; students’ scientific literacy, and research competence. A significant positive high correlation was found between program outcomes’ adequacy and relevance. The study therefore concludes that the science education program offered by the university is good, adequate and relevant. An intensive curriculum review may be considered by the university to align the program and course intended learning outcomes to the 21st Century learning landscape and to keep up with technological demands of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIRe). Pages 352 to 369



Preschool Children’s Engagement in Language Learning through Child-Centred Pedagogy

Aliza Alia, aFaculty of Education and Social Sciences, Open University Malaysia (OUM), Kuala Lumpur,

There are various theories that explain how children learn language. The Interactionist theorists believe that children develop the ability to learn language when they respond to the language in their environment. This article reflects the work of Interactionist theorists to address how children learn language. The purpose of this study is to explore preschool children’s engagement in language learning through child-centred pedagogy. A qualitative research approach was carried out through the observation of children's interactions with peers when engaged with richer play materials. This study was conducted in two classrooms of the Ministry of Education (MoE) preschool in Selangor. Qualitative data was collected from six preschool children through purposive sampling. The selection of children was based on a mixed ability of good, average and low performance learners. Two preschool teachers were selected purposely to guide and scaffold to the children's language learning experience. Children observation data was taken through video recording. Anecdotal notes were used to record their engagement and interaction in language learning. Thematic analysis was used to focus on examining themes within data. This study found that children acquire language through interaction, not only with peers but also through the manipulation of language materials, observation of symbols and printed materials. The finding of this study shows that children express their ideas in their own words when they engage in child-initiated activity. Pages 370 to 378

Learning Styles and Academic Achievement of Criminology Students

Danilo F. Rubricoa*, aNorthern Iloilo Polytechnic State College (NIPSC) Ajuy Campus Ajuy, Iloilo, Philippines 5012, Email: a*ords.nipscajuy@gmail.com

If everyone learned the same way, it would be easy to determine teaching strategies to optimise learning. This is not the case, however, for each individual is a unique learner. Some learners are identified to be inclined toward specific techniques or strategies known as learning styles. This study aims to determine the learning styles and academic achievements of the Criminology student body as a whole and when segregated into curriculum year level. To carry out this study, the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire of Felder and Soloman (2014) was utilised to assess the learning styles of participants in four dimensions. Data was collected using stratified random sampling from 166 Criminology students of Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College at the Ajuy Campus for the first semester of the 2016-2017 academic year. The results indicate that the majority the students, as a whole group or when classified as to their curriculum year level, are fairly well balanced in all four dimensions presented in the ILS questionnaire. As to their academic achievement, students were found to have generally good performance, while  senior students exhibited fair academic performance when curriculum year level was taken into consideration. Pages 379 to 386
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